Source: TENNESSEE STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
FLATHEADED BORER MANAGEMENT IN SPECIALTY CROPS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1023403
Grant No.
2020-51181-32199
Project No.
TENX-2020-SCRI-FB
Proposal No.
2020-02625
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
SCRI
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2020
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2022
Grant Year
2020
Project Director
Addesso, K.
Recipient Organization
TENNESSEE STATE UNIVERSITY
3500 JOHN A. MERRITT BLVD
NASHVILLE,TN 37209
Performing Department
Agricultural and Environmental
Non Technical Summary
This project will improve management of flatheaded borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the genus Chrysobothris. Flatheaded borers are serious pests of nursery, tree nut and fruit crops. These crops are vitally important to the economy, accounting for millions of jobs and billions of dollars in regional economic impacts. The Chrysobothris species of concern are native and found across the United States. Females lay eggs in the trunks of trees and larvae feed on the vascular tissue, disrupting water and nutrient movement. Attacks cause trunk scars, bark shedding and splits, suckering, sap leakage, crown dieback, and tree death. This project will engage a team of experts to address borer management concerns that cross commodities and geographical regions. The proposal will address: which Chrysobothris species are present in specialty crops (Objective 1), when and how females infest crop fields (Objective 2), how growers can better monitor borers in their fields (Objective 3), the role production conditions play in promoting attacks and how those conditions can be mitigated (Objective 4), the most effective chemical and biological tools against borers in different production systems (Objective 5), and tools allowing growers to select control methods that will maximize their profits while also meeting consumer preferences and market demands (Objective 6). Experiments will be conducted in nursery and orchard settings in order to develop management recommendations for flatheaded borers across all effected commodities. This project supports the goals of SCRI by addressing threats from pests, improving production efficiency and incorporating new technology into borer management.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
25%
Applied
50%
Developmental
25%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2051119113040%
6012110113010%
2052110113040%
6011119113010%
Goals / Objectives
The long-term goals of this project are to develop comprehensive best practice (BMPs) for the production and management of FB host plants across specialty industries. We will achieve these goals through research and Extension objectives developed from the aforementioned stakeholder needs. These objectives will identify: which FB species are present in specialty crops (Objective 1), when and how females infest specialty crop fields (Objective 2), how growers can better monitor FB in their fields (Objective 3), the role production conditions play in promoting attacks and how those conditions can be mitigated for susceptible cultivars (Objective 4), the most effective chemical and biological tools against FB in different production systems (Objective 5), and tools allowing growers to select control methods that will maximize their profits while meeting consumer preferences and market demands (Objective 6).
Project Methods
Obj. 1.A. Genomic Assessments.Objective 1Ai is a big-data, Illumina-based phylogenomic analysis employing a reduced taxon-sampling approach involving carefully selected "known species" (Flatheaded Borer Working Group 2019). Objective 1Aii is a dense taxon sampling (i.e., using the Obj. 1Ai exemplars plus several dozen additional specimens) initiative in which relationships are inferred from a reduced representation data set comprised only of the highest performing twenty (or fewer) Obj. 1Ai markers; these data will be obtained through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger® sequencing methods.B. Cuticular Hydrocarbon Assessments. Elytra from each of the 30 beetle species sequenced will be removed immediately after collection, and cuticular hydrocarbons extracted in hexane for 24h. Raw hydrocarbon peak areas will be normalized using the log-ratio transformation commonly used in the analysis of hydrocarbon data (Aitchison 1982).C. Voucher Specimens. GenBank Accession Data, and Data Sharing with Participant Diagnostic Laboratories and External Stakeholders. Body regions used in the morphological, chemical and molecular analyses will be reunited after procedures and specimens preserved in a museum collection as a species reference library at the insect museums of TSU, UTK and other collaborating partner facilities. Genetic data will be deposited in NCBI's GenBank, which maintains long-term storage and free reuse. Web-based diagnostic resources will be assembled based on a combination of morphological, chemical and molecular characters. Diagnostic specimen displays will be assembled and disseminated to collaborating research and diagnostic labs, as well as external stakeholders via web-based materials, presentations, and database archive depositories.Ob. 2. A. Degree-Day and Plant Phenology Models. Adult Chyrsobothris flight activity and duration will be monitored in different tree and fruit commodities through trapping with purple panel traps (with Obj. 3).B. Origin of Attacks, Patterns of Oviposition, and Larval Relatedness. Adult beetles from Section 2.4A will be identified to species. Infested tree locations will be mapped by GPS to establish beetle origin and oviposition patterns at field sites. Larval relatedness of individuals will be compared to other beetles from the same location.C. FB Surveys. Baseline data will be recorded for FB-associated damage across tree crops and cultivars in TXand GA.D. Identify Natural Enemies. All predators and parasitoids that emerge from FB infested material will be curated and cataloged in order to develop a list of potential natural enemies in each of the production systems under study.Obj. 3.A. Live Trap Designs. Panel traps used in the USDA emerald ash borer (EAB) survey will be modified with catch basins to prevent escapes between collections.B. Optimize Trap Color, Baits and Type in Different Production Systems. The EAB purple panel traps have been used in nursery and forest systems to capture Chrysobothris. Other colors in the red-violet range may be more species specific and perform better in different cropping systems. Trap typesand colors will be evaluated in blueberry, hazelnut, walnutand nurseryproduction.C. Vibrational Signals. Drumming signals produced by PFB and FAB will be recorded and evaluated with a laser vibrometer system. Attraction to artificially replicated signals will be tested in the lab for male and female borers.D. Visual Cues. FAB retinal response to selected regions of the electromagnetic spectrum will be evaluated for attraction.E. Olfactory Cues and Signals. Volatiles from trees identified as susceptible to FBs will be identified and tested as attractants. Volatiles emitted by male and female FAB and PFB (putative pheromones) also will be collected and analyzed to determine whether any sex-specific compounds exist and evaluated as attractants.F. Deployment of Modified Traps. In the final year of the project, traps with optimized color and/or other effective lure components (volatile lures or vibrational signals) will be tested in different states in coordinated trials to ensure efficacy in different production systemsObj. 4.A. Evaluation of Stress Factors Inducing Borer Attacks on Susceptible and Resistant Cultivars.Abiotic and biotic stress factors will be evaluated to determine triggers for FB attacks.B. Production Methods for Reducing FB Attacks Different methods to mitigate stress will be evaluated including (i) Winter cover cropping(ii) Companion planting designs forlandscapers(iii) the effect of delayed pruning of lower limbs on susceptibility to FB(iv) tree trunk barrier treatments tree guards, kaolin clay, and white latex trunk paint, and(v) the impact of soil-incorporated microbial products with tree growth-enhancing properties on treeestablishment.Obj. 5.A. Insecticide Trials.Trunk spray and drench applications of active ingredientswill be tested against FAB and PFB in all production systems using backpack CO2 sprayers (R&D Sprayers, Opelousas, LA), air blast sprayers or other standard industry methods. B. Pesticide Tolerance Levels For Bearing Crops. Residueon blueberries and other commodities will be tested. C. Entomopathogenic Nematodes (EPNs).Identification of the most virulentspecies of nematodes will occur in years 1-2 and field tests of optimized formulas will be conducted in years 3-4. D. Optimize Spray Timing. Apply effective insecticidesat different start dates and intervals to determine the optimal spray program for FB in relation to its initial flight and oviposition period.E. Targeted Intelligent Precision Sprayer Technology.Wewill assess pesticide volume and amount of active ingredient used, pesticide and labor costs, plant growth, and the non-target impact of an effective insecticide using intelligent sprayer technology.Obj. 6.A. Create enterprise budgets under alternative methods of borer control (e.g., drench, spray, cover crops, no treatment, etc.) to aid growers in selecting the best control methods for their specific production system. Enterprise crop budgets will be created to analyze the economic benefits of alternative management practices.B. Ascertain barriers to growers adopting more environmental friendly management practices. This project will, (i)identify critical barriers to grower adoption of more environmentally friendly adoption practices; and, (ii) identify educational and training needs to encourage adoption.C. Measure grower willingness to adopt (WTA) more environmentally friendly management practices. This project will, (i) measure WTA of spray applications instead of drench treatments if the two methods are deemed to be equally effective; and, (ii) measure incentives needed for tree growers to adopt cover cropping methods that will protect trees from borers in place of pesticide use.D. Measure outdoor home gardeners' and landscape services firms' preferences for and willingness to pay a premium (WTP) for tree species that are not susceptible to borers and/or bee friendly production methods (i) For outdoor home gardeners, the team will measure WTP for tree species/cultivars that are not susceptible to borers or pay a premium price for 'bee friendly' production methods using discrete choice experiments (DCE). (ii) for landscape services firms, we will measure WTA planting techniques that will help protect trees from borers and prices they will pay for stock.E. Integrate costs of production, prices surfaces, and production information to project profitability of practice adoption.(i) update budgets with survey data and (ii) evaluate the economic profitability of using different management methods with respect to production savings in reduced chemical use, labor, and other inputs.

Progress 09/01/21 to 08/31/22

Outputs
Target Audience:During the 2021- 2022 period information on this project was disseminated to several constituencies. Research and extension colleagues were reached through poster and oralpresentations at the Annual Entomological Society Meeting and Entomological Society Branch Meetings in spring 2022as well as other regional scientificmeetings. Extension talks, discussion groups and one on-one grower collaborator meetings were conducted in Tennessee, Oregon, Alabama, Ohio, North Carolina, Suth Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Californiato reach growers in nursery, walnut, apple, and blueberry. Advisory Board members from commodity and industry groups were consulted on ongoing research. Undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students were recruited and included in experimental research development and data collection where permitted. Since August 2021, more covid restrictions have been lifted so mostof these contacts have been in-person compared to the previous reporting period. Changes/Problems:The 2020 to 2021 period was difficult due to covid restrictions in many of the collaborator institutions. The impact was greatest on PIs with laboratory-based objectives which resulted in some delays. As of March 2022, all PI facilities are back in person and there are no restrictions on research. There may be continued restrictions on travel for some individuals. We will continue to monitor the situation and adapt accordingly. First year field-based studies were initiated in the spring of 2021 without much difficulty. One unexpected consequence of the covid pandemic that some PIs encountered was a lack of plant material available for purchase. Due to soaring demand for landscape plants in 2020 and 2021, some PIs were unable to acquire maple trees of suitable size to initiate borer tests in 2021. These PIs planted smaller trees for use in 2022-2024 field tests. Another challenge the project has faced is that Chrysobothris spp. are difficult to keep alive in the laboratory. For this reason, laboratory bioassays of adult beetles are difficult to complete with sufficient replication. We have developed a system for introducing beetles into a string of behavioral bioassays to maximize efficient use of beetles for behavioral analyses. In 2021, trap captures of Chrysobothris were low across sites in the United States, despite damage observed in the field. Preliminary data from 2022 trap captures have seen orders of magnitute higher Chrysobothris activity at many sites. This may suggest a cyclical boom and bust cycle for these species in nature. The only personnell changes at this point in time is that Dr. Kimberly Jensen (UT) will be retiring in June 2021. Dr. Alicia Rihn will take over as the Objective 6 leader and complete the University of Tennessee commitment to the grant. No PIs have been added to the project. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?All newstudents/technicians were provided with the recordings of the 2-day virtual training on buprestid borer identification. The trainings were recorded, and documents and videos are available for all new student and joining team members. Ten graduate students are being mentored in research design, data collection, analysis, writing and presentation. Four postdoctoral associates are being mentored by PIs on how to run research labs and mentor graduate students as well as in research design and grant writing. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Basic information on flatheaded borers and results from previously initiated projects and first year data on borer management have been shared through poster presentations at the virtual Entomological Society Branch Meetings, Annual Meeting,and the annual American Society for Horticultural Science meeting. Extension talks, discussion groups and one-on-one grower collaborator meetings were conducted in Tennessee, Oregon, California, Georgia and Florida to reach growers in nursery, walnut, apple, and blueberry. Advisory Board members from commodity and industry groups were consulted on ongoing research. Due to continued covid pandemic restrictions some contacts were made via zoom or other remote conferencing technologies. In-person trade shows and field days are proceeding in 2022 and we expect greater in-person contacts in the future. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We are currently conducting 2022 field trials. It is too early to predict the results of these experiments, so these plans may shift based on the results of some tests. Objective 1. Reference genome annotation will be completed and informative sequences for species differentiation will be identified. Borer extension materials for identification will be completed. Objective 2. Coordinated phenology studies from years 1 and 2 will be used to develop predictive models to test for years 3&4 in different regions. Objective 3. We will test modified effective traps and lures in multiple locations. Objective 4. Stress characteristics identified in plant trials for years 1 & 2 will be used to predict attacks in plant trials. Soilborne pathogen-borer interactions trials will be completed. Cover cropand landscape companion planting trials will be repeated. Objective 5. Insecticide trials will be repeated with best products and timings at different locations. EPN field trials will be conducted. As efficacy reports are received for the 2021 field season, Palmer and team will include outcomes in the public IR-4 database. Objective 6. Consumer survey data will be summarized. Grower preliminary survey results will be completed and analyzed.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1. Specimens of adult male and female beetles representing different localities have been collected or requested from collectors or museum collections. Missing members of the C. femorata species group (C. comanche and C. mescalero) have been requested, as well as species from closely related genera species. DNA from 219 individual beetles had been successfully extracted.We currently have DNA from 32 different Chrysobothris species (males and females) and are targeting 50 total species. Current Status of Phylogenomic Pipeline Efforts. Two sets of DNA samples including males and females Chrysobothris species were sent for genome sequencing.Sequencing of C. viridiceps is near completion and in process to the last analysis step. We next will begin compiling a representative portfolio of 100s to 1000s of genes that may be taxonomically informative. Objective 2 Larval Development and Adult Emergence. Data on larval development and emergence timing in different areas of the United Stated is ongoing.Surprisingly, the majority of flatheaded borer larvae were found in their winter pupal chambers by October, not feeding beneath the bark.In California 2021, infested walnut branches were caged and a total of 65 borers were collected and emergence peak occurred on 11 June. West Coast Museum Collection Analysis. In 2021, an analysis of museum collection holdings in west coast states was conducted for capture data of C. femorata and C. mali. Differences in the timing and duration of flight activity were observed between borers captured in the upper and lower latitudes. As has been reported in previous studies, C. mali is found in the western United States and as far east as New Mexico and Colorado, west of the Rocky Mountains. Chrysobothris femorata is found throughout the United States with an overlapping distribution with C. mali in the western states. Objective 3 Multi-State Trapping. Trap captures of Chrysobothris were low across the country in 2021, despite damage observed in field plots across all locations. Species captured in nursery and orchard sites included a wide range of species, despite most damage in production being attributed to Chrysobothris femorata in the east and C. mali in the west. In total, 10 species of Chrysobothris were caught in traps in production fields. These species included C. femorata, C. mali, C. viridiceps, C. rugosiceps, C. chrysoela, C. harrisi, C. adelpha, C. azurea, C. quadriimpressa, and C. sexsignata. TSU Museum Collection Analysis. In the fall of 2021, a review of prior museum trap collection data was conducted.In two trap tests designed to identify color preferences, Chrysobothris preferred magentaand purple traps equally. Another trap test investigating trap shape identified long, narrow purple box-shaped traps mimicking tree trunks (3.8 cm wide) caught the most Chrysobothris and nearly double the number of purple panel trap. Trapping tests in 2022 will further investigate the effectiveness of purple 'trunk mimic' traps and new volatile compounds. Objective 4 Abiotic Stress of Maple Trees. In spring of 2021, red maple trees were artificially stressed in Mid-May (around 1,000 GDD) by defoliation, trunk girdling and canopy herbicide application.Assessment of mid-day water potential ensured that all three treatments were stressed relative to the controls. However, only defoliation and herbicide damage increased foliar tannin and non-structural carbohydrate content. Despite similar changes in foliar quality, borers attacked only herbicide treated trees(herbicided = 70%). Trunk tissue analyses are under way to determine whether differences in that tissue can explain why herbicide damaged trees were preferred by borers. Irrigation and Water Stress. In 2022, a repeat of the irrigation test from 2021 will be conducted in TN and NC. In Alabama, a trial evaluating the interaction of water stress and imidacloprid application will be conducted to determine whether imidacloprid may mitigate the effects of water stress. This experiment will assess both physiological factors of the trees as well as the visual attributes of the tree canopies using a muti-spectral camera. Cultivar Preference. In 2022, field and lab trials are being conducted to compare borer susceptibility between 3 cultivars of susceptible red maple and one putative resistant cultivar of hybrid Freeman maple (50 trees per cultivar). Half of the maple trees will be stressed with foliar herbicide as in 2021 and borer incidence will be assessed within cultivars (herbicide vs. control) and between cultivars. Field trials will be conducted in Tennessee, North Carolina and Virginia. Landscape Design. Replicate trials of 'October Glory' red maple trees were planted in spring 2022 in Tennessee, North Carolina and Virginia with companion plant designs consisting of muhly grass or liriope planted at the base. These trees will be assessed for borer damage for two years. Objective 5 Insecticide Trials. Insecticide trials were initiated or continued at several sites in summer 2021 with unusually low attack rates across the country. In Tennessee, the insecticide timing trial was conducted and had too low numbers of hits to assess. The timing trial will be repeated in 2022. Future insecticide trials in Tennessee and other locations will incorporate canopy herbicide treatments to guarantee borer attacks rather than depend on naturally variable stress rates of trees.Another trunk chemical test will be conducted in Tennessee in 2022 in collaboration with IR-4. The insecticide trial conducted at Taylor's Nursery in Louisburg, NC, showed promise for newer products including Acelepryn @ 0.25 fl oz/inch DBH, drench; Mainspring @ 0.25 fl oz/inch DBH, drench; RTSA 7650 @ 2 ml/inch DBH, drench;which all had fewer attacks than the Untreated. Nematode Trials. Mortality of field caught flatheaded borer larvae two days after exposure to entomopathogenic nematodes.The Steinernema carpocapsae ("All" strain) showed caused 100% mortality in the borer larvae in laboratory tests. Planned field tests in summer 2022 will use this strain of nematode to tests if they can control flatheaded borers in nursery and orchard settings. Intelligent Sprayer. First year trials for trunk spray optimization included assessment of percent trunk coverage with variable rates of application and trunk detection methods. In addition to trunk spray coverage, assessment of spray volume and estimate of mortality of beneficial insects under different spray conditions was assessed using sentinel traps. The constant spray rate had a greater negative impact on beneficial insect mortality within the tree block compared with the variable rate application and water controls within the block. Application volume was four times as high in the constant spray application compared to the variable application setting. In 2022, newly planted maple plots will be assessed for application of insecticides to control flatheaded borers using products recommended by other insecticide trials. Objective 6 The economics team has completed the consumer surveys to investigate consumer knowledge regarding flatheaded borer damage and their willingness to pay for different products using different flatheaded borer treatment methods. The paired choice sets included two fresh fruits (blueberries and apples) or plant (blueberry shrub and maple tree) options. There were 1,597 completed responses to the survey and 1,117 completed responses to the choice sets (259: blueberry bush, 264: maple tree choice sets, 284: blueberry food choice sets, 310: apple food choice sets). Preliminary review of the survey showed that 60% of the respondents had seen damage to trees that resembled flatheaded borer damage and 32% had seen such damage in their own landscapes.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Parajuli, M. and Baysal-Gurel, F. 2022. Efficacy of fungicides and biofungicides for the control of Phytophthora root rot of red maple, 2021. Plant Disease Management Report No. 16:OT007. Online publication. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Parajuli, M. and Baysal-Gurel, F. 2022. Efficacy of fungicides and biofungicides for the control of Rhizoctonia root rot of red maple, 2021. Plant Disease Management Report No. 16:OT006. Online publication. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2022 Citation: Perkovich, C., J.B. Oliver, K.M. Addesso, J. Basham, and N. Youssef. 2022. Effects of trap shape, size, and color variations on capture rates of Chrysobothris (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and other related Buprestids. Florida Entomologist.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2022 Citation: Perkovich, C., J.B. Oliver, K.M. Addesso, J.P. Basham, D.C. Fare, and N.N. Youssef. 2022. Effects of color attributes on trap capture rates of Chrysobothris femorata (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and related species. Environmental Entomology.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2022 Citation: Rudolph, Erica and Nik Wiman. 20XX. Museum Specimen Data Helps Fill Knowledge Gaps for Two Economically Important Chrysobothris Species (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. In Review.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2022 Citation: Fessler, L., G. Pietsch, W. Wright, H. Zhu, X. Sun, and A. Fulcher. 20XX. Characterizing spray deposition from variable- and constant-rate spray technologies: Implications for future optimization to target trunk and foliar pests. Acta Horticulturae. In Review.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2022 Citation: Fessler, L., W. Wright, G. Pietsch, L. Schneider, H. Zhu, C. Fust, and A. Fulcher. 20XX. Characterizing spray deposition for control of trunk pests from an experimental airblast sprayer with 5-port nozzle bodies. Acta Horticulturae. In Review.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Morrison, A., A. Dismukes, J.B. Oliver, K.M. Addesso. 2022. The Tupelo Longhorned Borer Beetle Makes Its Debut in Tennessee Nurseries and Landscapes. TN Greentimes. 23(2): 8-13.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: www.stopfhb.com
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Picard, C., F. Grousset, A. Korycinska, C. Gent, D. Jan Van der Gaag, J. Oliver, N. Bjorklund, N. Garcia, and S. Hannunen. 2021. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization Pest Risk Analysis for Chrysobothris femorata and Chrysobothris mali. Sept. 2021. Available: https://www.eppo.int/ACTIVITIES/plant_quarantine/pra_activities.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2022 Citation: Fessler, L., W. Wright, G. Pietsch, L. Schneider, H. Zhu, C. Fust, and A. Fulcher. 2022. Characterizing spray deposition for control of trunk pests from an experimental airblast sprayer with 5-port nozzle bodies. Symposium on Sustainable Control of Pests and Diseases, International Horticultural Congress, Angers, France (in press).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2022 Citation: Fessler, L., G. Pietsch, W. Wright, H. Zhu, X. Sun, and A. Fulcher. 2022. Characterizing spray deposition from variable- and constant-rate spray technologies: Implications for future optimization to target trunk and foliar pests. Symposium on Mechanization, Precision Horticulture, and Robotics: Precision and Digital Horticulture in Field Environments, International Horticultural Congress, Angers, France (in press).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Addesso, K. and J. Oliver. 2022. Managing Insect Pests of Nursery and Landscape: Flatheaded Borer. Mobile, AL, 19 Jan 2022. (Invited Extension Educational Workshop Presentation).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Addesso, K. and J. Oliver. 2021. Pest management in landscape trees. Rutherford Co. Extension Service Fall Lawn and Landscape Training. 16 Nov. 2021. (Invited Workshop Presentation).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Rudolph, Erica and Nik Wiman. Contextualizing data from historic flatheaded borer specimens in contemporary research. 2022. Orchard Pest and Disease Management Conference, Portland, OR. 13 Jan.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Rudolph, Erica, L. LeBlanc, Nik Wiman. 2021. Museum specimens aid in the study of a cryptic flatheaded borer pest complex. Oral. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, CO. 1 Nov 2021
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Rudolph, Erica and Nik Wiman. 2022. Data from historic museum specimens improves understanding of flatheaded borer pests. Oral. Pacific Northwest Insect Management Conference. 11 Jan. (This presentation took first place in the student competition.)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Rudolph, Erica and Nik Wiman. 2022. Flatheaded borer phenology and reproductive habits. Pacific Branch Entomological Society of America annual meeting. Oral. Santa Rosa, CA. 12 April. (This presentation took second place in the student competition.)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Fulcher, A. 2021. Advances in irrigation and pesticide application technology for nursery crops. Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Seminar, Purdue University, December 2, 2021, West Lafayette, IN.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Addesso, K. M. 2021. Managing flatheaded borers in nursery production without insecticides. Oral. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, CO. 1 Nov 2021
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Perkovich, C. 2021. Attraction of insect pests to stressed-out trees. Oral. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, CO. 1 Nov 2021
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Perkovich, C. 2022. Using archived data to optimize monitoring strategies for Chrysobothris (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) pests in fruit, shade, and nut tree nurseries. Oral. Southeastern Branch Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, San Juan, PR. 26 Mar 2022.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Gautam, A and K. M. Addesso. 2022. Companion planting to protect newly planted landscape trees from borers. Poster. Southeastern Branch Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Southeastern Branch Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, San Juan, PR. 26 Mar 2022.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Gautam, A. 2022. Methods for improving trap capture of buprestid wood boring beetles. Oral. 1890 ARD Research Symposium, Atlanta, GA. 2 April 2022.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Addesso, K. 2022. A multi-state project to develop management tools for Chrysobothris flatheaded borers. Oral. 1890 ARD Research Symposium, Atlanta, GA. 2 April 2022.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2022 Citation: Morrison, A., J. Oliver, K. Addesso, A. Witcher, C. Perkovich, W. Klingeman, N. Youssef, and S. Mullican. 2022. Phenology of flatheaded borer developmental stages in red maple nursery crops. Poster. 44th Annual Tennessee State University-Wide Research Symposium. Nashville, TN, 28 March 2022.


Progress 09/01/20 to 08/31/21

Outputs
Target Audience:During the 2020-2021 period information on this project was disseminated to several constituencies. Research and extension colleagues were reached through poster presentations at the virtual Entomological Society Branch Meetings in spring 2021 and the annual American Society for Horticultural Science meeting. Extension talks, discussion groups and one-on-one grower collaborator meetings were conducted in Tennessee, Oregon, California, Georgia and Florida to reach growers in nursery, walnut, apple, and blueberry. Advisory Board members from commodity and industry groups were consulted on ongoing research.Undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students were recruited and included in experimental research development and data collection where permitted.Due to covid pandemic restrictions most contacts were made via zoom or other remote conferencing technologies since hands-on or in person activities were not permitted. Changes/Problems:Problems related to project completion for 2021fell into four categories. 1)The first challenge was covid restrictions on activities. All labs were able to initiate field work on time, however, covid related restrictions caused delays in staff and student recruitment. Underspending on accounts was largely due to delays in recruitment of staff and subsequent reductions in salary expenditures. Reduced labor requiredsome PIs to focus year 1 activities on fewer projects than planned. In person workshops, education opportunities and scientific programs were cancelled. PIs moved activities to online venues where possible. 2) Administrative delays in subcontract execution occurred. This did not delay the initiation of field tests but did delay some collaborators in purchasing supplies and hiring staff and students. 3) Supply chain issues (again due to covid) caused some last-minute change to trapping protocols when all PIs were unable to purchase materials from the same source. 4) Locating high density flatheaded borer populations was a challenge for testing trap treatments. Borer damage may be high in specific farms/regions, but the relative number of beetles causing that damage may be lower than present for effective trap treatment testing. Even when high levels of damage were observed, it was not always easy to convince growers to allow us to harvest their damaged plant material. This hampered shipments of borer larvae to USDA for entomopathogenic nematode assays. No major changes to project plans are expected at this time. We will continue to discuss how we can mitigate future covid restrictions and prepare for potential challenges in 2022 before they arise. We will push for extension presentations and workshops in future years to be recorded for dissemination on virtual platforms. We will be discussing new approaches to trap design and evaluation based on year 1 experiences of PIs. We will be harvesting borer larvae in fall for nematode assays since few larvae were able to be shipped in spring. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?All PIs and students were invited to attend a 2-day virtual training on buprestid borer identification. The trainings were recorded, and documents and videos are available for all new student and joining team members. Jason Oliver wasinvited to be Subject Expert and Reviewer:European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) Pest Risk Analysis for flatheaded appletree borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) introduction into Europe. Invitation to Serve: 21 Sept. 2020; Virtual Meetings 11-14 and 26-28 Jan. 2021. He provided information and training on the topic to regulatory personnel. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Data arestill be collected and analyzed from first year experiments. Basic information on flatheaded borers andresultsfrom previously initiated projects on borer management have been shared through poster presentations at the virtual Entomological Society Branch Meetings and the annual American Society for Horticultural Science meeting. Extension talks, discussion groups and one-on-one grower collaborator meetings were conducted in Tennessee, Oregon, California, Georgia and Florida to reach growers in nursery, walnut, apple, and blueberry. Advisory Board members from commodity and industry groups were consulted on ongoing research. Due to covid pandemic restrictions most contacts were made via zoom or other remote conferencing technologies. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?As of this reporting date, data from year one field trials is still being collected. Data will continue to be collected through fall and analyzed to inform 2022 field work. All PIs meet monthly and objective teams are scheduling fall/winter working groups to develop protocols for 2022. Tentative plans for each objectivefollow: Objective 1. Genome sequencing of identified specimens and identification of key sequences for differentiating species will be conducted. Preliminary work on techniquesfor sibling analysis.Preliminary cuticular hydrocarbon analysis will be completed. Borer extension materials for identification will be completed. Objective 2. Coordinated phenology studies will be conducted based on year 1 data collected across regional partners. Borer field infestations will be mapped and specimens sent to UT for sibling analysis. Borersurveywill be completed in Texas. Objective 3. Results from the multi-state test and independenttrapping test results will inform future multi-state activities.Volatile analysis of stressed and susceptible trees will continue for trap lure development. Identification of borer-specific compounds will be analyzed for additional short or long-range attractants. Other visual cues such as borer coloration,NIR or UV spectra will be assessed. Objective 4. New trials will be initiated assessing stressors which induced borer attacks in 2021. Soilborne pathogen-borer interactions trials will begin. Cover crop and landscape companion planting trials will begin. Trials from 2021 will be repeated for publication. Objective 5.Insecticide trials will be repeated. Results from timing of application study will inform future trials. EPN bioassays will be continue. As efficacy reports are received for the 2021 field season, Palmer and team will include outcomes in the public IR-4 database. Objective 6.Surveys will be disseminated to growers and consumers and data analyzed.For growers the survey results will identify barriers to adoption of various FB management options and identify perceived grower willingness to adopt (WTA) the FB management options. For consumer input, the survey willascertain consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for key crops under different FB management adoptions, and given this price and cost information.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1.Develop molecular diagnostic resources to enable differentiation of key Chrysobothris species. TSU,UT, UC, OR State. Borer species have been preserved in molecular grade ethanol and transferred to UT collaborators for molecular analysis. TSU. Elytra from borers havebeen extracted and analyzed for hydrocarbon profiles to determine if species can be separated by simple chemistry analysis. An extension product for economically important borer identification is being created with high resolution photographs Objective 2. Life history traits of key Chrysobothris species. Clemson, OR State, TSU, UFL, UGA, UT. Degree-day models for thecapture of adults in the unbaited and baited purple traps will be developed based on temperature data collected from the on-site data loggers and off-site weather stations. The data can also be used to calculate the difference between on-site and off-site recorded weather, and to subsequently develop a method of correlating degree-day models developed from on-site and off-site data. OR State. Late-planted hazelnut trees were exposed to borers each week by removing a screen protector from the trunk allowing borer attack. These trees will be evaluated in fall for damage. TSU. Borers have been dissected from infested field material to track development in the field. Larvae have been preserved in molecular grade ethanol for species and sibling analysis. Locations in fieldwere mapped byGPSfor possible future spatial analysis. Adults from trapping tests will be dissected for egg content. Objective 3. Develop reliable adult trapping methods for population monitoring and management. Auburn, Clemson, OR State, Texas A&M, UC. TSU, UT, UFL. A multi-state test is being conducted by these institutions to test purple panel traps and lures in multiple localities. OR State. We are also using tree sections, girdling, and multi-colored prism traps for trapping. We have established an experiment to investigate how plant stresscorrelates to the production of aromatic compounds which may signal tree preference to borers. The field is being monitored for beetle attack and aromatic compound production. All trees are planted and all treatments are being applied. TSU and UT.Atrap test was conducted to study the efficacy oftrap models. A third test evaluated UV and NIR paint combination and a final test evaluated limonene as a trap attractant. Borers will be processed and identified this fall. Old trap capture data from the museum collection is currently being analyzed for publication and to inform future trap activities. UC. In 2021, traps were set out inside the orchard in addition to the multi-state traps at the field border, but few adults were captured. We will continue this study next season and begin earlier in the season. Objective 4. Identify production practices that reduce Chrysobothris attacks. NC State. NC State has planted two field tests in 2021. Two locations were chosen for their overall stress level obligations including poor soil, high heat and humidity, bright light, historic incidence of borer activity, and southerly locations in South Carolina. Test 1 planted at McMakin's Nursery in Lyman, SC will be investigating biological barriers to borer infestation by maintaining low branches below 4.5 ft. of trunk. In order to maintain lower branching, linersunder 36 in. in height were purchased. The second test was planted at King's Sunset Nursery in Liberity, SC. The objective is testing efficacy of various cultural practices used in plant propagation to produce liners whilepreventing borer infestation. OR State. An experiment has been established investigating how production practices will affect the growth of 4 different red maple varieties. All plants have been planted and areestablishing. Seven experimental treatments will be applied during the Spring of 2022 that will affect the growth and physiology of the trees, which we hypothesize will correspond to a difference in beetle preference. We are also evalauating relative frequency of FB attacks on different hazelnut varieties and sweet cherry. TSU. A landscape companion plant test was initiated as part of a citizen science project with Lipscomb Academy. Trees will be assessed for damage in fall 2021. A test of two barrier products was initiated in spring. Trees will be evaluated in fall. Trees in two plots were artificially stressed to evaluate how maple tree stress effects borer susceptibility. Plant physiological data was assessed 1 month after stress. Final attack data will be assessed in fall. A second stress test was initiated in order to induce borer attacks. Trees reps will be dissected weekly starting in September to assess borer development. Behavioral assays were conducted in Y-tubes to determine how borers respond to stressed and unstressed tree volatiles. Volatiles were analyzed. An irrigation stress test was conducted. A year-2 cover crop study was concluded. Greenhouse fungicide trials were conducted to select optimized products for field trials of maple soilborne pathogen-borer interactionsin 2022. UGA. Thirty urban landscape sites (mostly parking lots in businesses) were identified in Augusta and Atlantaand all the trees in the site were evaluated for flatheaded borer damage. We focused on documenting the risk factors influencing FAB attacks by quantifying the exit holes and canker damage. Abiotic factors (temperature), biotic factors (tree age, species, general health, etc.), and location-specific factors (impervious surface, direction) were recorded. Objective 5. Develop effective chemical and biological management strategies for Chrysobothris. NC State, Clemson, OR State, UC, UF and TSU. Insecticide trials are being conducted at sites by the following collaborators, including testing of systemic and organic ingredients. IR4. Palmer prepared a template for data submission so that efficacy reports and the underlying raw data can be included in the IR-4 public database and available for open search. TSU. A timing of insecticide trial was conducted to identify the best window for insecticide applications. Two species of Fusarium were isolated from infected larvae and identified through molecular and morphological analysis. Larvae were shipped to USDA for entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) assays. USDA-ARS-Byron. A USDA-APHIS permit was obtained to receive flatheaded borers from anywhere in the US and shipped to USDA-ARS, Byron, GA. A protocol was developed for screeningEPNs for pathogenicity and virulence against flatheaded borers. Flatheaded borers were sent to the USDA-Byron lab from the PI's lab in autoclaved sawdust. Cups with individual insects were inoculated with 1,000 infective juvenile nematodes. Heterorhabditis indica (HIHOM strain), Steinernema carpocapsae (All strain), S. feltiae (SN strain), and H. bacteriophora (VS strain). All insects treated with nematodes were dead by 3 days post-inoculation. Future testing will look at lower rates. UT. Experimental test plots of red maples have been established and preliminary spray treatments have been initiatedusing a modified application technique and trials to evaluate spray coverage onto tree trunks using intelligent spray technology. Objective 6. Address the economics of Chrysobothris management from producer and consumer perspectives. OR State, UGA and UT. Objective 6 goals are being implemented through development of online surveys and a Qualtrics survey (in preparation) that together, will assess consumer willingness-to-pay and grower-perceived barriers to adoption and benefits from methods adapted to managing flatheaded borers. Consumer and producer surveys have been developed and are being submitted for IRB review for release in winter 2021/22. Started the initial process to develop the costs to establish and produce Hazelnuts in Oregon for development of Enterprise budgets and associated Extension materials and trainings for hazelnut, blueberry and walnuts on the West Coast.

Publications

  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: Extension Publication. Chong, J. H. 2021. A new USDA gramt on flatheaded borer will benefit nurseries in the Carolinas. South Carolina Green Industry Association Newsletter, May 2021.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: Rudolph, E and NG Wiman. 2021. Historic specimens of two re-emerging western flatheaded borer pests provide a foundation for�future research. (manuscript in preparation )
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Keyes, Tatum, HA Andrews, E Rudolph, A Mugica, N Wiman. 2020. Biology and morphometrics of the Pacific flatheaded borer. 80th Annual Pacific Northwest Insect Management Conference. Portland, OR. 4 Jan. (Virtual Meeting)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: Addesso, Karla. Flatheaded borer ecology and management in ornamental trees. Science Friday, Broward College, February 19, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Gonzalez A*, Dawadi S*, Oliver JB. and Addesso KM. Development of a cover crop system for management of flatheaded borers in red maple production. Tennessee Entomological Society Annual Meeting, Virtual. October 9 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Gonzalez A*, Dawadi S*, Oliver JB and Addesso KM. 2020. Development of a cover crop system for management of flatheaded borers in red maple production. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Virtual, November 11-25 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: Murillo, Axel, Jason Oliver, Paul O'Neal, Nadeer Youssef and Karla Addesso. Management of Flatheaded Appletree Borers Using Cover Crops in Woody Ornamental Production Systems. MS Student Oral Competition. Southeastern Branch of Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Virtual. March 29-31, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: Murillo, Axel, Jason Oliver, Paul O'Neal, Nadeer Youssef and Karla Addesso. Development of a Cover Crop System for Management of Flatheaded Borers in Red Maple Production. Oral Competition. TSU Research Symposium. March 22-26, 2021
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: Addesso, K. et al. Flatheaded borer management in specialty tree crops, SCRI Project. Poster. Southeastern Branch of Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Virtual. March 29-31, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: Anthony Witcher et al. Improving Flatheaded Borer Management Practices for Specialty Tree Crops  A Multidisciplinary Approach. American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Meeting. Denver, CO, August 5-9, 2021.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: Wiman, N., Addesso, K. et al. Flatheaded borer management in specialty tree crops, SCRI Project. Poster. Pacific Branch of Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Virtual. April 5-7, 2021.
  • Type: Other Status: Under Review Year Published: 2021 Citation: K.M. Addesso, A. Gonzalez, J. Oliver, A. Witcher. Flatheaded borer management in nurseries with winter cover crops. TSU Extension Factsheet.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Klingeman, Bill, Karla Addesso (PD), Jason Oliver (Co-PD), Fulya Baysal-Gurel, Amy Fulcher, Kim Jensen, Kevin Moulton, Bode Olukolu, Alicia Rihn, and Anthony Witcher. 2021. A Team of Tennessee Research and Extension Faculty Gets Ready to Begin their USDA Specialty Crop Research Initiative Grant on Flatheaded Borer Management in Specialty Tree Crops. Tennessee Greentimes. 22(1):10-12,14,16.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: Axel Gonzalez, Jason Oliver, Anthony Witcher, Karla Addesso. Flatheaded borer management with winter cover crops. (in preparation)
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2021 Citation: A. Gonzalez. COVER CROPS IN FIELD-GROWN NURSERIES: IMPACTS ON TREE GROWTH, PEST, AND BENEFICIAL ARTHROPODS. Masters Thesis. Tennessee State University. 162 p.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: EPPO Training. Oliver, J., K. Addesso, D. Fare, F. Baysal-Gurel, A. Witcher, N. Youssef, J. Basham, P. O'Neal, B. Moore, S. Dawadi, and D. Murillo. 2021. Chrysobothris femorata and other species in the United States: Biology, pest situation, and knowledge gaps. Invited Presentation for the Expert Working Group of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization to Facilitate Pest Risk Assessment for Introduction of C. femorata and C. mali into Europe. 11 Jan. 2021. (Virtual Oral Talk)