Source: UNIV OF WISCONSIN submitted to
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO OPTIMIZE USE OF SEXED SEMEN IN DAIRY HERDS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1025135
Grant No.
2021-68008-34105
Project No.
WIS04012
Proposal No.
2020-05214
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
A1701
Project Start Date
Jan 15, 2021
Project End Date
Jan 14, 2025
Grant Year
2021
Project Director
FRICKE, P. M.
Recipient Organization
UNIV OF WISCONSIN
21 N PARK ST STE 6401
MADISON,WI 53715-1218
Performing Department
DAIRY SCIENCE-GEN
Non Technical Summary
Over the past two decades, a reproduction revolution has occurred in the dairy industry that has led to dramatic increases in reproductive performance in high-producing cows. A consequence of increased reproductive performance was a concurrent increase in replacement heifer inventories which drove down replacement heifer values. To compensate for these changing economic conditions, farmers have turned to use of sexed semen in both nulliparous heifers and primiparous cows to right-size replacement heifer inventories and maximize profit.This project will use both biological and reproductive management research data with novel economic modeling tools to foster positive change in the dairy industry through proactive extension programming to: 1) address critical knowledge gaps in the biology and practical implementation of use of sexed semen on dairy farms through on farm field trials and in vitro experiments; 2) develop economic decision-making tools for optimizing heifer inventory management, herd turnover rate, and semen type use in dairy herds; and 3) deliver research-based data supported by economic decision making tools to the U.S. dairy industry through a nationwide multi-platform extension program. Biological data that address critical knowledge gaps regarding sexed semen supported by economic modeling tools that help dairy farmers optimize dairy herd structure and turnover rate are critically needed at this juncture in the dairy industry. Thus, the long-term goal of this proposal is to optimize strategies for use of sexed semen in dairy herds.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
30%
Applied
70%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3013410102070%
6013499102030%
Goals / Objectives
The long-term goal of this proposal is to optimize strategies for use of sexed semen in dairy herds. This long-term goal will be addressed through three Specific Aims that are integrated between applied research and extension objectives. In Specific Aim 1, we propose two field studies and one in vitro experiment designed to optimize strategies for using sexed semen in nulliparous heifers and primiparous cows. In Specific Aim 2, we propose two objectives to develop economic decision-making tools for optimizing heifer inventory management, herd turnover rate, and semen type use in dairy herds using data from Specific Aim 1. In Specific Aim 3, we plan to deliver research-based data generated in Specific Aim 1 supported by economic decision-making tools in Specific Aim 2 to the dairy industry through a nationwide multi-platform extension program.
Project Methods
Specific Aim 1: Optimize strategies for using sexed semen in nulliparous heifers and primiparous cows. This experiment will be conducted in collaboration with three commercial dairy farms in Wisconsin.Experiment 1: Pregnancy outcomes of nulliparous Holstein heifers inseminated with sexed semen after submission to a 5-d or a 6-d CIDR-Synch protocol or once-daily detection of estrus after treatment with prostaglandin F2α.Experiment 2: Effect on pregnancy outcomes of delaying TAI using sexed semen in primiparous Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol for first TAI or AI with sexed semen after a synchronized estrus.Experiment 3: Effect of semen processing method on in vitro capacitation rate and sperm nuclear shape between sires of high and low fertility.Specific Aim 2: Develop economic decision-making tools for optimizing heifer inventory management, herd turnover rate, and semen type use in dairy herds.Objective 1: Develop an economic decision-making tool to compare strategies for using sexed semen and beef semen in nulliparous dairy heifers and also in adult cows. We will use a schematic diagram for calculating income from calves over semen costs (ICOSC) and replacement balance according to reproductive parameters and semen type combinations.Objective 2: Develop an economic decision-making tool to optimize dairy herd turnover rate. We will develop a Herd Demographics Simulator, an interactive tool that integrates reproductive performance and herd turnover rate with farm profitability according to projected market prices and individual farm characteristics.Specific Aim 3: Deliver research-based data supported by economic decision-making tools to the dairy industry through a nationwide multi-platform extension program. In Specific Aim 3, we will disseminate novel, research-based recommendations supported by economic decision-making tools for optimizing use of sexed semen in dairy herds to the dairy industry. We will deliver our extension program during Years 2 & 3 of the proposal, and we will organize the program to remain sustainable beyond the timeline of this proposal.

Progress 01/15/22 to 01/14/23

Outputs
Target Audience:Bovine practitioners, AI industry, nutritionists, regional ag agents, farmers Changes/Problems:We analyzed a data set of insemination records of U.S. Holstein and Jersey females from 2019 to 2021 representing approximately 42% and 27% of the total dairy cows and heifers, respectively, across approximately 40% of the total licensed dairy herds in the U.S. This was an additional analysis not included in the original proposal. This analysis will be published in the Journal of Dairy Science in2023. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?This project is part of the requirementfor a Ph.D. degree for my current graduate research assistant. In addition, information generated thus far has been used for continuing education credits for bovine practitioners through my extension program. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?2022 finally marked a full return to in-person extension meetings, and I was invited to be the keynote speaker for the Wisconsin Repro Road Show in March and April. These meetings were held for veterinarians and their clients in 8 locations; 6 in Wisconsin (Reedsville, Stratford, Waunakee, Dodgeville, Weyauwega and Watertown), and in Lena, IL and Calmar, IA. A total of 445 people attended these meetings. I developed a new talk entitled "Building a Foundational Repro Program" in which I discussed recent research in four main topic areas: 1) achieving excellent herd repro; 2) the high fertility cycle; 3) optimizing heifer development and reproduction; and 4) increasing fertility of heifers and cows inseminated with sexed semen. Data from this project were also disseminated nationally through presentations at the Zoetis Large Herd Vet Owners meeting in Columbus, OH, the National Association of Animal Breeders Technical Conference in Milwaukee, WI, and the National Dairy Cattle Reproduction Council meeting in Madison, WI. This information was also disseminated through national podcasts for the Valley Ag Software Podcast, the Dairy Podcast Show, and the Dairy Intelligent Podcast. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?For Specific Aim 1, we have completed the two proposed field trials and we will be working on the in vitro experiment. ForSpecific Aim 2, we will begin developing economic decision-making tools for optimizing heifer inventory management, herd turnover rate, and semen type use in dairy herds using data from Specific Aim 1.Specific Aim 3, to deliver research-based data generated in Specific Aim 1 supported by economic decision-making tools in Specific Aim 2 to the dairy industry through a nationwide multi-platform extension program will be ongoing.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Increased reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows allows for adoption of other reproductive technologies such as sexed and beef semen, but the prevalence and allocation of sexed and beef semen in U.S. dairy herds is not well known. We analyzed a data set that included 8,244,653 total inseminations of 4,880,752 Holstein females across 9,155 herds and 435,267 total inseminations of 266,058 Jersey females across 2,759 herds from October 2019 to July 2021. This data set representsapproximately 42% and 27% of the total dairy cows and heifers, respectively, across approximately 40% of the total licensed dairy herds in the U.S. Inseminations with sexed and beef semen increased over time which was driven primarily by larger farms that allocate semen type differentially based on parity and service number.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Lauber, M. R., P. D. Carvalho, and P. M. Fricke. 2022. Fertility of Jersey cows inseminated with sexed Jersey or conventional beef semen and submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination versus artificial insemination after synchronization of estrus. J. Dairy Sci. 105(Suppl 1):144.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Lauber, M. R., E. M. Cabrera, V. G. Santos, P. D. Carvalho, C. Maia, B. Carneiro, A. Valenza, V. E. Cabrera, J. J. Parrish, and P. M. Fricke. 2021. Comparison of reproductive management programs for submission of Holstein heifers for first insemination with conventional or sexed semen based on expression of estrus, pregnancy outcomes, and cost per pregnancy. J. Dairy Sci. 104:1295312967.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Lauber, M. R., F. Pe�agaricano, R. H. Fourdraine, J. H. Clay, and P. M. Fricke. 2022. Characterization of semen type allocation in Jersey females in the United States. J. Dairy Sci. 105(Suppl 1):313.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Lauber, M. R., F. Pe�agaricano, R. H. Fourdraine, J. H. Clay, and P. M. Fricke. 2022. Characterization of semen type allocation in Holstein females in the United States. J. Dairy Sci. 105(Suppl 1):312.


Progress 01/15/21 to 01/14/22

Outputs
Target Audience:Target audiences reached include dairy farmers, the AI industry, nutritionists, veterinarians, and scientists. This has been accomplished through in-person meetings, webinars, lay press articles, peer-reviewed abstracts presented at scientific meetings, and a peer-reviewed publication. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Megan Lauber is the Ph.D. student currently being trained through the objectives of this project. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results have been disseminated both nationally and internationally through in-person meetings, webinars, scientific abstracts, and a peer-reviewed research paper. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We have initiated the second proposed field trial under Specific Aim 1, which should be completed early in 2022. In 2022, we will begin to work on the economic decision tools proposed under Specific Aim 2. We will continue to disseminate information generated from this proposal in 2022 through my national and international extension program.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Under Specific Aim 1, one of the two proposed field trials has been completed and is now in press and awaiting publication. First field trial: Delaying CIDR removal by 24 h within a 5-d PRID-Synch or a 5-d CIDR-Synch protocol suppressed early expression of estrus before timed artificial insemination (TAI) but decreased pregnancies per AI (P/AI) for heifers inseminated with sexed but not conventional semen. Further, submission of heifers to a 5-d CIDR-Synch protocol for first AI tended to increase P/AI and decrease the cost per pregnancy compared to heifers submitted for first AI based on once-daily detection of estrus after treatment with PGF2α. Actual farm costs (US$) were used to calculate the cost per pregnancy for individual heifers that became pregnant during the 84-d breeding period. Overall, submitting heifers to a 5-d CIDR-Synch protocol decreased total costs per pregnancy by $16.66 compared to EDAI heifers submitted to estrus detection for first service. The increased reproductive performance decreased the total cost per pregnancy compared to EDAI heifers by decreasing feed costs due to decreased days on feed. When feed costs were ≥ $1.75 per heifer/d, heifers submitted to a 5-d CIDR-Synch protocol had a decreased total cost per pregnancy compared to EDAI heifers. Thus, submitting nulliparous heifers to a 5-d CIDR-Synch protocol is an efficient and economical strategy for first insemination when inseminating heifers with sexed semen. Under Specific Aim 3, we have disseminated information from our research to the dairy industry through my extension program.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2021 Citation: Lauber, M. R., E. M. Cabrera, V. G. Santos, P. D. Carvalho, C. Maia, B. Carneiro, A. Valenza, V. E. Cabrera, J. J. Parrish, and P. M. Fricke. 2021. Comparison of reproductive management programs for submission of Holstein heifers for first insemination with conventional or sexed semen based on expression of estrus, pregnancy outcomes, and cost per pregnancy. J. Dairy Sci. (in press).