Source: SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
THE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING FOR A BIOBASED INDUSTRY AND ECONOMY
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
REVISED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1017669
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
SD00R676-19
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
S-1075
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2018
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2023
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Wei, LI.
Recipient Organization
SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY
PO BOX 2275A
BROOKINGS,SD 57007
Performing Department
Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering
Non Technical Summary
The challenges posed by this new century in terms of energy and food demand will require advances in technology, sustainability, and work force development. Renewable energy, biofuels, and bio-based products offer alternatives to traditional sources of energy and products typically obtained from finite reserves. However, increased use of renewable resources will require deliberate development of technologies for efficient resource use as driven by three converging issues: (1) shrinking of productive agricultural land areas under urbanization pressures; (2) clearing of land areas using unsustainable methods; and (3) increasing world population with an increased standard of living, including a demand for a cleaner environment. These issues are related to bio-based products, agricultural coproducts, rural community development and revitalizing rural economies. The proposed project is designed to address these limitations, building on research findings of the 20013 - 2018 cycle of the S-1041 project. Replacing sequestered carbon energy production with that produced by renewable sources continues to require significant fundamental and applied research efforts. The members of this project will formally collaborate and disseminate their results at the following professional meetings: American Society of Biological and Agricultural Engineers (ASABE) section meetings FPE-709, BE-28, PM-23/7/12 and T-11; American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE); American Oil Chemists Society, (AOCS); American Chemical Society (ACS); and, the National Biodiesel Board.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
50%
Developmental
30%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
60574102020100%
Goals / Objectives
Develop deployable biomass feedstock and supply knowledge, processes and logistics systems that economically deliver timely and sufficient quantities of biomass with predictable specifications to meet efficient handling, storage and conversion process requirements Research and develop technically feasible, economically viable and environmentally sustainable technologies to convert biomass resources into chemicals, energy, materials in a biorefinery methodology including developing co-products to enable greater commercialization potential. Perform system analysis to support and inform development of sustainable multiple product streams (chemicals, energy, and materials) and use the insights from the systems analysis to guide research and policy decisions
Project Methods
Research activities in SD will focus on objective 2, tasks 1 and 3. The PI Dr. Wei and Co-PIs Dr. Muthukumarappan and Dr. Gibbons will mainly focus on development of biomass pretreatment, as well as biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The multi-state community will facilitate the integration between feedstock logistics and conversion by providing insight between conversion and biomass biological and physical properties.Objective 2: Research and develop technically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sustainable technologies to convert biomass resources into chemicals, energy, and materials in a biorefinery. This objective includes developing co-products to enable greater commercialization potential.Task 1: Develop and assess technologies to produce valuable products from lipids and residuals from lipid processing (AL, CA, IN, KS, MN, ND, SC, SD, TN).AL will develop robust microbial strains and bioprocesses for converting crude glycerol from biodiesel production to value-added bioproducts. CA will evaluate liquid effluent from anaerobic digestion of animal waste for production of algal biomass and lipids for biodiesel production, develop advanced anaerobic digestion and digestate processing technologies to produce bioenergy and biofertilizers, and advance fungal production and flocculation technologies used for algae and bacterial harvesting. IN will develop wood sealants based on soybean methyl esters. KS will develop and increase the performance of adhesives produced from oilseed proteins and other plant-based proteins. MN will develop and evaluate extended aquaponics systems that integrate a novel anaerobic digestion process to strip ammonia from animal wastewater, a microalgae process to control nutrient balance, and a black soldier fly culture for fish feed. ND will evaluate new, low-value lipids for conversion to methyl esters (biodiesel) and evaluate the quality of those esters. SC will use natural antioxidants from cottonseed oil to improve stability of biodiesel fuels made from cottonseed oil and waste vegetable oils catalyzed by free-enzyme solutions. SC will also investigate replacing expensive nitrogen sources (e.g., yeast extract and/or peptone) with soybean meal and meat bone meal for marine protist fermentation to produce antioxidants. TN will investigate the use of immobilized lipases to make biobased surfactants and detergents, particularly sugar-fatty acid esters.SD Activities: SD will explore an innovative catalytic processing pathway to produce "green" hydrocarbon diesel and/or bio jet fuel from non-food vegetable oils. The non-food oilseed crops, such as camelina, carinata, brown mustard, sunflower, canola, field pennycress, and/or flax seeds, will be grown in margin lands that won't displace food crops. Efficient vegetable oil extraction technologies and effective catalyst systems will be developed. Catalysts formulated from ZSM - 5, noble metals (Pt, Pd, Ru, Co, etc.) with supports of zeolite, aluminum oxide, and carbon based catalysts will be synthesized and tested. Design, fabricating, and testing catalytic cracking reactors will be carried out. Eventually, the processing conditions of converting vegetable oils into "green" hydrocarbon diesel and/or bio jet fuel will be optimized to improve the sustainability and profitability of the "green" diesel or bio jet fuel pathway.Task 2: Develop and assess technologies to produce valuable products from cereal grains, other starchy crops and food waste (CA, HI, IL, IA, MN, NJ, SC, WI).SD team will be helping other states for this task 2 as need, but will focus on the task 1 and 3 in this research period.Task 3: Develop and assess biological conversion technologies to produce valuable products from carbohydrates in cellulosic biomass (AL, CA, HI, IL, IN, IA, KY, NE, ND, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, WI).AL will develop microbial strains through metabolic engineering strategies to enhance utilization of low-value feedstocks, improve bioproduct yield and production, and generate new high-value bioproducts. CA will develop biological conversion processes to convert cellulosic biomass to biofuels and value added products by using new catalysts. HI will engineer microbial strains, microbial consortia, and enzymes/proteins for improved biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass and waste lipid feedstock to biofuels and/or high-value chemicals. IN will develop extraction and conversion technologies for producing modified nano-cellulose products from hemp bast fiber. IL will develop pretreatment strategies for preparing polysaccharides in cellulosic biomass for enzymatic or acid hydrolysis to produce sugars. IA will investigate pretreatments, including dilute acid and ultrasonication, on soybean hulls and switchgrass for the production of microbial biosurfactants and analogs via Bacillus fermentation and enzyme technology. KY will develop new ionic-solvent-based fractionation technologies to extract lignin and facilitate biological conversion of the cellulosic components. NE will investigate cell culture control schemes for biological production of polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHAs) using glucose and xylose from hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose as the substrate. ND will develop and characterize low-severity and low-cost pretreatment options for densified cellulosic biomass and develop systems for enzyme immobilization and reuse to reduce hydrolysis costs. OH will investigate liquid and solid state anaerobic digestion, as well as ethanol and butanol fermentation using lignocellulosic feedstock. OK will develop biochemical conversion processes to convert cellulosic biomass to butanol with high yield and carbon conversion using novel biocatalysts. PA will investigate and develop sustainable technologies to produce chemicals, energy, materials and other value added products from cellulosic biomass, and investigate and develop bio-methane as a near term biofuel for natural gas vehicles. SC will develop bio-products from industrial hemp including "hempcrete" made from lower-energy or solar-powered concrete processing and hemp byproducts and investigate anaerobic digestion to convert food waste, biosolid, crop residues and crude glycerol into biogas as fuel for combined heat and power production. WI will develop new pretreatments for anaerobic digestion and ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass.SD Activities: SD will develop effective processes to produce high performance nanocomposites from lignocellulosic biomass for smart packaging applications. These processes will integrate the advantages of metal-organic-frameworks (MOFs) and nano-cellulosic technologies to produce active films for use in smart packaging. The performance of various cellulosic biomass, such as woody biomass, perennial grasses, and agricultural residues like corn stover and wheat straw, will be examined. Three different nanocomposite synthesis processes, including solvent blending, thermal melting, or in-situ growth, will be tested. In the future, the produced active films will be tailored to specific applications including absorption and desorption of specific gases (e.g. O2, CO2, or C2H4), reduce oxygen and moisture permeability, increase mechanical strength and thermal stability, embedment of specific nanoparticles (e.g. Ag, TiO2) as antimicrobial agents or monition capable of signaling undesirable levels of bacteria as a result of spoilage, e.g. time-temperature labeling. The intent is to integrate the intelligent properties, super mechanical strength and thermos ability, biodegradable and sustainability of the active films in new smart interaction packaging applications.

Progress 10/01/19 to 09/30/20

Outputs
Target Audience:The target audience includes research professionals, undergraduate and graduate students, farmers and biomass producers, government agencies, and industrial processors Professionals in the research community: We are targeting agricultural engineers and biomass processing scientists. An understanding of our research results will help them develop hypotheses and effective processes that will advance their own research programs. We will target these individuals through peer-reviewed publications and presentations at scientific and professional meetings. Undergraduate and graduate students: Undergraduate students are targeted through lab classes and/or summer internship programs. The research program will help them prepare for graduate school or a career in biomass production or processing. Graduate students are targeted by directly participating in research activities for their thesis/dissertations. These students will get professional training to prepare them for their careers, in not only in academia, but also agriculture, food, energy, and biorefinery industries. Farmers and biomass producers: This audience is targeted because biomass feedstocks will be supplied by farmers. They are targeted through formal and informal classroom instruction (many undergraduate students will choose agriculture, food, energy, and biomass production as an occupation) and extension/outreach activities. Public and customers: This audience is targeted because the biomass-derived materials and products developed from the research will ultimately be used by public and customers. The customer's needs, likes, and acceptance should be considered in the research. This audience is targeted through publications of research results, conferences or workshops, website, and extension/outreach activities. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?The project provided great opportunities for professional education and training of the next generation workforce for local communities and industries by involving 4 graduate and 2 undergraduate students through the research and education activities. The research results and discoveries were published in 2 peer-reviewed journal papers, two submitted manuscripts under review, and 3 conference papers/posters/presentation during project year 2. The website https://lw9898.wixsite.com/linweiwebsite was established in project year 1 and was frequently updated to disseminate latest research results and newest knowledge obtained in our research. These outreach activities are not only promoting public awareness of sustainable technologies, but also disseminating the new discoveries and knowledge to improve agricultural production, food safety, and smart packaging materials. The details of the 4 graduate, 2 undergraduate students, and 1 postdoc who were involved or trained in this project are listed as following: Abdus Sobhan is a current Ph.D. student in ABME. His focus is on developing activated carbon based functional nanocomposite films. He also aided the PI in guiding other graudate and undergraduate students in their research projects. Zhisheng Cen is a current M.S. student in ABE. He worked on the study of fabricating PLA-based nanocomposite coatings for applications in control-release fertilizer development. Emmanual Arkoh-Mensah is a current M.S. student in ABE. He started to participate in the project on January 10, 2020 and worked on fabrication and characterization of biochar-based control release fertilizers. Nadee Kaluwahandi is a current M.S. student in ABE. He started to participate in the project on January 10, 2020 and worked to investigate the effect of cold plasma treatment on food packaging and food safety. Jace Jerome is a current undergraduate student at Univesity of South Dakota. He started to participate in the project on July 10, 2020 and worked on establishing production cost analysis models for products developed in the research. Stoen Mollman is a current undergraduate student at Univesity of South Dakota. He started to participate in the project on May 10, 2020 and worked on market analysis of new products developed in the research. Shouyun Cheng was a Ph.D. student of ABME at SDSU and graduated on December 10, 2018. He then worked as postdoc and helped the PI to develop the nanocellulose extraction process during this evaluation period. He also helped the PI to guide graduate and undergraduate students in the research project. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?A total of 6 publications (including 2 peer-reviewed journal papers, 2 submitted manuscripts under review, 3 conference papers) were disseminated in project year 2. In addition to these publications, research results were also disseminated to local communities and public through workshops, conferences, and other outreach activities. Additionally, the latest results and newest knowledge of our research is also disclosed to the public through the website:https://lw9898.wixsite.com/linweiwebsite, which was established in project year 1. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We will continue to develop biopolymer-based nanocomposites for new applications in biosensors, precision fertilization, sustainable agriculture, and food health and safety. Our long-term goal is to establish a nationally and internationally recognized research program at SDSU. We will further extend the network of research collaborations across not only SDSU, but also national/international institutes, agencies, and industrial partners. We will explore all possible internal and external sources to secure research funding to improve the research facility and analytic capability to move the research to a higher level with more positive impacts. We plan to submit at least 5 proposals for research support funding, including DOE EERE SBIR programs in FY 21 or FY 22; USDA NIFA Foundational Program in the Priority Areasof Plant Health and Production and Plant Products in FY 21 or FY 22; USDA Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (FFAR) in the Challenge Area ofHealthy Soils, Thriving Farms Challenge Area in FY 21 or FY 22; South Dakota Nutrient Research and Education Council (NREC) in the Priority of Soil Health and Fertilizer in FY 21 or FY 22; NSF, Nexus of Food, Energy and Water Systems (INFEWS) Program, FY21 or FY 22. Goal 1: Develop deployable biomass feedstock and supply knowledge, processes and logistics systems that economically deliver timely and sufficient quantities of biomass with predictable specifications to meet efficient handling, storage and conversion process requirements. Due to the impact of Covid-19, many materials and supplies, as well as equipment/tools, became unavailable because of the shut down of businesses. As a result, optimization of the 2H process wasn't carried out in year 2. We plan to optimize the 2H process to efficiently extract nanocelluloses from different biomass feedstocks. We also plan to improve the fabrication processes for control release fertilizers as oppourtunities arise. Goal 2: Research and develop technically feasible, economically viable and environmentally sustainable technologies to convert biomass resources into chemicals, energy, materials in a biorefinery methodology including developing co-products to enable greater commercialization potential. We will continue development of high functionality and quality nanocomposite films and explore new applications of the nanocomposite films in the areas of bioenergy, water quality, and environmental protection. We will extend new application of bio-asphalt in control release fertilizers as well as control release of other chemicals like hebercides and insecticides in precision agriculture. Based on the promising results of bioasphalt as bonding materials, we are planning to explore new applications in architecture and transportation construction when the opportinuties arise. Goal 3: Perform system analysis to support and inform development of sustainable multiple product streams (chemicals, energy, and materials) and use the insights from the systems analysis to guide research and policy decisions. Based on the cost analysis model established in project year 2, we will develop new models to evaluate technical and economic feasibility of the control release fertilizers and other biopolymer-baed products, as well as conducting life cycle assessment (LCA). Specific models of cost analysis and LC for different products will be built. The impacts of the products and proesses will be assessed to provide reliable information for the research community as well as the country.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Goal 1: Develop deployable biomass feedstock and supply knowledge, processes and logistics systems that economically deliver timely and sufficient quantities of biomass with predictable specifications to meet efficient handling, storage and conversion process requirements. (40% Accomplished) The two biomass pretreatment processes - Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX™) and extrusion densification - that were investigated in project year 1 were continually improved to produce new value-added biomaterials. We extended our research to activation of pyrolysis biochar and hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass feedstocks (e.g. corn stover, prairie cordgrass) for new applications in nanocomposites. A biochar steam-activation process was designed and tested at different reaction temperatures (700, 800, and 900°C) in project year 2. The results showed that the absorption capacity of activated biochchar for dye methylene blue increased from about 5 mg/g to 20 mg/g when the reaction temperature changed from 700°C to 900°C. This improvement of absoroption capacity makes the activated biochar ($800-1,200 /ton) able to compete with existing activated carbon ($1,500-,3000/ton) at a lower cost in current markets. We started to use activated biochar to develop biochar-based control release fertilizers to improve sustainability of precision agriculture. This work is described in Goal 2. We also developed another new hydrothermal pretreatment for liquefaction of corn stover into bio-asphalt by collaborating with other researchers, Dr. Cheng Zhang from the Chemistry and Biochemistry Department and Dr. Yajun Wu from the Biology and Microbiology Department at South Dakota State University (SDSU). In this process corn stover was first ground into powder with particle size less than 1 mm, and then mixed with alcoholic solvent in a reactor. The mixture was heated to 280 oC and liquefied into an asphalt-like material, so called bio-asphalt, which can be a very good bonding material for production of value-added products. We have also started to apply the bio-asphalt approach for development of control release fertilizers. Goal 2: Research and develop technically feasible, economically viable and environmentally sustainable technologies to convert biomass resources into chemicals, energy, materials in a biorefinery methodology including developing co-products to enable greater commercialization potential. (40% Accomplished) We developed different control release fertilizers using the new feedstocks produced in goal 1. A prototype, biochar-based controlled release nitrogen fertilizner (BCRNF) was designed and fabricated by using polylactic acid (PLA) to coat fertilizer particles that consisted of biochar imprenagnated with ammonium sulfate. When the BCRNF particles were coated with a 10% PLA solution, the releasing time for 80% of nitrogen in BCRNF in water was more than 12 days, and over 25 days in a soil column leaching experiment. Moreover, we developed another control release nitrogen fertilizer coated by the bioasphalt product. We found that the release time of 80% of nitrogen nutrients in water increased from a couple hours to more than 20 days, which was much better than that the PLA coated product. A patent application was submitted by SDSU for the control release fertilizer technology. These promising results have directly lead to securing $83,500 in research funding to support two new projects to further develop controlled release of chemicals in precision agriculture. Goal 3: Perform system analysis to support and inform development of sustainable multiple product streams (chemicals, energy, and materials) and use the insights from the systems analysis to guide research and policy decisions. (30% Accomplished) To assess economic feasibility, Mr. Tim Weelborg, the executive director of South Dakota Enterprise Institute, was invited to be the business mentor for commercialization of the new technologies. Two undergraduate students (Jace Jerome and Stoen Mollman) from the Univesity of South Dakota also participated in the project to establish a cost analysis model for commercialization of the new technologies. They established a preliminary production cost analysis model and provided very useful information that will be used to commercializate of the technologies being developed. The economic and technical information collected is very important for conducting life cycle assessment (LCA) of the produced control release fertilizers and other nanocomposite products. The outcomes of LCA will provide very useful information to help other researchers and policy makers.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Cheng, S., L. Wei, K. Muthukumarappan, S.I. Mart�nez-Monteagudo. 2020. Kinetic analysis of non-isothermal oxidation of bioactive milk Lipids. J Food Process Eng. e13519. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.13519
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Sobhan, A., K. Muthukumarappan, L. Wei, T. Van Den Top, R. Zhou. 2020. Development of an activated carbon-based nanocomposite film with antibacterial property for smart food packaging. Materials Today Communications DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtcomm.2020.101124
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2020 Citation: Sobhan, A., K. Muthukumarappan, L. Wei. 2020. Biosensors and biopolymer based nanocomposites for smart food packaging: Challenges and opportunities. J. Food Control. (submitted).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Sobhan, A., K. Muthukumarappan, L. Wei. 2020. Development of bio-nanocomposite films by combination of PLA and biochar for smart food packaging. Paper #: 2000566. ASABE Annual International Meeting. July 13-15. (Virtual).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Kaluwahandi, N., L. Wei, K. Muthukumarappan. 2020. Opportunities and challenges of cold plasma in food processing. Paper #: 2000969. ASABE Annual International Meeting. July 13-15. (Virtual).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Sobhan, A., K. Muthukumarappan, L. Wei. 2020. Development of a novel PLA coated bio-nanocomposite film indicator for monitoring meat freshness. Paper #: 2000568. ASABE Annual International Meeting. July 13-15. (Virtual).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Cen, Z., L. Wei, C. Zhang. 2020. Developing a control-release nitrogenous fertilizer by combination of biochar and sodium alginate, Paper #: 2000573. ASABE Annual International Meeting. July 13-15. (Virtual).


Progress 10/01/18 to 09/30/19

Outputs
Target Audience:The target audience includes the research community, undergraduate and graduate students, farmers and biomass producers, government agencies, and industrial processors Research community: We are targeting agricultural engineers and biomass processing scientists. An understanding of our research results will help them develop hypotheses and effective processes that will advance their own research programs. We will target these individuals through peer-reviewed publications and presentations at scientific and professional meetings. Undergraduate and graduate students: Undergraduate students are targeted through lab classes and/or summer internship programs. The research programs will help them prepare for graduate school or a career in biomass production or processing. Graduate students are targeted by directly participating in research activities for their thesis/dissertations. These students will get professional training to ready them for their careers in agriculture, food, energy, and biorefinery industries. Farmers and biomass producers: This audience is targeted because biomass feedstocks will be supplied by farmers. They are targeted through formal and informal classroom instruction (many undergraduate students will choose agriculture, food, energy, and biomass production as an occupation) and extension/outreach activities. Public and customers: This audience is targeted because the biomass-derived materials and products developed from the research will ultimately be used by customers. The customer's needs, likes, and acceptances should be considered in the research. This audience is targeted through publications of research results, conferences or workshops, website, and extension/outreach activities. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?The project provided great opportunities for professional education and training the next generation workforce for local communities and industries by involving graduate and undergraduate students throughout the research and education activities. Two graduate students have participated in the project. One PhD and one M.S. graduate students gained basic knowledge and skills to conduct research and communicate with other researchers and professionals. The results and discoveries of the research were published in 7 conference papers/posters/presentation and 2 peer-reviewed journal papers. A website was established to reflect the research results and newest knowledge of biomass conversion and bioproduct development at: https://lw9898.wixsite.com/linweiwebsite. These outreach activities are not only promoting public awareness of sustainable technologies, but also disseminating the new discoveries and knowledge to improve agricultural production, food safety, and smart packaging materials. The details of the 2 graduate students who were involved or trained in this project are listed as following: Abdus Sobhan is a current Ph.D. student of ABME. He helped the PI fabricate biochar carbon-based functional nanocomposite films. He aided the PI in guiding undergraduate students in the research project. Zhisheng Cen is a current M.S. student of ABE. He worked on the study of fabricating PLA-based nanocomposite coating for applications in controlled-release fertilizers. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?A total of 9 publications (including peer-reviewed journal papers and presentations) were disseminated in the first year of project. In addition to these publications, research results were also disseminated to local communities and public through workshops, conferences, or other outreach activities. Some examples of the activities carried out in the community in FY2018/19 include, but are not limited to: February 20, 2019, Celebration of Faculty Excellent, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD. February 22, 2019, ABE Advisory Council Meeting, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD. April 10, 2019, Innovative Research Symposium, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD. March 27-28, 2019, Ag New Uses Forum, Minneapolis, MN 55426. January 22 - 23, 2019, SD Soil Health Annual Meeting, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD57007. October 17, 2018, SD Eastern Water Conference, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD57007. August 23, 2018, CETL Fall Conference, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007. A website was established to reflect the research results and newest knowledge of biomass conversion and bioproduct development at: https://lw9898.wixsite.com/linweiwebsite. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We will continue to develop biopolymer-based nanocomposites for applications in biosensors, precision fertilization, sustainable agriculture, and food health and safety. Our long-term goal is to establish a nationally and internationally recognized research program at SDSU. We will further extend the network of research collaborations across not only SDSU, but also national /international institutes, agencies, and industrial partners. We will explore all possible internal and external sources to secure research funding to improve the research facility and analytic capability to move the research to a higher level with more positive impacts. We plan to submit at least 5 proposals for research support funding, including DOE EERE SBIR programs in FY 20 or FY 21; USDA NIFA Foundational Program in the Priority Areasof Plant Health and Production and Plant Products in FY 20 or FY 21; USDA Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (FFAR) in the Challenge Area ofHealthy Soils, Thriving Farms Challenge Area in FY 20 or FY 21; South Dakota Nutrient Research and Education Council (NREC) in the Priority of Soil Health and Fertilizer in FY 20 or FY 21; NSF, Nexus of Food, Energy and Water Systems (INFEWS) Program, FY20 or FY 21 Goal 1: Develop deployable biomass feedstock and supply knowledge, processes and logistics systems that economically deliver timely and sufficient quantities of biomass with predictable specifications to meet efficient handling, storage and conversion process requirements. We will continue to optimize the 2H process to efficiently extract nanocelluloses from different biomass feedstocks. Goal 2: Research and develop technically feasible, economically viable and environmentally sustainable technologies to convert biomass resources into chemicals, energy, materials in a biorefinery methodology including developing co-products to enable greater commercialization potential. We will improve fabrication processes to produce high functionality and quality nanocomposite films, and explore new applications of nanocomposite films in the areas of bioenergy, water quality, and environmental protection. We will also utilize the produced nanocomposite films to develop precision fertilization technologies to improve sustainability of crop production, wastewater treatment, and biofuel production Goal 3: Perform system analysis to support and inform development of sustainable multiple product streams (chemicals, energy, and materials) and use the insights from the systems analysis to guide research and policy decisions. We will evaluate technical and economic feasibility of the nanocomposite fabrication processes as well as conducting life cycle assessment (LCA) for the nanocomposite products for commercialization in the future. Specific LCA models of different nanocomposite products will be built and impacts of the proucts and proesses will be assessed using GREETTM model. Data collections will be designed and focused on North America, the United States, or the region containing the study areas (such as US north central regions) when assembling the LCA models. The outcomes of LCA will provide information to guide research and policy decisions.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Goal 1: Develop deployable biomass feedstock and supply knowledge, processes and logistics systems that economically deliver timely and sufficient quantities of biomass with predictable specifications to meet efficient handling, storage and conversion process requirements. (20% Accomplished) We evaluated two processes of biomass feedstock pretreatment for new applications in nanocomposite production in the first year of this project. These processes were developed in the previous research project. The first one is Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment following by pelletization. This process was able to densify feedstocks such as corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass into pellets with more than 5 times higher bulk density (from 79 kg/m3 up to 410 kg/m3). The second process also used AFEX™ pretreatment, but was followed by densification into pellets using a screw extruder. This process can more easily pelletize biomass at larger particle sizes at lower temperatures, thereby improving process efficiency while generating much higher bulk densities and more than 10 times hardness. Depending on particle size, the bulk density of corn stover increased from 107.3 kg/m3 (powder with 4 mm particle size) to 1,416.3 kg/m3 (pellets). By integrating the advantages of these two processes, new strategies will be explored to address the logistical problems of transporting raw, low bulk density biomass long distances to enable efficient and economical production of biopolymer-based nanocomposites, biofuels, and other bioenergy products. Goal 2: Research and develop technically feasible, economically viable and environmentally sustainable technologies to convert biomass resources into chemicals, energy, materials in a biorefinery methodology including developing co-products to enable greater commercialization potential. (25% Accomplished) We focused on developing biopolymer-based nanocomposites for new applications in this period. A new process of combining hydrolysis and homogenization (2H process) for cellulose and nanocellulose extraction was designed and tested. Biomass feedstocks (e.g. corn stover and prairie cordgrass) were first ground into powder and then hydrolyzed by acid solutions. The slurry was then subject to high speed (>8000 RPM) homogenization to extract cellulose nanofiber (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The intermolecular and intra-molecular bonds of cellulose chains were destructed by the shearing forces of the high-speed homogenizer when the homogenization time was long enough. This 2H process was able to extract cellulose nanofiber (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from corn stover and prairie cordgrass. The mean nanocellulose dimension produced by the 2H process was 0.10μm (100nm), which meets the criteria for commercial nanocellulose products. To screen the best nanofillers (CNF or CNC) for fabrication of biopolymer-based nanocomposites, the CNF and CNC produced by 2H process were combined with different substrates. First, CNF was individually combined with rice starch flour, potato starch powder, biochar, and O2Si powder to produce CNF-based nanocomposite films through a water solution casting method. Second, different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%) of CNC were intermixed with polylactic acid (PLA) to produce PLA-based nanocomposite (PBN) films using a solvent blending and casting approach. Third, carbon-based nanocomposite (CBN) films were generated by intermingling different concentrations (15%, 30%, 50%) of CNF into biochar (BC), activated carbon (AC), or biochar-derived-activated-carbon (BAC). To enphance anti-bacteria properties, different concentrations (140, 220, 300, 380, and 450 ppm) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were impregnated into the CBN films to produce a new antimicrobial conductive and thermal stable films (named AgNPs/CBN film) . As a control, neat CNF and PLA films were also generated under the same conditions. Performance of all resulting films is described in Goal 3. Goal 3: Perform system analysis to support and inform development of sustainable multiple product streams (chemicals, energy, and materials) and use the insights from the systems analysis to guide research and policy decisions. (25% Accomplished) The CNF-based nanocomposite films produced by combining CNF with rice starch flour, potato starch powder, biochar, or O2Si powder through water solution casting method were characterized for physicochemical properties, including water absorption rate (WAR), water uptake rate (WUR), and water vapor permeability rate (WVPR). These new nanocomposite films were compared to the neat PLA film. The CNF + BC film had the highest WAR (255%), following by the films of CNF+PLA, neat CNF, and CNF + Rice flour. The film of CNF + Potato starch had the lowest WAR. The WUR of CNF + AC films were significantly higher than that of CNF + BC films, but there was no significant difference among CNF + AC films or CNF + BC films when the CNF contents increased from 5% to 15%. The methylene blue (MB) absorption rate of CNF + BAC films increased when the BC activation temperature increased from 700 oC to 900 oC. The MB absorption rate of CNF + BAC films was very closed to the CNF + AC films if the BC was activated at 900 oC. The PBN films showed significant improvements in mechanical tensile strength and physical properties. The tensile strength of neat PLA films was 1.96 kg/cm2, but was 49% higher in the PBNF film containing 3% CNC. The tensile strengths of films containing 1% and 5% CNC were similar to the neat PLA film. The WUR of PLA+CNC nanocomposite films were lower than that of neat PLA film when the CNF content was 1% or 3%, but higher when CNC content was 5%. The neat PLA film had the highest WVPR, and as the percentage of CNC increased, the WVPR of PBNF films decreased. The PBNF looks very promising as a renewable and biodegradable material for smart packaging. The CBN films were characterized for their physicochemical and functional properties. The electrical conductivity of CBN film decreased when the CNF content increased, but the tensile strength, strain, and Young's modulus of CBN films increased significantly from 0.03 to 4.78 MPa, 0.13 to 1.94% and 97.64 to 247.3 MPa, respectively. The thermal stability of CBN films was also improved significantly. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical spectroscopy (EIS) of CBN films were examined. The Rs values significantly increased from 1.5 k? to 12.5 k? when CNF contents in the CBN films increased from 15% to 50%. The CBN film with less than 50% of CNF content was suitable for developing biosensor. The antimicrobial properties of AgNPs/CBN film at different AgNPs concentrations (140-450 ppm) were evaluated against the Gram positive bacterium S. aureus and the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli. The higher AgNPs concentrations were more effective in inhibiting microbial growth. Moreover, the resistivity change of AgNPs/CBN films occurred significantly at higher AgNP concentrations. This AgNPs/CBN film shows not only significant potential for use in electronic devices and biosensors, as well as smart food packaging.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Abdus Sobhan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Zhisheng Cen, Lin Wei. 2019. Characterization of nanocellulose and activated carbon nanocomposite films biosensing properties for smart packaging. Carbohydrate Polymers. Vol. 225, Issue 115189.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Abdus Sobhan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Lin Wei, Trevor Van Den Top, Ruanbao Zhou. 2019. Characterization of activated carbon based nanocomposite films for smart food packaging. Composite Science and Technology.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Lin Wei, Zeyad Ali Albahr. 2019. Develop biopolymer-based nanocomposite films by combination of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and polylactic acid (PLA). ASABE Annual International Meeting. July 7  10. Boston, MA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Abdus Sobhan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Lin Wei. 2019. Characterization of bionanocomposite films based on nanocellulose and activated carbon. ASABE Annual International Meeting, July 7  10. Boston, MA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Zhisheng Cen, Lin Wei, Yajun Wu. 2019. Developing a control-release nitrogenous fertilizer by combination of biochar and sodium alginate. ASABE Annual International Meeting. July 7  10. Boston, MA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Shouyun Cheng, Lin Wei, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, and Sergio I. Martinez- Monteagudo. 2019. Oxidation kinetics of bioactive milk lipids using differential scanning calorimetry. American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) Annual Meeting. June 23  26. Cincinnati, Ohio.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Lin Wei. Abdus Sobhan, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan. 2019. Development of nanocellulose based activated carbon film for smart food packaging applications. Paper ID: P04  092, IFT Annual Meeting. June 2  5. New Orleans, LA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Zhisheng Cen, Lin Wei. 2019. Develop biochar-based control release nitrogenous fertilizers by coating PLA. SDSU Research Forum. May 21. South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Zhisheng Cen, Lin Wei. 2018. Develop an effective biochar-based nanocomposite for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural wastewater. SD Eastern Water Conference. October 17. South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD.