Source: VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE submitted to
IMPROVING BOXWOOD BLIGHT MITIGATION THROUGH INNOVATION, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND EDUCATION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1023535
Grant No.
2020-51181-32135
Project No.
VA-Hong
Proposal No.
2020-02624
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
SCRI
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2020
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2024
Grant Year
2020
Project Director
Hong, C.
Recipient Organization
VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
(N/A)
BLACKSBURG,VA 24061
Performing Department
Hampton Roads AREC
Non Technical Summary
This project will safeguard the nation's largest evergreen shrub crop and iconic landscape plant from boxwood blight caused by Calonectria pseudonaviculata (SCRI focus area #2) through plant breeding and genetics (#1), innovation (#4), economic analyses (#3) and education. Specifically, it develops a better understanding of boxwood blight in Oregon nurseries and identifies the critical control points to help growers keep the pathogen out or get rid of it. It also produces several major innovations: robust diagnostic kits, more resistant cultivars, boxwood self-defense enhancers, antidesiccants as physical barriers, and biological controls. Additionally, it integrates several recently-developed technologies, and provides economic analyses to promote their adoption and synergy. Furthermore, it investigates boxwood genetics and microbiome, pathogen colonization and epidemiology, and analyzes the cost/benefit of individual innovations and their integration in the form of best management practices at production and post-production sites to achieve optimal performance and economical deployment of management strategies. Moreover, it emphasizes research translation into products and practical recommendations, and delivers them to end users in an expedited fashion while preparing the next generation of scientists and educators for sustainable boxwood production, landscaping and gardening. This project enables growers to produce, sell, and ship only blight-free plant stock, making them more competitive in domestic and global markets. It also empowers landscapers and gardeners to better protect existing plantings and more effectively manage the disease at affected sites. International collaborations and extensive partnerships with stakeholders, including growers, arborists, landscapers and other researchers, further add quality, productivity and impact to this project.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
60%
Developmental
20%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2122110110210%
2122110117010%
2122110106010%
2122110108115%
2122110310040%
2122110301015%
Goals / Objectives
This project aims to safeguard the nation's boxwood crops and gardens from boxwood blight caused byCalonectria pseudonaviculata(Cps) through innovation, economic analysis, and education. This goal will be accomplished by: 1) preventing further spread of this disease via nursery trade, 2) better managing the disease at sites of contamination, and 3) building resilience into boxwood production and gardening. 4) All resultant innovations and tech integration will undergo vigorous cost/benefit analyses to ensure that each and every recommendation is economically viable, and 5) they will be delivered to end users, in partnership with AmericanHort, American Boxwood Society (ABS), American Public Gardens Association (APGA), and other key stakeholders, for the broadest reach in an expedited fashion to promote the sustainability of boxwood production and gardening.
Project Methods
Blighted plant materials will be prevented from entering the nursery trade by:Developing on-site commercial strip kits for pathogen detectionOregon nursery surveyBridging the blight epidemiology knowledge gaps - latent infection under Oregon climatic conditionsBridging the blight epidemiology knowledge gaps - pathogen colonization, latency and phenotypic diversityBridging the blight epidemiology knowledge gaps - cultivar and relative humidity impacts on pathogen sporulationBridging the blight knowledge gaps - field epidemiology, andIdentifying critical control points at production nurseries.The blight disease will be better managed at sites of contamination by:Evaluating antidesiccants for blight mitigationFurther developing BCAs into final productsEnhancing boxwood self-defense through SAR inducers and selective fertilizationEnhancing boxwood self-defense through silicon (Si) treatment and UV radiationIntegrating three key existing technologies, andPreventing less susceptible boxwood cultivars from becoming a 'Trojan horse' while encouraging their adoption.Resilience will be built into boxwood production and plantings by:Developing more resistant boxwood cultivarsCataloging and manipulating boxwood microbiomes against Cps, andFacilitating adoption of more resistant boxwood cultivars.Economic benefits of blight mitigation will be assessed by:Developing baseline production modelAnalyzing cost/benefit of changes in blight mitigation practicePartial budgeting. An economic engineering approachPerforming sensitivity testsDetermining the economic return of long-term investment in blight mitigation, andAssessing the overall project impact.Sustainable boxwood production and gardening will be achieved by putting research into practices and preparing next generation of farmers, scientists and educators. Major components include:Translating research into products, protocols, and recommendationsDelivering to end usersDocumenting project impactsPreparinga new generation of scientists and educators ready to tackle increasingly, and complex issues facing the nation's specialty crop industry in a global economy.

Progress 09/01/20 to 08/31/21

Outputs
Target Audience:Growers Greenery producers Retailers Landscapers and ground maintenance personnel Public garden managers and horticulturists Trade organizations - local, regional and national Consumers Master gardeners Boxwood enthusiasts Arborists Diagnosticians Extension specialists and agents Regulatory personnel Conservation biologists Researchers Policy makers Changes/Problems:Althoughthe teamhashad many achievements in research and outreach over the first year of the grant,the ongoingpandemic of COVID-19 has causedunprecedented challenges to all the collaborating institutions. AllUSDA research labs and unitshavebeeninafederal government mandatedgating phase, with onlyessential employees allowed to be onsite at a 25% facility capacity limit. While this has hampered laboratory-based research objectives, significant progress has been made in meetingobjectives. PDs have collectively met and exceeded all extension goals. Eight of 13 research goals are at 100% completion or ahead of schedule, while the remaining five research goals are at or below 15% completion due to COVID-19-related restrictions on facility occupancy and/or travel, particularly at USDA locations. Universityprogramshave also faced reduced lab access andin some cases, requests from upper administration to cut back on planned activitiesand spending. Quarantine periods have beennecessary on short notice whenstaffbecame ill with COVID-19.Our team has shown resilience under these circumstances and,as a result,the objectives allcontinue toappear to be achievable within the granting period. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Seven postdocs, three graduate students and one summer intern were recruited to work with the BBIG team on boxwood blight mitigation. In addition to planning and executing the proposed research activities, analyzing data, and writing for industry and academic publications, all postdocs and students actively participated in translating research into operational protocols and educational materials, delivering to the end user, and documenting project impacts. They also were regularly interacting with the Advisory Panel via Zoom meetings and email exchanges, gaining an appreciation of how to work with industry partners. This project also provided the team members, especially early career scientists, with a variety of other professional training opportunities as exemplified below. TRAINING FOR THE PROJECT TEAM AND COLLABORATORS A training session on Microsoft Teams by Paige Ghra, Program Coordinator, Collaborative Computing Solutions at Virginia Tech, was organized and conducted on July 20, 2020 for PDs, associates, and Advisory Panel members in order to improve the internal communications for enhanced project productivity, quality and impacts. A seminar on how to study the plant microbiome by Xiaoping Li, postdoctoral microbiome scientist, for PDs and their associates, Advisory Panel members as well as some collaborators via Zoom on February 12. 2021 as part of our efforts in team capacity-building. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR POSTDOCS AND STUDENTS One postdoc has had experience as project manager, with extra responsibilities forhandling communications via Teams, Zoom and email, assembling reports, andcoordinating other postdocs in perfecting a poster on the BBIG research team's organization and objectives.Coachingis provided by the project leaders as needed. One postdoc - Applied Plant Pathologist, has transitioned into the role of coordinating field trials evaluating antidesiccants and biocontrol agents with NCDA&CS, NCCE, and collaborating growers and become a point of contact for the collaboration with the Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in Belgium. PDs advised and supported as needed. One postdoc has coordinated boxwood sampling with the OSU/USDA ARS HCRL team in Corvallis, OR and collaborating growers in Virginia for the microbiome studies. This postdoctoral associate also directly worked with the growers taking samples late spring and summer. PDs helped connection with collaborating PDs and growers, advised on planning, and provided other support as needed. One postdoc - Epidemiologist, has become a point of contact person for collaboration with German scientists, re-analyzing their data of field trials evaluating fungicides, boxwood cultivars and other blight management strategies from the epidemiology perspective. This postdoctoral associate is transitioning into a role of coordinating the newly established International Working Group of Boxwood Blight Epidemiology, with PDs' support as needed. Two postdocs on the project have had the opportunity to coordinatemulti-authorefforts on two publications on boxwood diseases for the diagnostic community.PDs haveprovidedadvice and leadership as needed.The first of these publications, a diagnostic guide for boxwood blight disease, has been downloaded over 3,000 times, and was ranked as the second-most downloaded paper published in the journal for the year of 2000. Postdocs and graduate students presented at the quarterly Project Team meetings. Postdocs and graduate students were supportedto attend the American Phytopathological Society (APS) meetings and other professional meetings such as Phyllosphere Fortnight 2021 at Phyllosphere Fortnight 2021 - PHYLLOSPHERE 2022 (ucdavis.edu). How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Delivering research and innovations to the end user has been an integral part of this project as detailed below. To best serve the horticulture industry, public and private gardeners, we networked with prominent scientists in the U.S. and overseas, and partnered with stakeholders to establish an international boxwood blight research and education consortium - Boxwood Blight Insight Group (BBIG). We also designed a logo reflecting the project goal (sustainable boxwood production and gardening) and approach (focused science and application studies). Accordingly, we integrated this logo into our newsletter, PowerPoint presentation, Word and PDF document templates for more effective and efficient technology transfer. TRANSLATING RESEARCH INTO PRODUCTS, PROTOCOLS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS BBIG Newsletter was launched in November 2020 and has since been published quarterly - featuring the latest news and major research breakthroughs, and highlighting major extension and outreach accomplishments. Other sections include Project Meeting Brief, New Team Members. Scouting and Best Management Practices Videos were produced by the Extension teams to help growers, landscapers and other horticulturists to scout for and better manage boxwood blight at production and in gardens and landscapes. The scouting video is in both English and Spanish to meet the needs of the diverse work force in the horticulture industry. Bilingual Educational Resources included extension publications and posters, in addition to the scouting videos in both English and Spanish. DELIVERING TO END USERS Conventional means of tech transfer included: quarterly meetings with the Advisory PanelviaZoom, publication of five extension articles, and conducting: two field demonstrations, six short courses, and fifteen webinars ata number ofvirtual meetings of gardeners, nurserymenand arborists, as well asmaking afewin-person appearancesover the past year. Expedited mass dissemination of research included: Project outreach website - Boxwood Blight Insight Group at https://www.boxwoodhealth.org, in collaboration with AmericanHort and the Horticultural Research Institute (HRI). This website was released to the public in November 2020, and it has since been a powerful platform to keep stakeholders informed, engaged, and excited about the project. Since its release, this website has had over 2,700 views. BBIG on Live Stage of the tHRIve Knowledge Center at Cultivate'21 in Columbus, OH on July 11, 2021. This national meeting provided the BBIG Team a platform to present and connect to various sectors of the horticulture industry. This session consisted of four presentations, three given by BBIG PDs (Gouker, Hong, and LaMondia) and one by a collaborator (Coop). BBIG Google Group (bbig-g@vt.edu) was established and used, along with other local and national networks, for dissemination of BBIG newsletters, research and extension publications, and boxwood health related news. Over 10,000 boxwood enthusiasts were reached with the BBIG Google Group alone. Outreach through Research and Extension Communities by: organizing an Idea Café at the APS Annual Meeting - Plant Health 2021 Online on August 2, 2021. This was one of the well-attended breakout sessions with about 30 attendees, publishing research results through nineteen refereed journal articles, communicating research data through sixteen presentations at annual meetings of the APS and the Ecological Society of America,and communicating research through two invited lectures. International Boxwood Seminar Series was added to the project to bring international expertise to the horticulture industry, master gardeners and consumers in the U.S. The inaugural presentation was held on March 18, 2021, followed by the second and third webinars on June 2 and August 25, 2021, respectively. These webinars target all sectors of the horticulture industry, public garden managers, consumers, boxwood research and extension communities, as well as regulatory personnel. The inaugural seminar attracted 359 attendees from the U.S. and a dozen foreign countries and received over 70 follow-up questions and discussion threads. Citizen Science Projectswere also added to meet the emerging needs. For pathogen monitoring at sites of infestation, we advisedgarden managers on experiment design, providedtechnical and material assistance, and helped analyze and interpret their data. For field trials evaluating boxwood collections for blight resistance, we helped growers analyze their research data, and advised on writing the results for publication. We also worked with a homeowner to rebuild her garden with NewGen cultivars, plus sanitation, mulching, science-directed fungicide protection after she lost over 300 well established boxwood to the blight. DOCUMENTING PROJECT IMPACTS Major changes in knowledge Our extension programs have enabled growers, retailers, landscapers, arborists, garden managers and other horticulturists, regulatory personnel, and extension specialists and agents to better understand the blight disease, its diagnostic characters and latest mitigation technologies. Our research and innovation have advanced the science of boxwood blight biology, epidemiology, diagnostics and mitigation technology. For example, spacing plants further apart lowers the chance for the pathogen to spread from an infected plant to nearby healthy plants. Decreasing irrigation frequency reduces infection and disease severity. Thus, critical changes in the way nurseries grow boxwood (increased plant spacing and decreased irrigation) can reduce the chances for boxwood blight outbreaks and pathogen movement within the nursery. These advancements will continue to change blight diagnostics and improve disease mitigation, thereby benefiting the horticulture industry and consumers for years to come. Changes in practice and condition Boxwood production has shifted from severely affected states to less affected or regulated states as demonstrated by the Economic Team. Many growers have shifted their boxwood inventory to include less susceptible cultivars, a practice that will change the health of boxwood plantings nationally in the future. Many stakeholders have begun to take a systems approach to blight mitigation and boxwood crop health management while focusing on blight prevention and trying to contain and eradicate the disease at its earliest detection as exemplified by the public gardens we have worked with. Some of the stakeholders have learned through Citizen Science Projects and set up their own facilities and programs to monitor the blight pathogen in infested soil. While these efforts started at individual production facilities and gardens, they created conditions limiting pathogen spread, suppressive for pathogen survival, infection, and reproduction, consequently contributing to the blight mitigation and containment at local, regional, and national levels. Other impacts This project has set a new example for fighting a good fight together against invasive species and destructive diseases through stakeholder partnership and international collaboration. For instance, AmericanHort and HRI are hosting the project outreach website with a knowledge center and helped us developed a user-friendly interface. This invaluable partnership is projected to provide continual maintenance and service to the horticulture industry and consumers, even after this SCRI project ends. In addition to hosting our International Boxwood Seminar series, AmericanHort and HRI are playing key roles in planning, organization, publicizing, running, recording, posting recordings, and documenting attendance metrics. In addition to sharing their expertise through the International Boxwood Seminar series, researchers in Belgium, Germany, and United Kingdom are collaborating on several important project components including biocontrol and field epidemiology. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? We will make every effort to catch up on research components that were delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic this past year, while striving to do even better for the other research and extension programming where we have in some cases exceeded what we originally proposed, including the International Boxwood Seminar series, Citizen Science Projects.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Obj 1: To prevent blighted plant materials from entering the nursery trade Two approaches were taken to develop on-site pathogen detection assays. For the serological approach, a protein target (12239) was identified by proteomics analysis. This target is highly abundant and unique to the boxwood blight fungi, Cps and C. henricotiae (Che). Two polyclonal antibodies, pAb 12239-1 and pAb 12239-2 against two partial sequences of the protein 12239 and their corresponding recombinant proteins (rProteins) have been generated, purified, and verified using both western blots and double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). pAb 12239-1 efficiently captured its corresponding rProtein and detected the target antigen in extracts of Cps- and Che-infected leaves, but it did not react with the rProtein of 12239-2 or extracts of healthy leaves or leaves with Volutella blight. For the DNA isothermal amplification approach, seven primer pairs were designed against two DNA targets (predicted genes P.25 and P.38) unique to Cps and Che. Specificity and sensitivity are being evaluated. Three Oregon nurseries surveyed in 2021 all had blight. Due to drought and heat this year, blight symptoms were less common and severe than in previous years with more moderate temperatures and abundant rainfall. Leaf spots were mostly absent while stem lesions and leaf drop occurred more frequently. Most symptoms developed during the rainy season. Few new symptoms have developed since the onset of hot, dry weather in June, unless the grower waters extensively. This has made disease scouting more challenging. The most infected cultivars included Winter Gem, Green Gem, Green Mountain, Green Velvet. An experiment was conducted to evaluate symptom development on tolerant and susceptible boxwood cultivars inoculated with Cps outdoors quarterly in Oregon. No blight developed on most plants regardless of cultivar or season. Subsequently, a modified growth chamber study is initiated to explore infection at cooler temperatures on tolerant (Winter Gem) and susceptible (Green Velvet) cultivars at 15 and 25oC with 75% relative humidity. Infection occurred at both 15°C (average Oregon fall/spring temperature) and 25°C (optimum for Cps growth and infection). Data are collected on disease incidence and the percent canopy affected by the blight. Field epidemiology studies focused on analysis of existing data from fungicide and boxwood cultivar evaluation trials in Germany between 2006 and 2020, and the records of positive samples submitted to the Royal Horticultural Society in the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2019. Both data sets were visualized and strategies formulated to relate the onset and progression of boxwood blight to local weather conditions. The German collaboration began with English boxwood (Buxus sempervirens 'Suffruticosa') and nontreated control plants, with cultivar and fungicide factors to be added next. Obj 2: To better manage and contain the blight at sites of contamination Four field trials were established in western North Carolina (NC) to evaluate three best performing antidesiccants - TransFilm, Vapor Gard, and Wilt Pruf, and six biological control agents (BCAs) selected from lab studies. The antidesiccant trials were initiated in mid-April and biocontrol trials in late May. Treatments with 6 to 7 replicate plants each were arranged in a randomized complete block design. More defoliation has been observed in nontreated boxwood than those treated with antidesiccants or fungicide in one trial while overall blight incidence remained low in the other trials. These trials are joint efforts with NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCDA&CS), NC Cooperative Extension (NCCE), and growers. Lab studies were also done to determine the survival of Burkholderia cepacia SSG, and identify the optimum culture media and age, and surfactants to improve BCA survival and performance against the blight. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate boxwood self-defense enhancers. Specifically, five treatments - 30 s, 1, 2, and 5 m exposure by UV-C lamps with an output of approximately 20 µW cm2 plus a nontreated control were included in detached leaf assays with English boxwood. Disease severity was determined by measuring lesion size across 5 days post inoculation (dpi). Results showed marginally significant differences (P=0.05) between all treatments except control vs 30 s, control vs 60 s, and 1 m vs 2 m treatments. The greatest difference seen in disease reduction was between the 30-s and 5-m treatments. Detached leaves of English boxwood, B. × 'Green Velvet', and B. microphylla var. japonica 'Winter Gem' were inoculated with 200 conidia then incubated at 18 to 27°C with various leaf wetness periods (LWP) to lay the foundation for tech integration. Disease incidence was recorded at 3 to 13 dpi. A minimum of 5 h of leaf wetness was required for any infection. Infection incidence increased most rapidly at 12 to 15 h and continued to increase up to 21 h. Temperatures between 21 and 25°C were optimal for disease development. There was about a 7-day lag between appearance of lesions and maximal sporulation. The two less-susceptible cultivars had fewer lesions than English boxwood; Cps sporulated later and at a smaller proportion of infected 'Winter Gem' leaves. Obj 3: To build resilience into boxwood production and gardening At least 70 sets of unique controlled pollinations were performed, resulting in intra- and interspecific F1 boxwood hybrids designed for breeding and genetic mapping purposes. These plants are grown in polyhouses then they will be moved out to nursery beds in project years 3 and 4 for further evaluation. Current hybrids and accessions are being evaluated for blight resistance using a detached leaf assay. A new acetone-based DNA extraction method was developed that works well for boxwood while reducing total extraction time by 2 h. Additionally, a project to generate and annotate a boxwood reference genome is underway, for the diploid English boxwood using PacBio and Omni-C platforms. This first boxwood genome sequence will be an invaluable resource for breeding and genetic trait mapping. Boxwood samples were taken from Oregon and Virginia twice in May and August 2021; and they are being analyzed to determine the geographic location and climatic effects on epiphytic and endophytic fungal and bacterial communities. Additional samples were taken from the ongoing field trials in western NC to examine fungicide and antidesiccant effects on boxwood phyllosphere microbiome. Three chemistries: chlorothalonil, propiconazole, and combo were included in the fungicide impact studies. Obj 4: To analyze the cost-effectiveness and economics of blight innovations To promote the adoption of advanced blight mitigation best management practices (BMPs), we have analyzed the economic dimensions of all recommended changes relative to current standard disease control practices. Economic engineering is being used to estimate the initial capital investment, production costs, and product prices for the baseline and alternative boxwood nursery production models. The models are being simulated with representative BMPs and proper disease control protocols. The models are also serving as a baseline to determine the socio-economic impacts of our strategies to reduce production and post-production shrink. We have collected and summarized current BMPs associated with boxwood production on the East and West coasts by visiting with growers and project team members to determine equipment usage, input materials, and labor hours used during boxwood production using current production practices. The spreadsheet model of the current production system for boxwood in container nurseries in the eastern versus western regions of the U.S. has been built, ready for review by team members.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Daughtrey, M. L. Diseases of 2020. Landscape Seminar. Cornell Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County, October 14, 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Daughtrey, M. L. Battling garden enemies. Horticultural Alliance of the Hamptons, November 8, 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Daughtrey, M. L. The notorious and baffling diseases of boxwood and beech. Nursery and Landscape Session. Long Island Agricultural Forum, January 7, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Daughtrey, M. L. Boxing against boxwood blight. New York State Nursery and Landscape Association, February 10, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Daughtrey, M. L. Defying diseases. 2021 Virtual Tree Steward Program. Cornell Cooperative Extension of Westchester County, March 17, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Hong, C. X. Boxwood blight and other must-know emerging diseases. Eastern Shore of Virginia Master Gardener Training on Plant Disease Diagnosis and Control, November 12, 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Hong, C. X. Fighting boxwood blight together. Ornamentals/Nursery track at the 66th New Jersey Annual Vegetable Meeting, hosted by Rutgers University, February 2225, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Jeffers, S. N., and Daughtrey, M. L. Boxwood blight: identification and management. Virtual IPM Symposium, Clemson Cooperative Extension Service, Clemson University, October 22, 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Daughtrey, M. L. Tree health and disease issues. Engaging Communities Through Tree Stewardship Program. Cornell Cooperative Extension of Dutchess County, October 9, 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: LaMondia, J. A. Management of boxwood blight. Chesapeake Green, February 18, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: LaMondia, J. A. Identification and management of boxwood blight. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, February 24, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Santamaria, L. Tiz�n de boxwood: Conociendo al enemigo para un mejor manejo de la enfermedad. Manejo integrado de plagas para plantas de viveros (Integrated pest management for nursery crops). Oregon Association of Nurseries, March 2, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Santamaria, L. Scouting for boxwood blight: a new bilingual educational tool in an Interactive Virtual Workshop. SCRI - Boxwood Blight-Advisory meeting. Aurora, OR, June 4, 2021.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Ohkura, M.*, Nackley, L. L., Scagel, C. F., and Weiland, J. E. Social distancing and staying dry keeps boxwood blight at bay. Digger, in press as of September 1, 2021. Part of the OSU Growing Knowledge Series.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Pscheidt, J. W. Boxwood (Buxus spp.)-Box Blight. In: Pscheidt, J. W., and Ocamb, C. M., senior editors. Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook [online]. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. https://pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/host-disease/grass-seed-stem-rust
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Santamaria, L. El tiz�n de boxwood en viveros de producci�n commercial. Oregon Extension Service Publication No.: EM9124-S first published in 2016, reviewed and updated 2020 at https://catalog.extension.oregonstate.edu/em9124s
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Santamaria, L. Boxwood blight in commercial nurseries. Oregon Extension Service Publication No.: EM9124 first published in 2016, reviewed and updated 2020 at https://catalog.extension.oregonstate.edu/em9124
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Weiland, J. E. and Pscheidt, J. W. Scouting for boxwood blight. Digger 64(3):2528. Part of the Oregon State University Growing Knowledge series.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Santamaria, L. Boxwood Blight in commercial nursery production - El tiz�n de boxwood en viveros de producci�n commercial. Oregon Extension Service Publication No.: EM9124-P first published in 2016, reviewed and updated 2020 at https://catalog.extension.oregonstate.edu/em9124p
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Stravoravdis, S., Marra, R.E., LeBlanc, N. R., Crouch, J. A., and Hulvey, J. P. Evidence for the role of CYP51A and xenobiotic detoxification in differential sensitivity to azole fungicides in boxwood blight pathogens. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22:9255. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179255
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2021 Citation: Bika, R.*, Copes, W., and Baysal-Gurel, F. Comparative performance of sanitizers in managing plant-to-plant transfer and postharvest infection of Calonectria pseudonaviculata and Pseudonectria foliicola on boxwood. Plant Disease published online at https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-21-0481-RE
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Baysal-Gurel, F., Jennings, C., and Simmons, T. Evaluation of fungicides for the control of boxwood blight, 2020. Plant Disease Management Reports 15:OT002. https://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/trial/PDMR/volume15/
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2021 Citation: Castroagud�n, V. L.*, Shishkoff, N., Stanley, O., Whitesell, R., Olson, T., and Crouch, J. A. First report: Co-infection of Sarcococca hookeriana (sweetbox) by Coccinonectria pachysandricola and Calonectria pseudonaviculata causes a foliar disease of sweetbox in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease published online at https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-1006-1020-1198-PDN
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Castroagud�n, V. L.*, Weiland, J. E., Baysal-Gurel, F., Cubeta, M. A., Daughtrey, M. L., Gauthier, N. W., LaMondia, J., Luster, D. G., Hand, F. P., Shishkoff, N., Williams-Woodward. J., Yang, X.*, LeBlanc, N., and Crouch, J. A. One clonal lineage of Calonectria pseudonaviculata is primarily responsible for the boxwood blight epidemic in the United States. Phytopathology 110:18451853. https://doi.org/10.1094/phyto-04-20-0130-r
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Castroagud�n, V. L.*, Yang, X.*, Daughtrey M. L., Luster, D. G., Pscheidt, J. W., Weiland, J. E., and Crouch, J. A. Boxwood blight disease: A diagnostic guide. Plant Health Progress 21:291300. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-06-20-0053-DG
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Gouker, F. E., Guo, Y. H., and Pooler, M. R. Using acetone for rapid PCR-amplifiable DNA extraction from recalcitrant woody plant taxa. Applications in Plant Sciences 8:e11403. https://doi.org/10.1002/aps3.11403
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Hall, C. R., Hodges, A. W., Khachatryan, H., and Palma, M. A. Economic contributions of the green industry in the United States in 2018. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 38:7379. https://doi.org/10.24266/0738-2898-38.3.73
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2021 Citation: Hall, C., Hong, C. X., Gouker, F. E., and Daughtrey, M. L. Analyzing the structural shifts in U.S. boxwood production due to boxwood blight. Journal of Environmental Horticulture (in press).
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Hall, C. R., and Knuth, M. J. An update of the literature supporting the well-being benefits of plants: Part 4  available resources and usage of plant benefits information. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 38:6872. https://doi.org/10.24266/0738-2898-38.2.68
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Kong, P., Richardson, P., and Hong, C. X. Burkholderia sp. SSG is a broad-spectrum antagonist against plant diseases caused by diverse pathogens. Biological Control 151:104380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2020.104380
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Becker, L. E., Adhikari, U., May, T., Shishkoff, N., Crouch, J. A., and Cubeta, M. A. Evaluation of boxwood cultivars for resistance to boxwood blight, 2020. Plant Disease Management Reports 15:OT008. https://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/trial/pdmr/volume15/abstracts/ot008.asp
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: LaMondia, J. A. Curative fungicide activity against Calonectria pseudonaviculata, the boxwood blight pathogen. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 38:4449. https://doi.org/10.24266/0738-2898-38.2.44
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: LaMondia, J. A., and Maurer, K. Calonectria pseudonaviculata conidia dispersal and implications for boxwood blight management. Plant Health Progress 21:232237. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-04-20-0024-RS
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: LeBlanc, N., Cubeta, M. A., and Crouch, J. A. Population genomics trace clonal diversification and intercontinental migration of an emerging fungal pathogen of boxwood. Phytopathology 111:184193. https://doi.org/10.1094/phyto-06-20-0219-fi
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Sacher, G. O.*, Weiland, J. E., Putnam, M. L., Crouch, J. A., and Castroagud�n, V. L.* Confirmation of Calonectria pseudonaviculata causing boxwood blight of Buxus cultivars in Oregon. Plant Disease 104:1862. https://doi.org/10.1094/pdis-01-20-0078-pdn
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Shishkoff, N., Miller, M. E., and Cubeta, M. A. Rooting response of boxwood cultivars to hot water treatment and thermal sensitivity of Calonectria henricotiae and C. pseudonaviculata in diseased boxwood (Buxus spp.). Journal of Environmental Horticulture 39:110. https://doi.org/10.24266/0738-2898-39.1.1
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2021 Citation: Yang, X.*, Castroagud�n, V. L.*, Daughtrey, M. L., Loyd, A., Weiland, J. E., Shishkoff, N., Baysal-Gurel, F., Santamaria, L., Salgado-Salazar, C., LaMondia, J. A., Crouch, J. A., and Luster, D. G. A diagnostic guide for Volutella blight affecting Buxaceae. Plant Health Progress published online at https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-02-21-0052-DG
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Yang, X.*, McMahon, M. B., Ramachandran, S. R., Garrett, W. M., LeBlanc, N., Crouch, J. A., Shishkoff, N., and Luster, D. G. Comparative analysis of extracellular proteomes reveals putative effectors of the boxwood blight pathogens, Calonectria henricotiae and C. pseudonaviculata. Bioscience Reports 41(3):BSR20203544. https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20203544
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Barker, B., Coop, L., and Hong, C. X. Risk modeling to predict outbreaks and establishment of invasive pathogens: a case study of boxwood blight. Annual Meeting of Ecological Society of America online at ESA Meetings  The Ecological Society of America, August 26, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Bika, R.*, Simmons, T., Jennings, C., and Baysal-Gurel, F. Comparative performance of sanitizers in reducing the plant-to-plant transfer of Calonectria pseudonaviculata in boxwood using cutting tool. 130th Meeting of the Tennessee Academy of Science. November 21, 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Bika, R.*, Simmons, T., Jennings, C., and Baysal-Gurel, F. Comparative performance of sanitizers in reducing the plant-to-plant transfer of Calonectria pseudonaviculata in boxwood using cutting tool. Northeastern Plant, Pest, and Soil Conference (NPPSC). January 47, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Bika, R.*, Copes, W., and Baysal-Gurel, F. Efficacy of sanitizers in reducing plant-to-plant transfer of Calonectria pseudonaviculata conidia on cutting tool blade. 98th Annual Meeting of the APS Southern Division. February 1519, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Bika, R.* and Baysal-Gurel, F. Dip application of sanitizers in managing postharvest infection of Calonectria pseudonaviculata on boxwood cuttings. Plant Health 2021  APS Annual Meeting. August 26, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Hong, C. X., Kong, P., Yang, X.*, and Omolehin, O.* Developing sustainable solutions to boxwood blight (Calonectria pseudonaviculata) with biological control agents. Plant Health 2021  APS Annual Meeting. August 26, 2021. https://api.ltb.io/show/ABDSU
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Hong, C. X. Potential of antidesiccants as a physical barrier to prevent infection of boxwood plants by Calonectria pseudonaviculata under controlled environments. Plant Health 2021  APS Annual Meeting. August 26, 2021. https://api.ltb.io/show/ABDSR
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Hong C. X., Daughtrey, M. L., Luster, D. G., Hall, C., Weiland, J., Baysal-Gurel, F., Gouker, F. E., Kong, P., Crouch, J. A., LaMondia, J. A., Pscheidt, J. W., Santamaria, L., Shishkoff, N., and Snover-Clift, K. Boxwood Blight Insight Group (BBIG): an international consortium to protect a major evergreen shrub crop and iconic landscape plant. Plant Health 2021  APS Annual Meeting. August 26, 2021. https://api.ltb.io/show/ABDST
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Hong, C. X., Daughtrey, M. L., Howle, M., Williamson, M., and Mirmow, N. Testing garden soil infectivity at landscape sites once infested by Calonectria pseudonaviculata in Eastern United States with detector boxwood plants. Plant Health 2021  APS Annual Meeting. August 26, 2021. https://api.ltb.io/show/ABDSU
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Kodati, S.*, Allan-Perkins, E., and LaMondia, J. A. In vitro study on the effect of temperature, leaf wetness period, and cultivar susceptibility on boxwood blight incidence. 80th Annual Meeting of the APS Northeastern Division, March 1012, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Ohkura, M.*, Nackley, L. L., Mitchell, J. N., Scagel, C. F., and Weiland, J. E. Social distancing reduces boxwood blight incidence and severity. Plant Health 2021  APS Annual Meeting. August 26, 2021. https://api.ltb.io/show/ABDST
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Yang, X.*, Carter, M. L., and Luster, D. G. Development of serological diagnostic assays for boxwood blight disease. Plant Health 2021  APS Annual Meeting. August 26, 2021. https://my.ltb.io/www/#/stack/ABEBO
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Yang, X.*, McMahon, M. B., Carter, M. L., and Luster, D. G. Serological and recombinase polymerase amplification-based assays to diagnose boxwood blight. 77th Annual Meeting of the APS Potomac Division, March 1012, 2021.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Hong C. X., Daughtrey, M. L., Luster, D. G., Hall, C., Weiland, J., Baysal-Gurel, F., Gouker, F. E., Kong, P., Crouch, J. A., LaMondia, J. A., Pscheidt, J. W., Santamaria, L., Shishkoff, N., and Snover-Clift, K. Boxwood Blight Insight Group (BBIG) Newsletter Volume 1, Issue 1, released December 6, 2020. https://irp-cdn.multiscreensite.com/217658e5/files/uploaded/bbig-newsletter.pdf
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Hong C. X., Daughtrey, M. L., Luster, D. G., Hall, C., Weiland, J., Baysal-Gurel, F., Gouker, F. E., Kong, P., Crouch, J. A., LaMondia, J. A., Pscheidt, J. W., Santamaria, L., Shishkoff, N., and Snover-Clift, K. BBIG Newsletter Volume 2, Issue 1, released March 8, 2021. https://irp-cdn.multiscreensite.com/217658e5/files/uploaded/BBIG%20Newsletter%20Vol%202%20Issue%201_bwhmLW5LSPGpsiTGf38j.pdf
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Hong C. X., Daughtrey, M. L., Luster, D. G., Hall, C., Weiland, J., Baysal-Gurel, F., Gouker, F. E., Kong, P., Crouch, J. A., LaMondia, J. A., Pscheidt, J. W., Santamaria, L., Shishkoff, N., and Snover-Clift, K. BBIG Newsletter Volume 2, Issue 2, released May 28, 2021. https://irp.cdn-website.com/217658e5/files/uploaded/BBIG%20Newsletter%20Vol%202%20Issue%202.pdf
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Shishkoff, N., Daughtrey, M. L., and Smallwood, E. Sorting Through the Boxwood Blights. 77th Annual Meeting of the APS Potomac Division, March 1012, 2021.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Outreach Website at https://www.boxwoodhealth.org
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Shishkoff, N., Smallwood, E., and Camp, M. J. The effect of Trichoderma koningiopsis and Calonectria spp. on survival of Pseudonectria buxi in boxwood leaf debris incubated at 0, 10, or 20 �C. 77th Annual Meeting of the APS Potomac Division, March 1012, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Shishkoff, N., Smallwood, E., and Camp, M. J. Use of Trichoderma koningiopsis to reduce viability of Calonectria spp. in boxwood leaf litter incubated at 0, 10, or 20 �C. Plant Health 2021  APS Annual Meeting. August 26, 2021. https://api.ltb.io/show/ABDSR
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Gouker, F. Boxwood breeding at the U.S. National Arboretum. Cultivate21 Live Stage, hosted by AmericanHort. Columbus, OH, July 11, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Hong, C. X. Boxwood blight research: whats the BBIG deal. Cultivate21 Live Stage, hosted by AmericanHort. Columbus, OH, July 11, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: LaMondia, J. A. Fungicides and management implications for boxwood health. Cultivate21 Live Stage, hosted by AmericanHort. Columbus, OH, July 11, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Baysal-Gurel, F. Dealing with diseases in the landscapes. University of Tennessee - Tennessee Extension Master Gardener (UT-TEMG) Central Region Virtual Conference/Workshop, June 24, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Santamaria, L. El tiz�n de boxwood: �Monitoreando al culpable! Taller Virtual Interactivo, April 12, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Santamaria, L. Boxwood blight - scouting, symptom identification, and best management practices, May 17, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Baysal-Gurel, F. Boxwood blight. Southern Region Green Industry Webinar hosted by University of Georgia, Center for Urban Agriculture, November 12, 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Daughtrey, M. L. Cornell Update on Diseases. New York State Arborists Association Annual Meeting, November 6, 2020.