Source: N Y AGRICULTURAL EXPT STATION submitted to
INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT IN HEMP: A MULTISTATE EFFORT TO EVALUATE PRACTICES AND DEVELOP RECOMMENDATIONS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1026958
Grant No.
2021-70006-35311
Project No.
NYG-632533
Proposal No.
2021-04894
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
ARDP
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2021
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2024
Grant Year
2021
Project Director
Sosnoskie, L. M.
Recipient Organization
N Y AGRICULTURAL EXPT STATION
(N/A)
GENEVA,NY 14456
Performing Department
School of Integrative Plant Sci
Non Technical Summary
This is a multi-state/multi-regional, applied (single-function) research-led proposal addressing the Plant Protection Tactics and Tools CPPM focus area. There is a growing demand for hemp-derived products in the United States (US). Recent estimates suggest that hemp product sales in the US are valued at $700 million. Because of the crop's previous designation as a Schedule 1 Substance and history of criminalization, there is limited University-produced information describing best production practices, which includes integrated weed management (IWM). Our goals are 1) describe the competitiveness of grain, fiber, and floral hemp with weeds, 2) evaluate the efficacy and safety of integrated weed management practices in this emerging crop, and 3) develop and disseminate extension materials. Specifically, we propose studies, which will be conducted in NY, VA, SC, IL, and ND, to define the critical timing of weed management operations against common and troublesome weeds and describe the impacts of chemical, physical, and cultural practices on the suppression of unwanted vegetation. Results from robust and replicated studies will be shared with local, regional, and national stakeholders to reduce the knowledge gap that currently exists for this ancient, yet emerging, commodity. Ultimate outcomes of this work include increased grower knowledge regarding IWM in hemp, altered production practices, and enhanced agricultural productivity. This project supports the CPPM goal of sustainable food security through the improvement of IWM practices that increases IPM adoption and reduces environmental and human health risks while supporting farmer profitability.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
21323001140100%
Knowledge Area
213 - Weeds Affecting Plants;

Subject Of Investigation
2300 - Weeds;

Field Of Science
1140 - Weed science;
Goals / Objectives
The demand for hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)-derived products, which includes textiles and fibers, food and feed, personal hygiene and nutraceutical/pharmaceutical products, and more, has created an economic opportunity for United States (US) growers. A recent congressional report estimated US hemp product sales at $700 million, with opportunity for growth predicted. Results from a survey supported by a US Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA) Supplemental and Alternative Crops (SAC) grant identified stakeholder (e.g. growers and processors)research and education priorities for the US. Concerns about regulatory issues and hemp markets were foremost on the minds of survey takers, although pest management was also determined to be an essential area of focus. More than 70% of respondents indicated that weed management was a 'very important' to 'extremely important' research topic. Additional hemp production factors that could affect hemp's competitive ability with weeds, such as planting considerations and seedling and plant growth, were also ranked as being 'very important' to 'extremely important'.Cannabis criminalization under the 1970 Controlled Substances Act (CSA) prevented US farmers from legally growing the crop until 2018, when the Farm Bill formally declared industrial hemp distinct from marijuana (H.R.2 2018). The prohibition against Cannabis also banned research on best agronomic practices in hemp, including the development of recommendations for the control of competing vegetation.?Cannabis'long legal history has resulted in a significant knowledge gap with respect to integrated weed management (IWM), which hinders growers' abilities to maximize crop yields. Consequently, US growers are producing hemp with a fraction of the information that is usually provided to other commodities by University research and extension personnel.The goal of this project is to increase grower knowledge about dual purpose (i.e. fiber/grain) and floral (i.e. CBD) hemp cultivar interactions with weeds and facilitate the adoption of effective weed control strategies. To achieve this, we are proposing research (R) and extension (E) objectives.R1: Dual purpose hemp.Part a: Describe dual purpose hemp competitiveness with weeds and define the CWFP as influenced by cultivar/phenotype.Part b: Evaluate the efficacy of cultural and physical weed management practices in dual purpose hemp.R2: Floral hemp.Part a: Describe floral hemp competitiveness with weeds and define the CWFP as influenced by cultivar/phenotype.Part b: Evaluate the efficacy of cultural and physical weed management practices in floral hemp.R3: Dual purpose and floral hemp phenotyping assays. Quantify crop architectural traits and relate these data to the outcomes in R1 and R2.E1: Engage in coordinated research-supported extension outreach efforts with data showcasing local and regional similarities and differences in crop and weed responses.
Project Methods
R1: Dual purpose hemp.Part a: Critical weed free period (CWFP) as influenced by cultivar/phenotype. We will select and evaluate three hemp cultivars inclusion at each field site based on 1) widespread use by growers, 2) broad availability, and 3) data from university hemp cultivar trials across the US including Cornell University and the S1084 Hemp Multistate Hatch Project. Field trials will be conducted across 4 site-years (IL and VA in years 1 and 2). The trial locations will have a history of high weed pressure to ensure competition. Conventional tillage, which is a common practice in hemp production, will be used prior to planting to ensure a weed-free area at planting and stimulate weed germination. We will evaluate CWFP by keeping plots weed free via manual hoeing or pulling until 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after emergence and then allowing plots to become weedy. The CWFP treatments will be compared to a season-long weed-free control to determine yields of treated plots as a percentage of the weed-free control. Hemp growth and development and hemp and weed biomass will be collected and analyzed, statistically, via ANOVA and regression analyses.Part b: Weed management in dual purpose hemp. The experiment will be conducted across 4 site-years (IL and VA in years 1 and 2) to evaluate weed management approaches in dual purpose hemp. Site selection, land preparation, fertility, hemp cultivar selection criteria, seeding rate, and pest management will the same as R1 Part a above. We will use as single, commonly planted dual purpose hemp cultivar (such as 'Joey') as varietal differences are explored in part a of this objective. Factors to be evaluated include include 1) herbicides,2) row spacing, and 3)seeding rate.Hemp growth and development and hemp and weed biomass will be collected and analyzed, statistically. Hemp and weed interactions with/responses to other biotic and abiotic stresses will also be documented.R2: Floral hemp.Part a: Critical weed free period as influenced by cultivar/phenotype. Floral hemp trials will be conducted across 6 site-years (NY, SC, and ND in years 1 and 2) and will follow the same general trial establishment, experiment design, treatment structure, data collection, and data analysis protocols that were described in part R1a. Hemp cultivar selection at each field site will be based on 1) widespread use by growers, 2) broad availability, and 3) data from university hemp cultivar trials. The analysis will be conducted tsimilar to what is presented in R1a, although floral yield will be substituted for fiber and grain yield values and days after transplanting will be substituted for days after emergence for inclusion in the regression analysis models.Part b: Weed management in floral hemp. An experiment will be conducted across 6 site-years (NY, SC, and ND in years 1 and 2) to evaluate weed management approaches in floral hemp. Site selection, land preparation, fertility, and pest management will be the same as in R 2a above. We will use one transplanted, floral hemp cultivar (such as 'Cherry Wine') as varietal differences are explored in part a of this objective. The trial will be established as a randomized complete block design with 4 replications.Factors will include flame weeding, cultivation, and plastic mulching. A non-weeded check will be included for comparison.Hemp growth and development and hemp and weed biomass will be collected and analyzed, statistically, similar to R1bR3: Dual purpose and floral hemp phenotyping assays.Collection of quantitative data describing plant architecture will allow us to evaluate the role of crop phenotype in weed suppression. At least twenty different hemp varieties (split among dual purpose and floral types) will be included in a greenhouse trial with 4 replications per cultivar arranged as a randomized complete block design. This will also include the cultivars evaluated in R1 a,b and R 2a,b, plus additional accessions of interest. Plants will be scanned using the PlantEyeF500 multispectral imager at weekly intervals from the time they are 9 cm in height for 6 weeks.The greenhouse trials will be repeated twice and analyzed and the resultant data used to describe the effects of phenotype variability on hemp-weed interactions.E1: Coordinated extension showcasing results of R1, R2, and R3.Local and national efforts: Faculty from each state will feature this project in at least two presentation or field days per year at relevant extension and industry meetings in addition to social media channels (e.g. @LynnSosnoskie, @VTAgWeeds, https://www.facebook.com/hemp.vt/, @IllinoisHGA, @ILFarmBureau, and others). Team members have previously presented at 2018-2020 Virginia Industrial Hemp Field Days (Blackstone, VA), 2019 County Farm Bureau Meetings (Saline, Gallatin, Wabash Co., IL), 2019 Illinois Hemp Summit (Springfield, IL), 2019 Belleville Field Day (Belleville, IL), 2020 Hermiston Farm Fair Seminars and Tradeshow (virtual; Corvalis, OR), the 2020 Empire State Producers Expo (Syracuse, NY), the 2020 National Hemp Research & Education Conference (virtual), 2021 Southern Illinois Hemp Symposium (virtual; Carbondale, IL) and other venues. Events will be open to all growers, consultants, and other industry representatives involved in pest management activities. Additionally, university cooperative extension personnel will be invited to participate as this will expand the impact of our activities by indirectly reaching growers not involved in the project. Results from these trials will also be shared with licensed growers, cooperative extension personnel, agricultural/horticultural students at Co-PI institutions, neighboring agricultural and community colleges, and minority serving institutions, such as South Carolina State, an historic HBCU located in Orangeburg, SC, that Dr. Cutulle interacts with. National efforts will be centralized on eXtension platform. We will develop a webpage specifically for this project which will include information about the team members, project objectives, research reports, presentations, and videos. These engagement strategies reflect practices frequently used by the developing hemp industry.