Source: NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV submitted to
IMPROVING DROUGHT TOLERANCE AND SUSTAINABILITY OF TURFGRASSES USED IN SOUTHERN LANDSCAPES THROUGH THE INTEGRATION OF BREEDING, GENETICS, PHYSIOLOGY, ECONOMICS, AND OUTREACH
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1020222
Grant No.
2019-51181-30472
Project No.
NC09878
Proposal No.
2019-03141
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
SCRI
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2019
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2023
Grant Year
2019
Project Director
Milla-Lewis, S.
Recipient Organization
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV
(N/A)
RALEIGH,NC 27695
Performing Department
Crop and Soil Sciences
Non Technical Summary
The implementation of sustainable landscapes should be a goal in all regions of the country; however, severe droughts and limited water in the southern and western U.S. are dictating changesto the use of specific plant materials and irrigation in landscapes. There is a critical need for turfgrasses that provide functional surfaces tolerant to drought, reduced irrigation, and irrigationwith reclaimed water. Failure to address these challenges will result in loss of turfgrass areas, along with their economic, environmental and social benefits. This transdisciplinary group from sixuniversities was formed in 2010 to address these problems by developing turfgrasses with reduced irrigation requirements. To date, our group has released six improved cultivars for three of the mosteconomically important turfgrass species grown in these regions. Significant opportunities remain to advance drought and salinity tolerant turfgrasses with innovations in genomics that leverage the successful economic impacts of our previous work with evolving industry needs and societal preferences. The levels of improvement of our released cultivars are promising and substantiate the need for continued quantification of their reduced water use. Implementing education and outreach efforts to increase their adoption will maximize the economic and environmental impact of these grasses. Advancing our successful research relationship will increase the efficiency of cultivar development through use of new screening tools and technologies, and dissemination of information to stakeholders and end-users. Ultimately, these efforts will facilitate our long-term goal of reducing water consumption in landscapes through the continued development and increased utilization of drought tolerant turfgrasses.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
40%
Applied
50%
Developmental
10%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1111620303035%
2011620108135%
2031620102030%
Goals / Objectives
Research in plant breeding, genetics, genomics, and other methods to improve crop characteristics: Approximately 58% of the effort, including:Supply genotypes into a robust pipeline for multi-location evaluations in nurseries that differ in the type and intensity of abiotic and biotic stresses according to environmental conditions at each location to exploit genotype × environment (G × E) effects.Evaluate advanced lines under long-term drought conditions and conduct ancillary trials for shade and salinity tolerance, pest responses, and sod-tensile strength.Identify and validate quantitative trait loci associated with drought and salinity tolerance to implement marker-assisted selection.Identify candidate genes through an integrated analysis that combines gene expression with metabolic information.Generate high quality reference genomes for African bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass.New innovations and technology: Approximately 8% of effort, including:Evaluate emerging UAS technologies for their potential to facilitate high-throughput phenotyping to improve data collection on drought tolerance associated traits.Efforts to improve production efficiency, productivity, and profitability over the long term: Approximately 34% of effort, including:Quantify the water required to maintain acceptable quality in advanced lines generated from this program to develop water saving maintenance protocols for new cultivars.Conduct surveys to evaluate trade-offs between drought tolerance and aesthetics.Produce extension-outreach programs to help extension experts, stakeholders, and consumers understand the long-term impact of drought tolerant turf selection and conservation of water.
Project Methods
Objective 2a: Minimal water requirements will be determined for all entries through field dry-down studies during the growing season. During Year 1, we will establish three replicates of each entry into 1.5 m × 1.5 m field plots under well-watered conditions. During Years 2-4, automatic or permanent translucent rainout shelters will cover plots during the summer months. Over a 10-week period each summer, we will monitor plots three times per week and individually hand-water back to field capacity by applying 1" of irrigation only once when ≥50% canopy wilt is observed within a given plot. At the conclusion of the 10-week study, we will calculate total gallons of water required, as well as number of days until wilt for each entry.Objective 2b: The top 2-3 lines from each species identified from previous SCRI advanced trials, and commercial check cultivars, will be exposed to drought or non-stress conditions in controlled environment studies. Physiological mechanisms including: photosynthetic metabolism assessed by net CO2 exchange and/or photochemical efficiency. Accumulation of compatible solutes including non-structural carbohydrates, proline and protective proteins such as anti-oxidant enzymes will be measured using standard spectrophotometric techniques. Fraction of transpirable soil water will determine critical thresholds among genotypes that affect physiological parameters. At the conclusion, root characteristics will be measured to determine drought avoidance potential.Objective 2c: Each participating location will be equipped with a DJI Phantom 4 Pro V2 quadcopter (20MP true color CMOS sensor) and a DJI Matrice 200 quadcopter with SlantRange 3PX sensor. A dedicated person at each location will fly UAS missions on new SSPNs and restricted irrigation trials twice a month. Flights will be conducted to investigate specific interests such as drought stress, cold tolerance, and pest pressure. We will extract phenotypic information for each plot including NDVI from UAS-based multispectral images and VARI from UAS-based RGB images.Objective 3a: We will use carefully selected germplasm to breed improved lines of bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, seashore paspalum and zoysiagrass.Objective 3b: We will establish SSPNs using 5 × 5 cm plugs in plots ranging from 1 m2 to 1.5 m2 in a row-column design with two replications and conduct evaluations for four years. After establishment, plots will be managed with few inputs: reduced water, reduced fertility and minimum pesticides as determined by each location. Turf quality, density, color, and texture will be rated monthly during the growing season without drought stress. More frequent ratings of turf quality and estimates of percent green plot cover will be made when the plots are under drought stress. Subsequent recovery after rainfall or irrigation will be monitored likewise. Occurrences of biotic stresses will be rated as needed. Evaluation protocols will be followed per National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) guidelines.Objective 3c: Based on the results of the SSPN trials from the 2015 SCRI-CAP, each of the six breeding programs will advance 20 lines for further study in this new SCRI-CAP for a total of 120 lines. These lines will be evaluated for restricted irrigation, salinity tolerance, sod production, and shade tolerance/avoidance.Objective 4a:We will use various software packages (e.g. TASSEL5.0, UNEAK, UGbS-Flex) and custom perl scripts for analysis of the GBS data and SNP identification. The SNP data will be used to construct genetic maps using a modified version of MAPMAKER, JoinMap 4.0 or the R package Onemap. QTL analyses for drought and salinity will be conducted using R/QTL, MapQTL 6.0 and the R package MVQTLCIM. GWAS analysis will be conducted using TASSEL 5.0?Objective 4b: RNA-Seq will be performed as described in Chen et al. using Illumina sequencing platforms. Metabolomics will be performed using LC-MS/MS, and resulting spectra will be identified using the METLIN database in conjunction with authenticated standards. MetaboAnalyst software will be used for multivariate analysis of metabolomics data as well as integrated pathways using differences in gene expression from transcriptome data sets. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) will follow a previously developed system.Objective 4c: Genome sequencing libraries will be prepared utilizing kits from Pacific BioSciences. Reads will be assembled using the latest version of the CANU software and assemblies polished utilizing available Illumina short-read data through use of Bowtie and Pilon software. Transcriptome data sets for corresponding samples will be utilized from Objectives 4a and 4b and public data sets to perform annotation using the MAKER pipeline with AUGUSTUS and SNAP gene prediction models. Resulting annotations will be subjected to various quality-control methods to ensure accurate predictions, including BUSCO benchmarking. Trait and species ontologies will be identified and utilized with machine learning algorithms for text processing searches of journal articles to aggregate data sets and information related to all published knowledge on phenotype validation in turfgrass and grass species of interest. MCScan will be utilized to assess syntenic relationships among all (turf)grass species of interest.Objective 5a: Among urban consumers, water purveyors, and other decision makers, our objective is to increase awareness of new cultivars and research-based management strategies that reduce water inputs. Traditional education and outreach methodologies will help raise awareness; however, additional efforts focused on the affective domain will also call people to action. Standard extension activities like field days, bulletins, online training, and workshops will educate extension specialists and agents at the county-level. Further, we will utilize the following media channels to educate specific strata at different levels: Fifteen-minute educational segments on RFD-TV, social media campaign, grade 6-12 unit plans, a data visualization website, among others.Objective 5b: To determine stakeholder preferences in turfgrass attributes, we will design conjoint choice experiments and conduct a web-based online survey with homeowners from southern states. Choice experiments will ask individuals to select their preferences from hypothetical alternative turfgrasses with a set of attributes that may vary by quality or quantity. The responses will determine consumer preferences and their willingness to pay for value-added turfgrasses using the multinomial logistic model and the random parameter logistic model. The online survey will also include socio-demographic questions to examine whether valuation of turfgrass differs by user groups' socio-demographic characteristics. Our econometric model will include interaction terms between attributes to analyze possible substitution and complementary relationships.Objective 5c: Models to predict turfgrass area will be developed using NAIP 1 m resolution aerial imagery in addition to vegetation classification tools in eCognition, ArcGIS, and the Descartes Platform. Multi-temporal imagery will be used to determine land cover underneath tree canopies and trees will be identified when they are in full canopy. Spectral information such as near infrared imagery will be used to differentiate turfgrass from bare or paved surfaces when trees have no leaves. Turfgrass under tree canopies and within three meters of them will be labeled as shaded. Reports will provide 1 m raster grids of the select cities, with further classification of the turfgrass as residential, commercial or parkland using available city zoning data.

Progress 09/01/20 to 08/31/21

Outputs
Target Audience:Audiences communicated with include: municipal administrators, water management district personnel, sod producers, lawn maintenance professionals, landscape architects, golf course superintendents, sports turf managers, turfgrass scientists, county agents, master gardeners and home owners. Changes/Problems: TAMU: 1) Covid 19 university shutdown at TAMU led to delays in progress towards year 1 project goals, but things are beginning to catch back up, and we should be in decent shape to meet our assigned objectives after this season. 2) A severe hailstorm damaged the turf greenhouses at TAMU, and are finally being repaired. This has delayed initiation of drought mechanisms research, but we should be able to catch up by late fall 2021. OSU: As all plants of the SSPN seashore paspalum and St. Augustinegrass nurseries were completely winterkilled, data collection in the two nurseries has not been continued since the spring of 2021. UGA: 1) Several delays have occurred (largely due to the pandemic), these have included field trials started later in the year than originally planed (due to materials that had late planting dates in the previous year needing to finish establishing in field plots), as well as delays in hiring graduate students to work on specific objectives (i.e. candidate gene identification). While there have been some delays in the completion of experiments, we still believe we can accomplish the proposed objectives. 2) All crosses between PI 299042 and HI10 failed, indicating that a crossability barrier exists between these two lines. We are now attempting to generate crosses between other parental lines that vary in leaf structure, including papilla size and salt tolerance. 3) Identifying timelines for steering committees' meetings in the spring will pose challenges as turfgrass professionals face heavy time constraints in the spring of each year. It is likely that with COVID-19 limiting travel and time constraints that these committee meetings will continue to be held virtually. UF: Drought and salinity trials were initiated later than planned due to slower establishment of zoysiagrass and pest infestation. NCSU: Several delays occurred due to the pandemic. A few field trials started later in the year than originally planned. However, we still believe we can accomplish the proposed objectives USDA: Due to conronavirus affecting labs, scaffolding to generate pseudomolecules had to be changed from completion with BioNano technology to scaffolding with linkage maps for St. Augustinegrass. Savings from this effort will allow for sequencing a second St. Augustinegrass which is included in the disease resistance study. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? TAMU: Training and professional development of Baoxin Chang (post-doctoral researcher), Reagan Hejl (PhD student/techician), Jose Diaz (MS Student) in physiology studies, Haomin Lyu and Zixiao Zhao (post-doctoral researchers) in genomics and plant molecular biology, Tianyi Wang and Meghyn Meeks (post-doctoral researcher and scientists) in turfgrass breeding and high-throughput phenotyping. OSU: 1) Two graduate students from Wu lab have been trained to work in breeding and genomics research. Shuhao Yu graduated in December, 2020. Ryan Earp helped on data collection. Two MS graduate students from Fontanier lab (Alyssa Counce and Anmol Kajla) have been trained on work related to shade physiology, with both graduated August 2021. Two MS graduate students from Moss lab (Charanpreet Kaur and Sehijpreet Kaur) have been trained to work related to drought performance cultivar evaluation. Charanpreet Kaur graduated in August 2021. Sehijpreet Kaur helped in data collection. Two Ph.D. students from Chung's research team (Hyojae Jung and Joohun Han) have been trained for estimating economic effect of new turfgrass development and factors affecting the effect. 2) Colten Martin and Kellen King worked on this project. Three undergraduate research interns (Ashton Franks, Abigail Hobbs, Peyton Baggs) contributed to shade and sod field trials. Ms. Baily Lockhart, Ms. Brooklyn Evans, Ms. Gracie Hladik and Ms. Kailyn Twyman worked on the controlled environment and field trials. 3) Dr. Lakshmy Gopinath (post-doc) worked on data collection from the controlled environment physiology and field trials. UCR: The project has provided training in conducting field studies for our graduate student and information about advantages and possibilities of using warm-season turfgrass species in Southern California for landscapers, other professionals and general audience through a webinar at the Landscape Expo Academy in January 2021. UGA: Provided training and professional development for 3 graduate students (Qianqian Fan, Ravneet Kaur, Krishna Katuwal) in establishment of plants for both field and pots studies, experimental design, data collection, and analysis of data. One graduate student (Katherine Catching) in experimental design and field layout, organization of plant materials, field maintenance, data collection, and greenhouse propagation. Program technical staff and student workers also received similar training. One technical staff received training on image capture using a UAV. One PhD student, Shreena Pradhan, and one post-doc, John Spiekerman, in genomic projects. Barbara Worley (graduate student) and Edy Copeland (Undergraduate student)- Receiving training on Focus Group research methods, qualitative research methods, qualitative sampling, symposium presentation, conference presentation, research article written.- Received training on Focus Group research methods, qualitative research methods, qualitative sampling, poster creation, symposium presentation, conference presentation. Dr. Nick Fuhrman - Consultation with Dr. Taylor Ruth (author) of seminal article used as theoretical framework for this study. NCSU: Postdoc Beatriz Tome Gouveia was hired in breeding program to analyze field and research data. MS student Greta Rockstad was trained to working on developing mapping population and high-throughput phenotypic tools. Rotation Ph.D student Nico Lara was trained to collect morphological data from field trials. MS Student Cory Ketchum on water use and drought tolerance data collection training. Ph.D student Ashley Schoonmaker was trained to generate high-quality reference genome assemblies, perform linkage mapping and proper experimental design. In addition, multiple graduate students and research technicians were trained in the safe and proper use of UAV technology, best practices and proper workflows to operate and collect data using drone technology, process imagery in photogrammetry software, use GIS and image classification to summarize results, use programming languages such as R and python to view and process imagery. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Presentations C. Segars. Offered at least 37 outreach presentations involving cultivar performance and variety selection. C. Segars. Offered three county agent trainings and 10 master gardener presentations. B. Wherley. 2021. Technologies & Tools for Improving Lawn Irrigation Management. Texas Nursery and Landscape Association Water & Pest Workshop. Virtual. May 14. Invited. B. Wherley. 2020. Deficit Irrigation as a Strategy for Golf Course Water Conservation. West Texas GCSA/ TCEQ Irrigators Education Session. October 28. Invited. B. Wherley. 2020. Turfgrass Research at Texas A&M that Benefits the Golf Course Superintendent. West Texas GCSA/ TCEQ Irrigators Education Session. October 27. Invited. B. Wherley. 2020. Texas A&M Turfgrass Research Update for Sports Field Managers. Texas Turfgrass Association Summer Meeting. July 21. Invited. Yu, Q. 2020. Genome evolution in zoysiagrass. Oct. 28, 2020, Department of Plant Pathology & Microbiology Seminar Series, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA B. Bowling. Offered at least 24 outreach presentation involving cultivar performance and variety selection. B. Bowling. Offered 5 Master Gardener presentations and 6 presentations specifically for green industry professionals including landscape architects, turfgrass producers and other land care operators. Kajla, A., C. Fontanier, L. Zhang, Y.Q. Wu, A. Chandra, B. Schwartz, and S. Milla-Lewis. 2020. Effect of low light conditions on photosynthetic parameters of selected warm-season turfgrasses. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Meetings. Kaur, C, J. Moss, Y. Wu, and D. Martin. 2020. Differences in rooting characteristics of bermudagrass cultivars and OSU experimental genotypes. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Meetings. Jung, H., and C. Chung. 2021. Estimating Consumers' Preference on Improved Turfgrass Attributes Considering Adverse Effects on Aesthetic Values. AAEA Annual Conference, Austin, TX, August 1-3. Han, J., C. Chung, and Wu. 2021. Effects of Social Networking on the Adoption of New Turfgrass Varieties. AAEA Annual Conference, Austin, TX, August 1-3. Zhang, J., Austin, R., Wang, T., Maleski, J., Milla-Lewis, S.R., Chandra, A., Moss, J.Q., Wu, Y., Kenworthy, K., Raymer, P., and B.M. Schwartz. Developing UAS Based High-throughput Phenotyping Tools in Turfgrass Variety Trials. SCRI fall meeting. Virtual. December 2020. Zhang, J., J. Maleski, and B. Schwartz. 2021. Precision Agriculture and Object Recognition in Turfgrass. UGA Office of Government Relations Congressional Staff Tour. August 19th. Athens, GA. Schwartz, B. 2021. Drought Tolerant Turfgrasses Can Reduce Urban Water Use in Georgia. Greater Atlanta Home Builders Association Stop Watering and Start Saving: TifTuf Bermudagrass. Georgia Association of Water Professionals - NG Turf Meeting. August 19th. Schwartz, B. 2021. Stop Watering and Start Saving: TifTuf Bermudagrass. Georgia Association of Water Professionals Annual Conference - Georgia Water Wise Council. July 13th. Schwartz, B. 2021. Are Newly Developed Drought and Shade Tolerant Grasses Really What Golf Course Superintendents Need To Be Successful In The Future? GGCSA Bentgrass/Bermudagrass Forum. March 22nd. Schwartz, B. 2021. TifTuf Bermudagrass, a Good Steward of Georgia's Water Resources. Georgia Water Wise Council Meeting. February 15th. Using Key-Player and Decision-Making Models to Increase Diffusion of Innovations in Turf. Round Table Session Southern Region American Association for Agricultural Education Conference. Virtual Annual Grant Team Update: Using KeyPlayers and Decision-Making Models to Increase Diffusion of Innovations in Turf. December, 2020 SCRI Grant Annual Meeting Extension communications on the importance of selecting water saving turfgrasses at local agent trainings and industry updates (+10 meetings); Radio interview [WSB 95.5 FM] Maleski, J., Zhang, J., and B.M. Schwartz. Turf Survey Update. SCRI fall meeting. Virtual. December 2020. Cory Ketchum - Water use in turfgrasses. The Mid-Atlantic Turfgrass Expo Jan 19, 2021. Grady Miller - Blades of Green, Shades of Ecology. The Mid-Atlantic Turfgrass Expo Jan 19, 2021. Grady Miller - Drought tolerant turfgrasses for NC. Extension Agent and Master Gardener Training. Raleigh, NC. May 6, 2021. Grady Miller - Drought tolerant turfgrasses for NC. Master Gardener Training. Charlotte, NC. March 5, 2021. Grady Miller - Turfgrasses for NC. Landscape Conference. Rocky Mount, NC. Feb 14, 2021. Gouveia, B., Raymer, P.L., Schwartz, B.M., Kenworthy, K.E., Fontanier, C., Porto, A.C., Rios, E.F., Unruh, J.B., and Milla-Lewis, S.R. 2020. Performance and Genotype-By-Environment Interaction in Seashore Paspalum (Paspalumvaginatum) Evaluated Under Shade Conditions. Proc. Amer. Soc. Agron. Intl. Ann. Mtg., Phoenix, AZ. Nov 8-11. Porto, A.C., Paudel, D., Gouveia, B.T., Kenworthy, K.E., Kruse, J.K., Munoz, P.R., Schwartz, B.M., Novaes, E., Milla-Lewis, S.R.,andRios, E.F. 2020 Multi-Environment Evaluation of St. Augustinegrass Genotypes Under Shade. Proc. Amer. Soc. Agron. Intl. Ann. Mtg., Phoenix, AZ. Nov 8-11. Rockstad, G.B., Austin, R., Yu, X., Carbajal, E.M., Dunne, J.C., Miller, G.L., Jespersen, D.,and Milla-Lewis, S.R. 2020. Evaluation of UAV-Based Imagery for Drought Stress Traits in St. Augustinegrass. Proc. Amer. Soc. Agron. Intl. Ann. Mtg., Phoenix, AZ. Nov 8-11. Field days TAMU field day in Dallas Texas. October 7, 2020, Cancelled due to COVID-19. OSU: Field tour with Jon Brown of Bethel Farms on Sept 29, 2020. OSU: Field tour with Paul Jacobs of US Golf Association on April 21, 2021. OSU: Field tour with US Golf Association visitors on July 6, 2021. OSU: Field tour with Chad Adcock of Sod Production Services on August 2, 2021. Schwartz, B.M. 2021. An Overview of the Turfgrass Breeding Program at the University of Georgia - Tifton Campus. Buy Sod Field Tour. July 1st. Tifton, GA Schwartz, B.M. 2021. An Overview of the Turfgrass Breeding Program at the University of Georgia - Tifton Campus. Bethel Farms Turf Tour. April 16th. Tifton, GA Fox, J. and B.M. Schwartz. 2021. An Overview of the Turfgrass Breeding Program at the University of Georgia - Tifton Campus. Woerner Turf Tour. January 7th. Tifton, GA NCSU 2021 Turfgrass Field day. August 11, 2021. Social media The TAMU Extension Team has delivered Extension/outreach education through multiple platforms: AggieTurf Website: https://aggieturf.tamu.edu - which also houses all Extension publications for the AggieTurf program. AggieTurf Facebook Page: 2,633 Followers AggieTurf Twitter: 1,877 Followers Segars Twitter: 682 Followers Bowling Twitter: 1,082 Followers Constant Contact Email Listserv (~1600 subscribers) Twitter: Yanqi Wu tweeted multiple times on the project field operations and Tahoma 31 bermudagrass released from the previous SCRI project. The information has been disseminated to more than 1600 professionals in the turf industry. Other Dennis Martin conducted 10 golf course, 5 municipal park, 5 professional landscape installer, and 23 residential consultations alerting end users concerning the availability and benefits of using either Tahoma 31 or TifTuf bermudagrass (products of this multi-state grant) at time of next bermudagrass install. Winterkill was serious in the region and many end-users were considering options for regressing of damaged sites in spring of 2021. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Objective 1: Planning the fall annual meeting during ASA/CSSA meeting at Salt Lake City at Nov. 2021. Planning summer meeting and monthly teleconferences. Objective 2: OSU: The drought field and physiological trials will be evaluated in accordance with the project proposal and overall team discussions. Publication of drought physiology studies are expected in 2022. UGA: 2A - Next year the field trial to determine minimum water requirements will continue during the 2022 growing season, for a second repeated year of data collection. 2B - Analysis of data from initial controlled environment well be performed and a repeat of the experiment will be performed in necessary. 2C - Continue collecting UAS images throughout the growing season, winter dormancy and spring green-up in all locations. Continue provide technique support for the team. Disseminate the knowledge obtained from the process to the public. NCSU: 2A- Continue water use evaluation in field lysimeters. 2C- Next year we will conduct flights every two to three weeks over breeding plots.We will collect additional on-ground imagery for calibration and validation of UAV data and processing methods. We will continue to collect soil moisture and volumetric water content to help characterize seasonal changes in water availability at the site. We will develop additional tools and code to automate the processing and analysis of UAV-imagery for use in turf grass breeding programs. We will refine workflows and identify bottlenecks in UAV-based turf phenotyping. We will build relationships with collaborating universities to help guide analysis and standardize results. Continue to disseminate results are share research with stakeholders and other interested parties. Objective 3: TAMU: Initiate drought stress on the 2021 SSPNs and advanced trial for all four warm-season turfgrass species; continue data collection on the SSPN, advanced and shade trials. OSU: The shade field trials will be evaluated in accordance with the project proposal and overall team discussions. Publication of shade physiology studies are expected in 2022. UGA: Actual salt screens of St. Augustinegrass and bermudagrass are planned for fall and winter of 2021. Salt tolerance screenings for seashore paspalum and zoysiagrass are planned for 2022. UF: 1) We will continue to collect data from all trials with a goal of allowing for drought stress to occur in all SSPN and Approach C trials. 2) New populations of progeny from the breeding program will be established. 3) A graduate student will begin conducting research on management of CitraBlue St. Augustinegrass. This cultivar was developed using SCRI funding. However, additional information is needed for management. UCR: Evaluation of lines in single space plant nurseries and advanced trials will continue. Salinity field trial will be continued until end of October 2021 after that irrigation with potable water will be restored for recovery over the winter. Irrigation with saline water will be initiated again in early summer 2022. If weather conditions allow, water will be restricted once more this season. After recovery over the winter, drought will be initiated again in early summer of 2022. The UCR Turfgrass & Landscape Research Field Day will take place on September 16, 2021. The salinity trial will be presented during this event to golf course superintendents and other turf professionals. The Field Day report presenting results from the first year of this study will be published on the UCR Turfgrass website. NCSU: Sod production trials have been initiated, will be monitored through 2021 growing season and for green-up in 2022 before evaluating sod tensile strength in 2022. We will continue to collect data on SSPN nurseries, advanced trials and the St. Augustine shade trial. Objective 4: UGA: 4A - We will complete the differential expression analysis from the generated RNASeq data, and focus on validating the expression of sodium and potassium transporters. Efforts to generate and validate additional seashore paspalum crosses between parents that differ in their salt response will also continue. 4B - Tissue harvested from current experiments will be used for metabolite and RNASeq analysis, to identify potential candidate genes and key pathways responsible for drought tolerance in improved lines. NCSU: GBS will be conducted to genotype new mapping population and a linkage map will be produced. Field and greenhouse data will be taken on drought traits. Paper of drought RNA-Seq will be completed. USDA: 1) We will finalize both St. Augustinegrass reference genomes and perform annotation. 2) We will sequence, assemble and annotate African Bermudagrass. We will collect RNAseq data for annotation and collect prior data from collaborators. 3) We will sequence a set of parental lines used for generating triploids from African Bermudagrass. 4) Hire a postdoc on the project to work on integration of genomics-based resources across species. Objective 5: NCSU: Continue working with team on Socio-economic analysis via surveys. TAMU: 1) Plans to conduct more outreach presentations on newly developed cultivars with best management practices for the Texas landscape. 2) Plans to create at least two factsheets on newly developed cultivars and best management practices for the Texas landscape. 3) Showcase SCRI plots and data at the 2021 Texas A&M Turfgrass Field Day OSU: 1) Consultations will continue with prospective sod producers concerning availability of production licenses of new SCRI warm-season grass products. 2) Consultations will continue with sports field managers, golf course superintendents, turf managers and consumers concerning availability and fit of the newly commercialized warm-season turfgrasses with improved drought resistance. 3) Continuous effort will be made to investigate homeowner's preferences for new turfgrass attributes particularly focusing on tradeoffs between low-input and aesthetic attributes; we will also develop econometric procedures to estimate the economic effect of social networking among consumers on new variety adoption; special effort will be made to consider climate change for our research. UGA: 5A - Testing communication artifacts and communication channels with the Media and Turfgrass Professionals to identify communication channels and create media artifacts for different audiences: television spots, websites, social media, press releases, extension bulletins, etc. Produce a television segment on innovative tools resulting from this grant to air on Georgia Public Broadcasting and nationally through Rural Free Delivery (RFD) television. Utilize KeyPlayers that are identified to maximize the impact of educational media and trainings to increase impact on the turfgrass network and subsequent strata of the network. Utilize, test, and refine the Decision-Making Model in Agricultural and Natural Resources to create a more efficient and reusable model for turfgrass professionals to increase impact on the turfgrass network and subsequent strata of the network. Submit conference presentation to Association for Communication Excellence Conference focused on increasing impact of communication within the turfgrass network. 5C - Continue transfer learning with new labels to better generalize the model for different locations. Train on Leaf-Off imagery to better quantify area under canopy. Present work at Field Day and CSSA annual conference.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1 The CAP team was not able to hold an in-person summer meeting due to COVID-19 travel restrictions, but we -including our industry advisory panel- held a virtual meeting in December 2020, and several sub-objective monthly teleconferences during the reporting period (09/01/2020 and 08/31/2021). Objective 2 At TAMU: 1) Data was collected in a 2,000 sq ft lysimetry field facility to develop crop coefficient values for the advanced experimental lines. 2) St. Augustine drought mechanism experiments were started late summer 2021. At OSU: 1) Established bermuda, zoysia, St. Augustine and s. paspalum field trials under a rainout shelter. 2) Evaluated the rooting characteristics of bermuda genotypes under controlled environmental conditions. 3) Initiated a greenhouse trial to study the root and shoot response of bermuda genotypes under drought stress. At UGA: 1) Data collection under rain-out shelters to assess minimum water use requirements was started. 2) An initial run to assess physiological mechanisms responsible for improved drought tolerance was performed in growth chambers. Measurements have included water use and photosynthetic traits, as well as antioxidant metabolism, accumulation of protective solutes, and rooting characteristics. 3) Analysis of UAS images collected at the Georgia, North Carolina, Texas, and Oklahoma is being conducted at the UGA Tifton campus. Visited Florida to help set up new equipment and prepare the field for phenotyping. At UF: Lysimeters were established in the greenhouse and installed in the field. Data was collected to determine the water use of selected lines. At NCSU: 1) Plant materials were established in lysimeters. A preliminary run of water use research to quantify reduced water requirements was conducted. 2) For the UAS sub-objective, breeding plots were setup with permanent ground control markers for use in the geometric rectification of the drone imagery. A RTK-GPS survey was performed to precisely locate the ground control markers. Standardized flight plans were developed, tested, and saved in flight control software. Monthly UAV flights were conducted to collect data on establishment and growth rate. Radiometric calibration panels were created and tested. Software code was developed to automate the delineation of breeding plots for use in geospatial analysis (GIS). Initial code was developed to calculate common vegetative indices from multispectral imagery. Objective 3 At all locations: 1) Development of new hybrids continued normally as part of the operations of each breeding program. 2) The group put together a plan for dates and traits to be evaluated on SSPNs and advanced trials for all species. Data collection was performed according to that plan using a combination of monthly drone images and visual scores beginning at green-up and continuing throughout the growing season. Drought stress was imposed at most locations and data on drought response was collected both visually at with UAS. 3) A shade trial (80% shade) to evaluate elite St. Augustine hybrids was planted in July 2020 at Dallas. Following an unusually cold winter, most of the entries were winter killed. Data is being collected on any surviving plots. 4) Sod trials at two locations were established for each species. Additionally, at OSU: Initiated greenhouse shade physiology and morphology studies including evaluation of light use efficiency of selected St. Augustine and Bermuda genotypes. At UGA, all entries were increased in the greenhouse to provide adequate plant materials for the greenhouse salt tolerance screening. Actual salt screens of St. Augustine and bermuda are planned for fall and winter of 2021. Salt tolerance screenings for s. paspalum and zoysia are planned for 2022. At UCR: Data on establishment and turfgrass quality are being collected starting Fall 2020. In 2021, the salinity and restricted irrigation field studies were initiated on all four species. Irrigation with saline water at electroconductivity (EC) level of 4.0 dSm-1 started on July 6th, 2021. Watering in the restricted irrigation trial was withheld on July 12, 2021. Data are being collected to evaluate changes in turfgrass quality under drought and salinity stress, and for recovery after restoring irrigation. Objective 4 At TAMU: 1) Developed an in vitro method for quantification of salt secretion and characterized candidate genes of sodium transporters in zoysia. 4) performed comparative genomics analysis between the zoysia genome and other major grass lineages, and identified major evolutionary events. At NCSU: 1) Constructed genotyping by sequencing library and conducted drought evaluations in the greenhouse for a new St. Augustine mapping population. 2) Performed differential gene expression analyses (RNA-Seq) in St. Augustine under drought stress. 3) Identified QTL of morphological traits associated with water usage in Augustine. At OSU: 2) QTL associated with winter survivability and drought resistance have been identified in African bermuda. At USDA: 1) St. Augustine cultivar Raleigh and PI 410353 were sequenced and assembled to chromosome scale. 2) An annotation pipeline for St. Augustine is in development. 3) A draft genome assembly has been produced for OKC 1163. 4) Additional long-read sequencing has been performed on hybrid bermudas. At UGA: 1) Generated of a new s. paspalum F2 mapping population. 2) Improvement of the s. paspalum genome assembly, version 3.1, has been publicly released on Phytozome (https://phytozome-next.jgi.doe.gov/info/Pvaginatum_v3_1). 3) Differential gene expression analyses are ongoing. 4) Metabolism: Plant materials for the target species (bermuda, s. paspalum, St. Augustine, and zoysia) have been established in pots, and initial experiments screening plant drought responses and tissue collection for further analysis have begun. Preliminary trials for selected species (s. paspalum and bermuda) were performed, and a protocol for metabolomic analysis has been tested. Objective 5 Extension specialists at TAMUS, UF, OSU, UGA and NC State gave presentations at field days, regional conferences, county agent trainings, master gardener programs, among other that in total reached hundreds of attendees. These presentations touched on drought tolerant cultivars newly developed by the SCRI project and how they best fit into the southern landscape. At OSU, preliminary discussions with landscape leaders concerning potential semi-permanent installation of demonstration plots of the new bermudaes and zoysiaes that have been developed by the project were conducted. The plans are expected to be finalized during 2022 and installations started at that time. Also at OSU, we conducted a consumer survey to estimate homeowners' preferences and tradeoff values between aesthetic quality attributes and low-input uses. At UGA, we collected turfgrass professionals' virtual networking data via social media focusing on their social networking, new variety adoption, and socio-demographic information. The data has been analyzed to estimate the impact of consumers' social networking on their new turfgrass adoption. A Media Professional Steering Committee and a Turfgrass Specialist Steering Committee are now operational. A steering committee focus group perceptions research study is underway, data collected, one article submitted. SCRI Turf project website established for education and communication of findings (https://site.caes.uga.edu/scriturf/). Social media channels created (Instagram, Facebook, Twitter). 2) Finished CNN inferencing for Atlanta, Orlando and Oklahoma City. Created labels for training the model for Raleigh.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: R. Hejl, B. Wherley, and C. Fontanier. 20XX. Long-Term Performance of Warm-Season Turfgrass Species Under Municipal Irrigation Frequency Restrictions. In Press HortScience
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: M. Chavarria, B. Wherley, R. Jessup, and A. Chandra. 2021. Physiological Responses to Salinity among Warm-Season Turfgrasses of Contrasting Salinity Tolerance. In Press Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/jac.12501
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: B. Chang, B. Wherley, J. Aitkenhead-Peterson, and J. West. 2020. Water chemistry and nitrogen source effect foliar uptake efficiency in Champion bermudagrass. In Press Journal of Plant Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2020.1783310
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: M. Chavarria, B. Wherley, R. Jessup, and A. Chandra. 2020. Leaf anatomical responses and chemical composition of warm-season turfgrasses to increasing salinity. Current Plant Biology 22: 100147 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpb.2020.100147
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Xu, Y., J. Zhang, J. Zhao, J. Song, Q. Yu. 2021. An improved virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system in zoysiagrass. In: RNA-based technologies for functional genomics in plants, edited by G. Tang, S. Teotia, X. Tang, D. Singh. Springer. Pp 155-168
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Gopinath, L., J.Q. Moss, and Y.Q. Wu. 2021. Evaluating the freeze tolerance of bermudagrass genotypes. Agrosystems, Geosciences, & Environment. DOI: 10.1002/agg2.20170
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Chhetri, M., C. Fontanier, J.Q. Moss, and Y.Q. Wu. 2021. Effect of combined shade and drought stress on bermudagrass turf. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal. 1-11. DOI:10.1002/its2.68.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Gopinath, L., J.Q. Moss, and Y.Q. Wu. 2021. Quantifying freeze tolerance of putting green type bermudagrasses. HortScience. 56:478-480. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI15606-20
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Yu, S.H., T.L. Fang, H.X. Dong, L.L. Yan, D.L. Martin, J.Q. Moss, C.H. Fontanier, and Y.Q. Wu. 2021. Genetic and QTL mapping in African bermudagrass. The Plant Genome. 14: e20073. DOI:10.1002/tpg2.20073
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Worley, B., Fuhrman, N., & Peake, J. (2021). A quantitative approach to identifying turfgrass key players. Advancements in Agricultural Development, 2(1), 83-95. https://doi.org/10.37433/aad.v2i1.85
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2021 Citation: Worley, B., Peake, J., & Fuhrman, N. (In Review). Perceptions of agricultural extension and communication professionals regarding current, preferred, and emerging communication channels: A focus group study. Journal of Applied Communications
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Gouveia, B. T., Rios, E. F., Nunes, J. A. R., Gezan, S. A., Munoz, P. R., Kenworthy, K. E., . . . Moss, J. Q. (2021). Multispecies genotype x environment interaction for turfgrass quality in five turfgrass breeding programs in the southeastern United States. Crop Science, doi:10.1002/csc2.20421
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Gouveia, B. T., Rios, E. F., Rodrigues Nunes, J. A., Gezan, S. A., Munoz, P. R., Kenworthy, K. E., . . . Moss, J. Q. (2020). Genotype-by-environment interaction for turfgrass quality in bermudagrass across the southeastern United States. Crop Science, 60(6), 3328-3343. doi:10.1002/csc2.20260
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Godwin, C., T. Fang, and Y.Q. Wu. 2021. Genetic identity and diversity among experimental selections and cultivars of vegetatively propagated turf bermudagrass as assessed with SSR Markers. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal. 1-10, DOI: 10.1002/its2.29
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Hildebrand, K. (Advisor: C. Chung). 2021. Does Change in Respondents Attention Matter in Estimating Willingness to Pay from Choice Experiments? Ph.D. Dissertation Paper, Department of Agricultural Economics, Oklahoma State University.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Spiekerman, J. J., & Devos, K. M. (2020). The Halophyte Seashore Paspalum Uses Adaxial Leaf Papillae for Sodium Sequestration. Plant Physiol, 184(4), 2107-2119. doi:10.1104/pp.20.00796


Progress 09/01/19 to 08/31/20

Outputs
Target Audience:Audiences communicated with include: municipal administrators, water management district personnel, sod producers, lawn maintenance professionals, landscape architects, golf course superintendents, sports turf managers, turfgrass scientists, county agents, master gardeners and home owners. Changes/Problems: TAMU: We were able to keep forward progress on the tasks of the project despite mandatory Covid-19 related shutdowns during spring/early summer 2019 at Texas A&M. A hiring freeze was also put into place by AgriLife Research, which put additional strains on our ability to staff the project. In March 2020, Dr. Bowling accepted a new position to serve as the Urban Water Extension Specialist at the Dallas Center. In this new role, she has started to establish new relationships with key water resource stakeholders in the state. She will maintain a foothold in water-efficient turfgrass management research and Extension. UF: Co-PI, Dr. John Erickson left the University of Florida. His projects were moved under the direction of Dr. Kevin Kenworthy. COVID-19 brought most face-to-face meetings and training events to a halt. OSU: COVID-19 caused delays in field operations in 2020. As a result, the SSPN nurseries were not fully grown in. It is expected that the nurseries will grow in by June, 2021. In the QTL mapping study at OSU, we changed to establish a field nursery from Goodwell, OK to Stillwater, OK due to the travel restrictions in summer 2020. Turfgrass Field Day was cancelled in 2020 due to COVID-19 issues. A replacement field day will be held in 2021 either virtually or in person to cover and feature the new varieties developed by the project. The 2020 Oklahoma Turfgrass Conference was altered in format and will not feature varietal information. This information will be provided in a virtual field day in 2021 as well as industry-specific webinars in 2021. On the socio-economics work, one of proposed objectives was to estimate potential economic impacts of improved turfgrasses from past and current SCRI projects on economies of southern states. Due to low adoption rate of improved turfgrasses so far (except sports fields), we decided to modify this objective. The new objective is to examine effects of social networking on turfgrass professionals' new variety adoption. For this study, we will collect turfgrass professionals' virtual networking data via social media focusing on their social networking, new variety adoption, and socio-demographic information. Although this analysis will focus on turfgrass professional's new variety adoption, this study will also shed some light on effects of homeowners' social networking on their adoption of new turfgrass varieties. UGA: Many extension events normally held in person have been canceled, delayed, or moved to online formats due to COVID-19. One such example is the turfgrass field day, which is an important outreach activity that is in part used to promote the use of new cultivars to reduce water inputs. These disruptions may have potentially limited the audience reached by traditional extension activities. Identifying timelines for steering committees' meetings in the spring will pose challenges as turfgrass professionals face heavy time constraints in the spring of each year. It is likely that with COVID-19 limiting travel and time constraints that these committee meetings will be held virtually. One the genomics sub-objective, while we are attempting further crosses, it is possible that a crossability barrier exists between PI 299042 and HI10. We will analyze additional accessions for variation in leaf structure, including papilla size and salt tolerance that can be used as parents in crosses. In addition, we will explore conducting comparative RNAseq on accessions that differ in traits of interest. NCSU: COVID-19 caused delays in field operations in 2020. As a result, the SSPN and advanced trials were not fully grown in by the end of the season. The Raleigh x XSA10098 mapping population was planted late and we were not able to do any phenotyping this year. Our field day could not be held is person and was switched to an online format that limited the number of presentations that could be provided. UCR: Due to the problems and delay with hiring Lab assistant, resulting from Covid-19, postdoctoral scholar (Marta Pudzianowska) took over most of the technical responsibilities (propagation and maintenance of plant material, planting and maintenance in the field) with help of other members of the team. USDA-ARS: Due to conronavirus affecting labs, scaffolding to generate pseudomolecules had to be changed from completion with BioNano technology to scaffolding with linkage maps for St. Augustinegrass. Savings from this effort will allow for sequencing a second St. Augustinegrass which is included in the disease resistance study. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? TAMU: Training and professional development of Reagan Hejl (PhD student), Jose Diaz (MS student) at College Station TX postdoc (Haomin Lyu) in modern genomics and plant molecular biology techniques, postdoc in turfgrass breeding and high-throughput phenotyping (Tianyi Wang) at Dallas TX. OSU: Two graduate students have been trained to work in breeding and genomics research. Shuhao Yu works on this project and has planned to graduate in December, 2020. Alex Rodriguez works on the assessment of SCRI nurseries. Two MS students (Anmol Kajla and Alyssa Counce) have been trained in relationship to the greenhouse shade physiology studies. One Ph.D. student is currently working on this project for his dissertation work on social-economic analysis. Two MS student was trained and worked towards objective 2 (Charanpreet Kaur on rainout shelter and physiology and Ryan Earp on phenotyping/drone/UAS work). Six undergraduate students: Ms. Carly Godwin worked on this project and graduated in December 2019. Mr. Colten Martin and Mr. Kellen King work on this project. Ms. Brooklyn Evan, Ms. Bailey Lockhart, Ms. Karli Fuss, and Ms. Claire Caldwell were all trained and worked on the field establishment and data collection towards objective 2. Post-docs researcher Lakshmy Gopinath, was hired and trained to work on all aspects of objective 2. UCR: The project has provided training in conducting field studies for our graduate student and information about advantages and possibilities of using warm-season turfgrass species for golf course superintendents and other professionals through virtual Field Day. UF: The project has provided training in conducting field studies for our graduate student and information about advantages and possibilities of using warm-season turfgrass species for golf course superintendents and other professionals through virtual Field Day. UGA: One graduate student has started in the Crop and Soil Science graduate program and has been training on experimental design, establishing plants for field trials and controlled environment trials, as well as techniques used in plant physiology. One graduate student received valuable training by assisting with experimental design and field layout, organization of plant materials and field plantings. Program technical staff and student workers also received similar training. Training of a MSc student, Thomas Gottilla (MSc student in Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics). Undergraduate student, and Graduate research assistant involved in KeyPlayer research and snowball sampling. Additionally, students were involved in the creation of posters, and symposium and conference presentations. NCSU: Postdoc Beatriz Tome Gouveia was hired to analyze breeding field and research data. MS student Greta Rockstad was trained to working on QTL mapping of drought tolerance and high-throughput phenotypic tools. Rotation Ph.D student Nico Lara was trained to collect morphological data from field trials. MS Student Cory Ketchum on water use and drought tolerance data collection training. Ph.D student Ashley Schoonmaker was trained to generate high-quality reference genome assemblies, perform linkage mapping and proper experimental design. In addition, multiple graduate students and research technicians were trained in the safe and proper use of UAV technology, best practices and proper workflows to operate and collect data using drone technology, process imagery in photogrammetry software, use GIS and image classification to summarize results, use programming languages such as R and python to view and process imagery. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Presentations Yu, Q. 2019. Turfgrass genomics: From genomics resources to molecular breeding. Department of Genetics and Biochemistry Fall Semester Seminar Series, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, Nov. 1. Segars, C., and B. Bowling. 2020. Delivered a total of approximately 192 Extension presentations both live and using virtual platforms (Zoom, Teams, GoToWebinar). Primary audiences include Texas Turfgrass Professionals, Texas Master Gardeners, and homeowners. Segars C., and B. Bowling. 2020. Offered approximately 8 training opportunities for AgriLife Extension personnel in an effort to further disseminate project findings. B. Bowling. 2020. Introduced the warm-season SCRI to nearly 200 representatives of municipalities and water districts across Texas and gave a presentation on appropriate selection/watering practices to inform statewide municipal ordinances. K.E. Kenworthy. 2019. CitraBlue St. Augustinegrass. Florida Turfgrass Assocation Annual Conference, August 13, 2019. K.E. Kenworthy. 2019. Breeding Better Grasses for the Future. Palm Beach GCSA Symposium, September 26, 2019. K.E. Kenworthy. 2020. CitraBlue St. Augustinegrass, A New Option For Landscapes. Florida Turfgrass Association Regional Seminars, January 7, 2020. K.E. Kenworthy. 2020. CitraBlue St. Augustinegrass Availability and Other Breeding Updates. In Service Training for Country Agents, June 11, 2020. K.E. Kenworthy. 2020. Research Impacting the Management of Florida Golf Courses. Everglade GCSA Symposium - July 14, 2020. J. B. Unruh. 2019. Your $$ at Work: Research Impacting the Golf Industry, Palm Beach GCSA Symposium, September 26, 2019. J. B. Unruh. 2020. Research Impacting the Management of Florida Golf Courses. Everglade GCSA Symposium - July 14, 2020. Wu, Y.Q. 2019. Oklahoma State University turfgrass breeding program and cultivars update. 74th Annual Oklahoma Turfgrass Conference & Trade Show. Owasso, OK, November 19. Wu, Y.Q. 2019. Update on the turfgrass breeding efforts at Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma Turfgrass Field Day, Sept. 25, OSU Botanic Garden. Wu, Y.Q. 2019. Tahoma 31 bermudagrass: Drought resistance, cold hardiness, early spring green up, traffic tolerance, and high turf quality. Sports Turf Managers Association Conference, Phoenix, AZ, Jan. 25. Yu, S., Y.Q. Wu, L. Yan, D. Martin, J.Q. Moss, C. Fontanier, T. Fang, and H. Dong. 2019. High density genetic linkage and QTL mapping in African bermudagrass. Oklahoma State University, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Student Research Symposium Poster Session. Fontanier, C. 2019. Performance of bermudagrass and zoysiagrass in moderate to heavy shade. OSU Turfgrass Field Day. Stillwater, OK. Sept 26. Fontanier, C., Q. Luo, S. Mitchell, B. Cheary, A. Kajla, S. Singh, N. Amgain. 2019. Connecting golf and STEM within horticulture and landscape architecture. Stillwater 5th Grade G&T Program. Stillwater, OK. Dec 19. Copeland, E., Peake, J., Fuhrman, N., Schwartz, B. (2020) Updated: Improving drought tolerance and sustainability of turfgrasses used in southern landscapes through the integration of breeding, genetics, physiology, economics and outreach. Center for Undergraduate Research Opportunities. Athens, GA. Copeland, E., Peake, J., Fuhrman, N., Schwartz, B. (2020) Improving drought tolerance and sustainability of turfgrasses used in southern landscapes through the integration of breeding, genetics, physiology, economics and outreach. presented at the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Research Symposium. Athens, GA. Schwartz, B., Worley, B., Peake, J., Fuhrman, N., (2020) Using Key-Player and Decision-Making Models to Increase Diffusion of Innovations in Turf. Crop and Soil Science Association Conference. Phoenix, AZ. Invited symposium speaker. Copeland, E., Peake, J., Fuhrman, N., Schwartz, B. (2019) Improving drought tolerance and sustainability of turfgrasses used in southern landscapes through the integration of breeding, genetics, physiology, economics and outreach. Center for Undergraduate Research Opportunities. Athens, GA. Miller, G. (2020) Drought tolerance in turfgrasses as part of a turfgrass management. Smithfield Regional Turfgrass Conference and Greensboro Regional Turfgrass Conference. February 26-27. Greta Rockstad. Toward drought tolerant turf. Virtual talk on NC State 3-Minute Thesis Competition, September 2020 Field days Wherley, B., B. Bowling, C. Segars and A. Chandra. 2019. Texas A&M Turfgrass and Landscape Field Day, College Station, TX. 150 attendees. Dr. Bryan Unruh and Dr. Kevin Kenworthy spoke about water use and drought responses of turfgrass and our USDA funded research at the University of Florida Virtual Turfgrass Field Day, Oct. 14, 2020 OSU Turfgrass Field Day. Stillwater, OK. Sept 26, 2019. OSU: Field tour with Jon Brown of Bethel Farms Sept 29, 2020. 2020 UCR Turfgrass and Landscape Research Virtual Field Day (October 15, 2020). NCSU 2020 Turfgrass Breeding and Genetics Virtual Field day. https://nctbg.wordpress.ncsu.edu/2020-virtual-field-day/ NCSU 2020 Turfgrass Virtual Field day. August 26, 2020. Social media The TAMU Extension Team has delivered Extension/outreach education through multiple platforms: AggieTurf Website: https://aggieturf.tamu.edu - which also houses all Extension publications for the AggieTurf program. AggieTurf Facebook Page: 2,633 Followers AggieTurf Twitter: 1,877 Followers Segars Twitter: 682 Followers Bowling Twitter: 1,082 Followers Constant Contact Email Listserv (~1600 subscribers) Twitter: in addition to the project having its own account (https://twitter.com/SCRI_Turf) that is regularly used to communicate progress by the team and do outreach, many members of the team are active on Twitter. As a result, our project disseminates information on this platform to thousands of professionals in the turf industry. UCR: Activities related to establishing trials were disseminated through Twitter and Videos. Other Drs. Bowling and Segars co-organized the 2020 Texas A&M Turfgrass Ecology and Management Short Course which includes professional training on appropriate turfgrass selection and key findings from the warm-season SCRI Project. The course is a 4-day intensive training. In 2020, there were approximately 32 attendees spanning the golf, landscape, sod production, and sports/recreation industry sectors. Seven prospective sod producers were provided with consultation concerning available new bermudagrass and zoysiagrass varieties created by the multi-state project. Contact information of the licensing agents were provided to the prospective producers. Fifteen sports field managers at the high-school and university level were provided with consultation concerning fit of improved bermudagrass to their sports field situation. Three golf course superintendents received consultations by email and phone concerning sourcing new project bermudagrasses for their tees and fairways. One-hundred fifty-three consumers (150 emails, 3 phone calls) and 76 master gardeners (four turf master gardener sessions) received training on improved bermudagrasses and zoysiagrasses created by the project and the fit of these products in their lawns/landscapes. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Objective 1: Continue organize summer and fall meetings (if Covid-19 restriction available) and monthly teleconferences. Objective 2: UGA: Minimum water requirement trials will be initiated in 2021 in the rain-out shelter plots established in 2020 to determine the amount of water and potential water savings of advanced lines compared to commercial standards. Additionally, controlled environment trials will be initiated to better understand the mechanisms associated with improved drought performance. Potential mechanisms which will be explored include root morphology, water use, photosynthetic performance, and protective mechanisms such as the accumulation of compatible solutes or antioxidant enzymes. NCSU: Next year we will conduct flights every two to three weeks over breeding plots. We will collect additional on-ground imagery for calibration and validation of UAV data and processing methods. We will continue to collect soil moisture and volumetric water content to help characterize seasonal changes in water availability at the site. We will develop additional tools and code to automate the processing and analysis of UAV-imagery for use in turf grass breeding programs. We will refine workflows and identify bottlenecks in UAV-based turf phenotyping. We will build relationships with collaborating universities to help guide analysis and standardize results. Objective 3: UGA-Tifton: SSPN and RFT Field Trials. In the late fall of 2020, data will be collected from all field plots to document the level of grown in accomplished during this first season. Beginning spring of 2021, spring green up data will be collected from all field plots. Once grow in is complete for 90% + of plots, irrigation will be terminated, and we will begin to collect data on turf quality in the absence of irrigation. UGA-Griffin: We will begin collecting data from the seashore paspalum shade trial in the spring of 2021 to document differential response of genotypes to shade in Griffin. Also in Griffin, we will increase plant materials and test entries by species using our greenhouse salinity testing protocols during the winter of 2020-21. We anticipate that two years will be required to complete salinity evaluations for all species. TAMU: Initiate drought stress on the 2020 SSPNs and advanced trial for all four warm-season turfgrass species; continue data collection on the SSPN, advanced and shade trials. OSU: The shade field trials will be evaluated in accordance with the project proposal and overall team discussions. Shade physiology studies are expected to conclude in spring 2021 with subsequent publication of results in late 2021. UCR: Next year evaluation of turf quality, density, color and texture will be initiated in SSPN study. Irrigation with saline water will be applied between April and October 2021 in field salinity tolerance study. Restricted irrigation will be initiated in irrigation study at the beginning of dry season in 2021. Turf quality (during periods with and without stress) and leaf firing (during stress and recovery period) data will be collected in both studies. NCSU: Initiate drought stress on all 2020 SSPNs and advanced trials. Continue data collection on the SSPN, advanced and shade trials. Objective 4: UGA: We will conduct comparative RNASeq analysis of seashore paspalum accessions that vary significantly in their level of salt tolerance. Genes putatively contributing to the enhanced tolerance will be selected for further in-depth analysis. We will also conduct further analyses of a potassium transporter that is underlying a previously identified QTL for leaf K+ in seashore paspalum. UGA: Controlled environment trials will be performed in the selected top performing lines and standards. As part of these trials, tissue will be harvested for RNAseq and metabolomics to be used for identification of potential candidate genes and pathways. TAMU: Publish the zoysiagrass genome and identify the major candidate genes associated with salt secretion in zoysiagrass. NCSU: GBS will be conducted to genotype new mapping population and a linkage map will be produced. Field and greenhouse data will be taken on drought traits. Differentially expressed genes from RNA-Seq will be identified, annotated, and validated. NCSU: We will finalize St. Augustinegrass reference genomes and perform annotation, complete the disease resistance RNA sequencing study in St. Augustingrass, sequence, assemble and annotate African Bermudagrass, sequence a set of parental lines used for generating triploids from African Bermudagrass. Objective 5: UGA: We will meet with the Media Professionals and Turfgrass Professionals Steering Committees in February of 2021. Engaging Media and Turfgrass Professionals to identify communication channels and create media artifacts for different audiences: television spots, websites, social media, press releases, extension bulletins, etc. KeyPlayers that are currently being identified will be utilized to maximize the impact of educational media and trainings to increase impact on the turfgrass network and subsequent strata of the network. Additionally, we will utilize, test, and refine the Decision-Making Model in Agricultural and Natural Resources to create a more efficient and reusable model for turfgrass professionals to increase impact on the turfgrass network and subsequent strata of the network. TAMU: Dr. Segars and Bowling have been working to create and update Extension resources to reflect project findings. Over the next year, they will complete the Zoysiagrass Lawn Management guide - which includes a section on cultivar selection - and will update the Texas Turfgrass Selection and Turfgrass Site Preparation and Planting guides to reflect the most current findings from the project. OSU: After the survey is done, the survey data will be analyzed to estimate consumer preferences and trade-off values among turfgrass attributes. Virtual turf field day will be held in 2021 to feature the new bermudagrasses and zoysiagrasses that have improved drought resistance. Linkage to commercial availability and purchase sources will also be included. A 2,000 sq. ft. demonstration lawn at the Oklahoma Gardening Studio grounds will be renovated from buffalograss to several of the new zoysiagrasses released from work of the past two SCRI warm-season grass development projects. A new filming segment/video will be made for the OK Gardening TV Show that features bermudagrasses and zoysiagrasses that have improved drought resistance and feature commercially availability. Consultations will continue with prospective sod producers concerning availability of production licenses of new SCRI warm-season grass products. Consultations will continue with sports field managers, golf course superintendents, turf managers and consumers concerning availability and fit of the newly commercialized warm-season turfgrasses with improved drought resistance.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? (listed by objective and sub-objective number) The team including the industry advisory panel held an annual meeting at San Antonio, TX. Monthly teleconferences were held by sub-objective teams. Several project director and objective lead teleconferences were held for planning purposes. Several full team teleconferences were held to report on sub-objective progress. 2a. Top performing lines of bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, seashore paspalum, St. Augustinegrass (StAug) and corresponding check cultivars, were received from cooperators. Miller has coordinated the lyisimeter studies at three universities, providing a protocol for all to follow. Plant materials have been established in lysimters at NCSU, UF and TAMU. One preliminary run of water use research to quantify reduced water requirements has been collected at NCSU. Field plots of each species were established under a rainout shelter structure in Perkins, OK in 2020. Establishment rate and digital image analysis data was collected. Field plots were prepared at UGA, and plant materials were planted under a rain-out structure to establish for future minimum water requirements trial. 2b. Bermudagrass (OSU) and seashore paspalum (UGA) plant materials were received and propagated in the greenhouse for physiological experiments. 2c. A protocol for the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) trials has been developed and a Zoom training was conducted (April 2020) for collaborators, which included faculty, undergraduate and graduate students. Additionally, a shared space for uploading images was set up so all collaborating institutions can put the UAS images in a single repository for future analysis. The initial pipeline for image processing has been set up, and initial UAS flights have successfully been conducted at UGA, OSU and NCSU. 3a. Breeding programs continue selection of parental lines and hybridizations to generate new hybrids. 3b. Breeders propagated and exchanged materials to establish nurseries: bermudagrass with 189 new lines (3 NCSU, 50 UGA-Tifton, 100 OSU, 16 UF, 20 UCR), seashore paspalum with 90 lines (all UGA-Griffin), StAug with 125 lines (50 NCSU, 45 UF, 30 TAMU) and zoysiagrass with 216 lines (47 NCSU, 10 UGA-Griffin, 50 UGA-Tifton, 70 TAMU, 39 UF). Nurseries were planted in late spring to early summer of 2020 at six locations for paspaulum and seven locations for all other grasses. 3c. Breeders propagated and exchanged materials to plant four replicated field trials in late spring to early summer:bermudagrass with 37 entries (1 NCSU, 8 UGA-Tifton, 20 OSU, 5 UF), Seashore Paspalum with 21 entries (all UGA-G), StAug with 30 entries (11 NCSU, 8 UF, 7 TAMU), and zoysiagrass with 45 entries (8 NCSU, 2 UGA-Griffin, 12 UGA-Tifton, 13 TAMU, 7 UF). All these trials were planted at eight locations (Riverside, CA; Jay and Citra, FL; Dallas, TX; Griffin, and Tifton, GA; Jackson Springs, NC and Stillwater, OK), except paspalum and StAug trials were not planted in NC and OK, and OK, respectively. These trials will be used to evaluate long-term drought persistence. Additionally, ancillary trials to evaluate shade (bermudagrass at College Station, TX and Stillwater, OK; paspalum at Gainesville, FL and Griffin, GA; StAug at Raleigh, NC and Dallas, TX; and zoysiagrass at Gainesville, and Stillwater) and salinity (all four species at Riverside, CA) were established in summer 2020. 4a. At UGA, a previous seashore paspalum F2 population crossed between PI 509022 and HI33 consisted of 58 progeny. We split the marker dataset into markers that were heterozygous only in the female parent, those that were heterozygous only in the male parent, and those that were heterozygous in both parents to generate HA, AH and HH maps, respectively. The population was screened for variation in biomass (3 replicates), and leaf K+ and Na+ levels (1 replicate). However, because of the small population size, the phenotypic dataset was used only for training purposes. We also attempted to develop a new mapping population by crossing seashore paspalum accessions PI 299042 and HI10. All 94 progeny were analyzed with an SSR marker and proved to be selfs, suggesting that PI 299042 is self-compatible. At NCSU, a new mapping population of 147 F1 progeny was developed through crosses of previously identified lines segregating for drought tolerance. The population was planted at the Sandhills Research Station (Jackson Springs, NC) during summer 2020. A greenhouse trial containing 3 reps of the population will be conducted for additional phenotyping of drought related traits. 4b. At TAMU, we performed transcriptomic sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes in response to salt stress. Differential gene expression analysis was also performed between functional salt glands and non-functional salt glands in zoysiagrass. At UGA, preliminary trials in controlled environment conditions, to reproduce and confirm the improved drought tolerance seen in advanced field trials, have been initiated for bermudagrass and seashore paspalum; pots for StAug and zoysiagrass are being established.At NCSU, RNA-Seq was conducted using StAug lines (Raleigh and XSA 10098) with contrasting drought responses. Leaf and root tissues from drought treated and non-treated control treatments were used to extract RNA and constructed sequencing library. Raw data has been checked and processed to identify differentially expressed genes related to drought stress. 4c. At TAMU, we sequenced the Zoysia matrella genome using long read single-molecule real-time sequencing technology (PacBio) and assembled the sequences into 20 pseudo-chromosomes with assistance of combined information of high-density genetic map and high-resolution optical map (BioNano). To separate the two subgenomes, we developed a bioinformatics tool named "CISM-LTR". Although the two subgenomes are highly collinear, differential gene retention and preferential retention was observed in the two subgenomes. At NCSU, StAug cultivar Raleigh was sequenced and assembled to chromosome scale. Flow cytometry has been completed for samples targeted for genome sequencing to determine genome size. At UGA, we have been working with the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) to validate and improve seashore paspalum genome assembly v2.0, which was generated by JGI as part of a Community Sequencing Project led by James Schnable. The genetic maps generated under (1) as well as previously generated genetic maps (Qi et al. 2019) were aligned against assembly v2.0. Discrepancies between the maps and genome assembly are being used as guide to inspect and correct the assembly, leading to v3.0 which will be released once validation has been completed. 5a. At NCSU, Miller has updated one publication to include the new cultivars from the SCRI program. At TAMUS, turfgrass extension team (Drs. Segars and Bowling) have incorporated data and background information from the warm-season SCRI project into nearly every Extension presentation offered on Turfgrass Management over the past year. At OSU, a turf master gardener training slide set was updated in 2020 to provide the latest bermudagrass varietal information concerning Tahoma 31 and TifTuf bermudagrass for integration into Oklahoma and regional lawns. At UGA, we have hired to students to be involved in the project, undergraduate student worker (Copeland), and Graduate research assistance (Worley). Conducted "KeyPlayer" in turfgrass research, which will be completed in November of 2020. Members for both the Media Professional Steering Committee, and Turfgrass Specialist Steering committee have been identified. 5b. We completed survey questionnaires and are about to send a proposal to IRB.We expect to start the survey from November this year. 5c. Started survey of Atlanta area. Created an "eCognition" object based detection model, and labeled 6000 m2 for deep learning model training. Started training for a "Raster Vision" deep learning model.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Yu, S.H., Y.Q. Wu, L.L. Yan, D.L. Martin, J.Q. Moss, C.H. Fontanier, T.L. Fang, and H.X. Dong. 2019. Genetic and QTL mapping in an African bermudagrass population. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meeting. November 10-13, San Antonio, TX.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Godwin, C., Y.Q. Wu, and T.L. Fang. 2019. Genetic identity and diversity among experimental and commercial cultivars of vegetatively propagated turf bermudagrass as assessed with SSR markers. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meeting. November 10-13, San Antonio, TX.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Yu, S.H., Y.Q. Wu, L.L. Yan, D.L. Martin, J.Q. Moss, and C.H. Fontanier. 2019. Genetic variability of spring greenup and drought response in interspecific hybrid bermudagrass selections. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meeting. November 10-13, San Antonio, TX.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Counce, A., C. Fontanier, B. Dunn. 2020. Effects of reduced R:FR ratio on turfgrass seedling growth. ASHS National Conference. August 10-13.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Kajla, A., C. Fontanier, L. Zhang, and Y. Wu. 2020. Photosynthetic Response of Warm-Season Grasses Under Reduced Light Conditions. ASHS National Conference. August 10-13.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Kajla, A., C. Fontanier, Y. Wu, and B. Schwartz. 2020. Persistence of Twenty-Four Bermudagrasses Subjected to Structural Shade. ASHS National Conference. August 10-13.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Kajla, A., C. Fontanier, L. Zhang, Y. Wu, A. Chandra, B. Schwartz, and S. Milla-Lewis. 2020. Effect of low light conditions on photosynthetic parameters of selected warm-season turfgrasses. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Meetings.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Gopinath, L., J.Q. Moss, and Y. Wu. 2019. Screening bermudagrass for freeze tolerance under controlled environment conditions. In 2019 Agronomy abstracts. ASA, Madison, WI.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Gopinath, L., J.Q. Moss, and Y. Wu. 2019. Bermudagrass drought tolerance vs avoidance. In 2019 Agronomy abstracts. ASA, Madison, WI.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Moss, J.Q., A. Ely, and Y. Wu. 2019. Drought response of seven common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] selections. Southern Region of the American Society of Horticultural Science Annual Meetings, Birmingham, AL
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Schwartz, B., Worley, B., Peake, J., Fuhrman, N., (2020) Utilizing Key Players within Networks to Maximize Diffusion of innovations in Turfgrass Research. Poster presented at Crop and Soil Science Association Conference. Phoenix, AZ. Nov 10-13. Invited speaker for symposium
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Beatriz Tome Gouveia, Paul Raymer, Brian M. Schwartz, Kevin E. Kenworthy, J. Bryan Unruh, Charles Fontanier, Antonio C. M. Porto, Esteban F. Rios, and Susana R. Milla-Lewis. Performance and Genotype-by-Environment Interaction in seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) evaluated under shade conditions. CSSA 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Greta Rockstad. Evaluation of UAV-based imagery for drought stress traits in St. Augustinegrass. Poster on ASA-CSSA-SSSA virtual annual meeting, November 10-13 2020
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: M. Chavarria, B. Wherley, R. Jessup, and A. Chandra. 20XX. Physiological Responses to Salinity among Warm-Season Turfgrasses of Contrasting Salinity Tolerance. Accepted w/ Revisions Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: M. Chavarria, B. Wherley, R. Jessup, and A. Chandra. 2020. Leaf anatomical responses and chemical composition of warm-season turfgrasses to increasing salinity. Current Plant Biology 22: 100147 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpb.2020.100147
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: M. Chavarria, B. Wherley, A. Chandra, and P. Raymer. 2019. Salinity tolerance and recovery attributes in warm-season turfgrasses. HortScience 54:9: 1625-1631. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI13963-19
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2020 Citation: Xu, Yi, Jin Zhang, Jinping Zhao, Junqi Song, and Qingyi Yu. 2020. An Improved Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) System in Zoysiagrass. In RNA-Based Technologies For Functional Genomics in Plants, edited by Guiliang Tang, Sachin Teotia, and Deepali Singh. Springer (in press).
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Gouveia, B.T. G., E.F. Rios, J.A. Nunez, S. Gezan, P. Munoz, K. Kenworthy, J. Unruh, G. Miller, S. Milla-Lewis, B. Schwartz, P. Raymer, A. Chandra, B. Wherley, Y. Wu, D. Martin and J. Moss. 2020. Multi-Species Genotype-by-Environment Interaction for Turfgrass Quality in Five Turfgrass Breeding Programs in the Southeastern United States. Crop Science accepted with revisions.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Gouveia, B.T. G., E.F. Rios, J.A. Nunez, S. Gezan, P. Munoz, K. Kenworthy, J. Unruh, G. Miller, S. Milla-Lewis, B. Schwartz, P. Raymer, A. Chandra, B. Wherley, Y. Wu, D. Martin and J. Moss. 2020. Genotype-by-Environment Interaction for Turfgrass Quality in Bermudagrass Across the Southeastern United States. Crop Science. 2020;1-16. https://doi.org/10.1002/csc2.20260
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Fang, T.L., H.X. Dong, S.H. Yu, J.Q. Moss, C.H. Fontanier, D.L. Martin, J. Fu, and Y.Q. Wu. 2020. Sequence-based genetic mapping of Cynodon dactylon Pers. reveals new insights into genome evolution in Poaceae. Communications Biology. DOI: 10.1038/s42003-020-1086-y
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: 8. Ge, Candi, Chanjin Chung, Tracy A. Boyer, and Marco A. Palma. Estimating Producers' Preferences for Turfgrass Attributes: A Combined Approach Using Discrete Choice Experiments and Eye-Tracking Technology. HortScience, 2020
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Qi P, Eudy D, Schnable JC, Schmutz J, Raymer PL, Devos KM (2019) High density genetic maps of seashore paspalum using genotyping-by-sequencing and their relationship to the Sorghum bicolor genome. Scientific Reports 9: 12183
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Spiekerman JJ, Devos KM (2020) The halophyte seashore paspalum used adaxial leaf papillae for sodium sequestration. Plant Physiology (accepted)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Minor J, Campbell B, Waltz C, Berning J (2020) Water savings and return on investment of a new drought resistant turfgrass. J. Environ. Hort. 38:56-62