Progress 09/01/21 to 08/31/22
Target Audience:Growers Extension professionals Fellow scientists, academic professionals and researchers Students Water managers Policy makers General public Changes/Problems:Canola crop at Artesia was lost due to an extreme frost event. We plan to repeat the field study at Artesia in the coming years to obtain consistent reliable data. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Three undergraduate students were trained on various laboratory, greenhouse and field protocols to implement the experimental design. Students were trained on collection, processing, and analyses ofsoil, irrigation water and plant samples using standard procedures. Students also received training on recording observations in greenhouse, and laboratory. Dr. Kumar involved undergraduate students in UAV campaigns at field and bench scale imaging at laboratory to provide them hands-on learning opportunity in this emerging science. Of three postdoctoral scientists supported by this project one is located at Amarillo TX and two are at El Paso, TX. The postdoc at Amarillo was provided training by Dr. Xue on designing and implementing salinity screening experiments. Two postdoc scientists at El Paso were provided opportunity to participate in a workshop that trained them on use of Hydrus model to evaluate movement of water and salts in the root zone. One of the post-doctoral scientists at El Paso working with Dr. Kumar was trained on running the UAV campaign and analysis of data collected from hyperspectral and bench scale imaging. Secondpost-doctoral scientist at El Paso is working with Dr. Ganjegunte. He received training on designing field experiments to evaluate canola varieties under irrigation with marginal quality waters. He was responsible for overseeing various tasks of field study, training undergraduate students, collecting data and statistical analyses. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Nobecause the field study results are not available yet. Once the field studies are completed the data from salinity screeing, field studies and UAV campaigns will be shared among stakeholders. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Results from salt screening and physiological response studies will be presented in the 2022 ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meeting atBaltimore, MD. Soil and plant samples collected from salinity screening experiments will beanalyzed for select parameters. The study will be repeated in the fall-winter of 2022 and more physiological measurement will be taken to better understand physiological mechanisms for salt tolerance. At the field study sites, canola pods from each plant will be harvested and the seeds will be separated. After recording the yield, asubsample (~20 g) of canola seeds will be dried and ground to < 1 mm and will be sent to external laboratory for determining select seed quality parameters by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and wet digestion methods. These includeseed oil content, ash content, and mineral constituents (Na, Ca, Mg, K, and S). Seed oil yield will be calculated by multiplying the seed yields with their respective final oil contents. After the harvest ,end of the yearsoil samples will be collected from root-zone depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-45 cm, 45-60 cm and 60-100 cm), processed and analyzed for select properties such pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), major cations (sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium), major anions (chlorides, sulfates, phosphates and nitrates), total nitrogen and organic carbon using standard procedures. Exchangeable sodium percentage in soil and sodium concentration in wastewater/groundwater will be used to determine if gypsum application is warranted. Field evaluation of canola performance and soil chemistry changes will continue for next two years to obtain consistent and reliable data to develop practices and strategies to promote greater use of marginal quality waters to produce canola in the region. We will hold field days/demonstrations during the coming growing seasons to create greater awareness about the project, share study results to promote increased adoption of canola by the growers in the region. We will continue to develop data on cost of various inputs, tillage and labor used in production to obtain accurate enterprise budget for cost-benefit analysis of using marginal quality waters for canola production.
What was accomplished under these goals?
1. Identify salt tolerant cultivars of canola using growth chamber/greenhouse approach Twenty - three (23) canola genotypes (Table 1) were evaluated for salinity tolerance during emergence and at seedling stage in growth chamber and greenhouse at Bushland, TX in March and April 2022. Seedling emergence experiments were conducted in a growth chamber over a 10 d period. Genotypes were evaluated under six levels of salinity (deionized water (control), 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 dS/m) with three replications randomized in a two-way factorial design. Different salinity solutions were prepared by adding sodium chloride to the distilled water. Seeds will be sown in 3.8 × 3.8 cm plug cells filled with potting mix premoistened with control or saline solution. Ten seeds were sown per cell at a depth of 1 cm. During seedling emergence, treatment solutions will be applied as needed by subirrigation. Throughout the experiment, day/night conditions of 12/12 h photoperiod, 25/20°C temperature under fluorescent lights. Emergence was counted daily at noon when the cotyledons and hypocotyl are above the potting mix surface. Two weeks later, seedlings from 20 genotypes were transplanted to plastic pots filled with potting mix and irrigated with control or saline waters in greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with treatment solution by surface flooding whenever the surface becomes dry and were harvested after 4 weeks. Throughout the experiment, the average greenhouse air temperature was 25°C during the day. After 4 weeks of transplanting, the relative chlorophyll content (i.e., soil-plant analysis development [SPAD]), leaf area, and aboveground dry weight were measured. The collected data (Table 2) are being analyzed 2. Evaluate performance (physiological response and yield) of select salt tolerant canola cultivar(s) irrigated with marginal quality water irrigation under field conditions using conventional physiology methods as well as UAV imaging. Three salt-tolerant cultivars-CP322WRR, CP220WR, CP115W provided by Mr. Michael J. Stamm, Canola Breeder at Kansas State University are being evaluated under field conditions. These three varieties were selected because they are roundup ready and salinity screening tests showed that these are salt tolerant. Roundup ready canola can be advantageous as it reduces the need for tillage, which improves overall soil conditions. Reduced tillage can also reduce cost of cultivation, which can benefit growers. Field studies to evaluate above three canola cultivars were initiated in early November of 2021 simultaneously at both the study locations - El Paso, TX and Artesia, NM. Both the sites are characterized by arid climate with an annual average precipitation of 6 inches and a potential evapotranspiration rate of 80 inches. Annual temperature ranges from about 25°F in winter to 97°F during summer. The dominant soil typeat both study sites wasCalcareous silty loam. A split-plot randomized complete block design with water types as main effect and varieties as sub-effect was implemented to evaluate canola performance. Source of saline water at El Paso, TX was treated urban wastewater whereas brackish groundwater was the source at Artesia, NM. Seeds were sown in early November 2021 and all plots received a basal application of NPK fertilizer at the recommended rate. Inter-row spacing of 6 inches and intra-row spacing of 4 inches were maintained. The final plant density stood at 220,000 per acre, which is close to the recommended planting density. Unfortunately, due to an extreme frost event we lost canola plants at Artesia study site. We plan to repeat field study during the fall of 2022. At El Paso study site field preparation in each of the 36 plots included initial disking, manually breaking of large clods, furrow and ridge formation, and demarcation of plots by raised earthen berms (approximately 20 cm in height). A total of 20 inches of irrigation water was applied in 8 irrigations. When the plants reached flowering stage, leaves closer to the flowering branch were collected for nutrient analysis. Six random leaf samples were collected from each plot and were analyzed for total nutrients. Also, plant height measurements were made at the flowering stage. When aphid/white infestation was seen, chloropyrifos was sprayed at the rate 2 oz/gallon. At present, canola is approaching maturity and we plan to harvest seeds in next two weeks. We conducted aerial hyperspectral imaging using UAV and bench scale plant imaging to understand and discriminate between stress response of three varieties to marginal quality water irrigation. Two campaigns were conducted, one at early flowing stage and other at the late flowering stage. The data is still being analyzed and is expected to allow us to: a) understand the power of aerial and bench hyperspectral analysis in identifying stress on canola, b) develop data analysis and processing methods for hyperspectral imaging specific to canola, and c) develop early indications of which variety performs better in the arid southwest conditions that may be communicated to the regional stakeholders. 3. Determine changes to soil properties, including salinity, to develop appropriate and best management practices. At both El Paso, TX and Artesia study sites baseline soil samples from root-zone depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-45 cm, 45-60 cm and 60-100 cm) have been collected, processed and analyzed for select properties such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), major cations (sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium), major anions (chlorides, sulfates, phosphates and nitrates), total nitrogen and organic carbon using standard procedures. Information from the soil test results on exchangeable sodium/SAR and nativegypsum content from web soil surveywill be utilized todevelop appropriate amendment practices. Soil chemical data will be used to evaluate the effects of marginal quality water irrigation on soil properties (salinity, sodicity, hydraulic conductivity) and develop appropriate salinity management practices. Grab samples of irrigation water have been collected at monthly intervals and were analyzed for pH, EC, SAR, major cations and anions as per standard procedures. 4. Evaluate economic feasibility of producing winter canola with marginal water. Dr. Zapata has shared data sheets among study task leaders to keep track of quantities and costs of various inputs used in the field study. This data will be used to develop enterprise budget and to conduct benefit cost analysis. He is also keeping track of Canola market outlook and circulates among project PIs.