Source: MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
BUILDING A BETTER LENTIL FROM THE GROUND UP
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1016372
Grant No.
2018-51181-28366
Project No.
MONB12591938
Proposal No.
2018-03322
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
SCRI
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2018
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2022
Grant Year
2018
Project Director
Burrows, M.
Recipient Organization
MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
BOZEMAN,MT 59717
Performing Department
Plant Sciences & Plant Path
Non Technical Summary
Lentil is a uniquely suited and profitable rotational crop within the dryland wheat systems of the northern Great Plains and Pacific Northwest. However, root rot is a major threat to the lentil industry in North America and worldwide and there are few effective management options. Fusarium is the most predominant and difficult to manage of the root rot causing fungi. This project seeks to discover the major Fusarium spp. causing root rot in lentil, explore their interactions and the role of seed transmission in establishment and spread of the disease; develop new resistant cultivars using genetic marker-assisted selection techniques; determine the role of agronomic practices in establishment of a healthy crop; determine the role of agronomic practices and disease in nutritional content of lentil seed, engage stakeholders in using best management practices for root rot prevention; and enhance graduate student education and collaboration among international scientists in the North American growing region by supporting a student exchange program. This proposal was developed as a direct result of the Pest Management Strategic Plan for Pulse Crops published in 2017 and numerous discussions with growers, seed dealers, crop consultants, and grower organizations. The nutritional aspects of the proposal are exploratory, and have potential to benefit the industry in the long term. Financial institutions and the Farm Service Agency (FSA) have expressed concern about the lack of knowledge about disease risk among new pulse crop growers and the amount of loans extended on these relatively high value crops for our region. FSA, their clients and the financial industry are relatively underrepresented stakeholders for plant pathology, agronomy and genetics extension education.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
45%
Applied
45%
Developmental
10%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2011414108050%
2121414116020%
2121414101010%
2031414116020%
Goals / Objectives
Lentil is a uniquely suited and profitable rotational crop within the dryland wheat systems of the northern Great Plains and Pacific Northwest. However, root rot is a major threat to the lentil industry in North America and worldwide and there are few effective management options. Fusarium is the most predominant and difficult to manage of the root rot causing fungi. This project seeks to discover the major species of Fusarium causing root rot in lentil, explore their interactions and the role of seed transmission in establishment and spread of the disease; develop new resistant varieties using genetic marker-assisted selection techniques; determine the role of agronomic practices in establishment of a healthy crop; determine the role of agronomic practices and disease in nutritional content of lentil seed, engage stakeholders in using best management practices for root rot prevention; and enhance graduate student education and collaboration among international scientists in the North American growing region by supporting a student exchange program. This proposal was developed as a direct result of the Pest Management Strategic Plan for Pulse Crops published in 2017 and numerous discussions with growers, seed dealers, crop consultants, grower organizations, Farm Service Agency and financial institutions. The nutritional aspects of the proposal are exploratory, and have potential to benefit the industry in the long term.To best accomplish our goals, we organized activities into four main objectives with associated hypotheses. From our pre-proposal these are:Objective 1. Characterize Fusarium pathogens causing disease in lentil growing regions Hyp. 1a: Predominant Fusarium species causing root rot will be similar across growing regions.Hyp. 1b: Host response will vary based on Fusarium species complex composition.Hyp. 1c: Seedborne Fusarium species will cause root rot and spread the pathogen.Objective 2. Breeding lentil for durable resistance to FusariumHyp. 2a. Characterization of a Lentil Diversity Panel for resistance to Fusarium and root architecture associated with root rot resistance will provide phenotypes for gene identification.Hyp. 2b. Exome capture will provide high gene-coverage genotypes for genome-wide association mapping to determine genes or QTL associated with resistance to Fusarium root rotObjective 3. Assess the influence of agronomic practices on root rot severity and the resulting impact on plant health, seed yield, and seed nutritional quality.Hyp. 3a: Rhizobium (N) P, K and S will increase disease resistance, yield and nutritional quality.Hyp. 3b: Plant stress from roll timing and plant density will interact with Fusarium root rot to influence disease, and seed yield and quality in lentil.Hyp. 3c: Fungicide treatments will reduce disease and increase yield and nutritional quality.Hyp.3d: Disease-resistant cultivars will increase yield and nutritional quality.Objective 4. Extension outreach to stakeholders and educating the next generation of scientists. Not a hypothesis-driven objective.
Project Methods
Efforts:Obj. 1. Characterize Fusarium pathogens causing disease across lentil growing regions:Twenty five lentil fields in each of three regions will be sampled for root rot in Y1 and Y2. Fungi will be isolated and characterized for species, disease severity, and aggressiveness. Seed transmission from fields affected by root rot will be measured and the root rot and seedborne fungi investigated for relationships and location of Fusarium within the seed.Obj. 2. Breeding lentil for durable resistance to Fusarium: A lentil diversity panel of 500 lines will be screened for resistance to three Fusarium species. Genome wide association mapping will be used to determine genes or quantitative trait loci associated with genetic resistance. Field trials will be conducted with current cultivars and advanced breeding lines to assess resistance to Fusarium root rot. The lentil diversity panel will be phenotyped for resistance to Fusarium and root architecture traits associated with root rot resistance. Exome capture will be used to genotype the lentil diversity panel and Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR markers associated with traits of interest will be developed and used in the breeding programs. Exome capture data will be analyzed, genome-wide association studies tested, and Fusarium resistant lentil lines developed.Obj. 3. Assess the influence of agronomic practices on root rot severity and the resulting impact on plant health, seed yield, and seed nutritional quality: Agronomic field trials will be conducted in artificially Fusarium-infested fields in Montana (Bozeman, Havre, Moccasin) and North Dakota (Carrington, Hettinger, Minot), and one non-infested field in Sidney, MT. Studies will include four sub-objectives: a) Fertility (nitrogen, potassium, and sulfur); b) Rolling timing and seeding density (Bozeman, Havre, and Moccasin only); c) Fungicidal seed treatments; and d) evaluation of disease susceptibility of cultivars and advanced lines. Standard field practices will be followed. agronomic data will include plant density, plant height, days to flowering and maturity, seed yield, seed protein, seed size, and marginal economic returns to inoculant and fertilizer inputs. Disease will be assessed using a standard root disease severity index. In addition, lentil seed will be analyzed for nutritional quality. Seed mineral concentrations will be determined on microwave digested samples using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy. Seed protein and fiber will be measured with a nitrogen analyzer and established methods, respectively.Obj. 4. Extension outreach to stakeholders and educating the next generation of scientists: We work very closely with our agricultural organizations to generate and communicate credible, trustworthy, and scientifically rigorous information to our stakeholders. Specific extension outputs for this project and satellite activities include, but are not limited to: Disease resistance tables for widely planted cultivars will be included in alerts and fact sheets; a glossy lentil disease ID publication; seed treatment fungicide efficacy data will be added to current tables; a project website will be developed and hosted at Montana State University for cross-linking to industry, participant, and related program websites such as state and regional IPM Program websites; short, informational videos on root rot identification and management will be produced as part of routine duties of the Montana State IPM Program and posted to the National IPM Center's YouTube channel. Standard extension methodologies for communication including press releases, field days, agricultural alerts, presentations, Twitter, Facebook, etc. will be used and are part of routine activities. This project will also run an exchange program for graduate students. This will include sending graduate students to the joint US-Canada Research Symposium, and supporting travel for US and Canadian students to joint events such as the North American Pulse Improvement Association meeting.Evaluation: An evaluation group (HELPS) will assist the participants and stakeholders in tracking change in knowledge and intent to change behavior by stakeholder groups and the influence of the student exchange program on the research projects. Specific activities are included on the project timeline, and will include paper and electronic tablet surveys at field days and presentations; electronic (email, Qualtrics) and phone interviews of growers who receive diagnoses of root rot from diagnostic laboratories in Montana to measure the impact of the education on future practices and any economic impacts. Surveys will measure producer awareness of root rot identification and management at the start of the project and, over the 4 years of the project, identify any trends in knowledge or intent to change behavior as a result of educational efforts. Surveys will include standard metrics such as number of acres farmed/influenced. IRB educational use exemptions will be obtained prior to survey delivery. Students receiving travel funds for international exchanges will be required to submit a brief report about what they learned and will be contacted in the last year of the project to determine how their experience helped their program of study and career options.

Progress 09/01/19 to 08/31/20

Outputs
Target Audience:Target audience includes farmers, agricultural industry, bankers, farm service agency, extension professionals, graduate students, post-docs, faculty and administrators. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?In addition to research, this project is providing numerous opportunities for professional development for students, with 11 presentations at 3 meetings. In addition, travel awards were presented to ten students from the US and Canada to attend the North American Pulse Improvement Association meeting in Fargo, ND. This meeting gave participants an opportunity to meet and exchange ideas with pulse researchers from the US, Canada, and Australia. Due to COVID, most relevant meetings have been cancelled but the travel funds opportunity is regularly shared at pulse meetings and via social media. We anticipate this will pay off and a number of research exchanges will be funded in the final two years of the project. We are considering extending the opportunity to post-doctoral fellows in addition to graduate students. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?See outputs for specific numbers. Presentations, field days, workshops, social media (Facebook, Twitter), traditional media (radio, television, newspaper, press releases), Montana AgAlerts (email and text), Montana Urban Alerts (email and text), websites. Stakeholder advisory committee meeting. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We are on schedule with all objectives. Objective 1. Characterize Fusarium. We will continue to conduct bio-assays on aggressiveness of Fusarium isolates.Objective 2. Breeding lentil for durable resistance to Fusarium. Hyp. 2a. Characterization of a Lentil Diversity Panel for resistance to Fusarium and root architecture associated with root rot resistance will provide phenotypes for gene identification. Hyp. 2b. Exome capture will provide high gene-coverage genotypes for genome-wide association mapping to determine genes or QTL associated with resistance to Fusarium root rot. During the next reporting period, we will perform genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify QTL or genes associated with Fusarium root rot resistance. To achieve this goal, we will (1) generate a systematic and comprehensive genomic data by integrating SNPs detected from this study on the 240 lentil lines and SNPs previously identified by Dr. Kirstin Bett at University of Saskatchewan using exome capture on AGILE population, (2) analyze Fusarium root rot related phenotypic data carried out in Hyp. 2a, (3) perform GWAS using GAPIT/PLINK with genotypic and phenotypic data collected on this worldwide lentil diversity population. In addition to this, we will collect post-harvest trait (yield, biomass, etc.) data from the field trial conducted in this summer on 185 lentil lines, and identify QTL or genes linked to the important agronomic traits collected. Objective 3. Agronomic studies will continue at the 7 research centers in Montana and North Dakota. Objective 4. We will continue with extension education, and maintaining a presence online at conferences, and with presentations, extension activities, and updating our webpage. The student exchange has not been activated due to COVID19 pandemic, but we are hopeful to have lab exchange learning opportunities in the summer 2021. We will conduct an online stake holder's survey this winter, which will coincide with normal meeting times of the US Dry Pea and Lentil conference and the Pulse Day conferences.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? This was the second year of the 4 year project to investigate agronomic, pathological, and genetic aspects of root rot management in lentils, a commonly grow pulse crop through the northern region of the USA, and southern Canada. PIs gathered for three stakeholdermeetings in North Dakota, November 2019, Washington February 2020, and online August 2020. Coordination of work was discussed and future directions within the scope of this project and beyond. PI's and student researchers attended and presented 14 talks and posters at regional and national pulse meetings. In coordination with these meetings and presentations, audiences weresurveyed for their relationship to the pulse industry and their future needs. We found throughsurveys that our audiences were made of 69% growers, and 41% were consultants and industry from5 states. Of the 123,000 acres represented, 67% of the acreage was in pea, 56% lentil and 40% was in chickpea. The major disease concern area of concern was a foliar disease, Ascochyta blight (20%), followed by unknown root rots (10%), Aphanomyces root rot (9%) and Fusarium root rots (8%). Therefore, the root rot complex is a major disease of concern for the industry. Growers rely on University personnel, in-person meetings and university publications as their most useful sources of information. Growers are hoping to gain information on disease identification in combination with effective use of fungicides, and they are willing to stretch out rotation cycles if it will pay off over the long term. Over the past year, our researchers have worked directly with 54 growers in 3 states. We have been able to conduct research on 134 grower fields, in addition to our targeted research that occurs on 7 state/federal research centers in the 3 key states. A key outcome of this project in Y1 was the identification of species of Fusarium causing root rot of lentil in three states. We found that Fusarium oxysporum, which causes wilt, was the most common species, although many others were identified. This will assist breeders in targeting their efforts. A student has taken on a complementary project to identify the races of Fusarium oxysporum in lentil production regions of the US and Canada. Through dissection of seed, we have found that Fusarium predominantly infests the seed coat, although it can also infest cotyledons and embryos. This helps us in our evaluation of both conventional and organic seed treatment options. Isolates recovered from seed were pathogenic on lentil, suggesting that seed can facilitate the movement of root rot pathogens. Preliminary data from Y2 field trials suggest that essential oils are doing as well as conventional seed treatments in limiting fusarium root rot disease. This is an extension of complementary funding from a Montana Department of Agriculture Specialty Crop Block Grant. Lentil accessions and wild relatives are being screened for resistance to Fusarium, although there have been some delays due to laboratory shutdowns as a result of the COVID epidemic. Two hundred and forty lentil lines from a wide variety of sources have been genotyped and phenotyped by planting in the greenhouse and the field. Characteristics such as height, flower color, and other agronomic characteristics were recorded. Genomic and genetic data will provide a valuable framework and road map to facilitate lentil cultivar improvement, and also accelerate our understanding of genetic basis of lentil Fusarium root rot, as well as other agronomically important traits. Field studies have tested rhizobial inoculant type, the timing of rolling the crop after seeding, seed treatments, variety selection, and sulfur fertility with inconsistent results in Y1. Y1 was relatively dry and root rot was not severe in either Montana or North Dakota. Increased root rot was observed in Y2 but data have not been analyzed. Detailed results for research objectives are below. In addition to research, this project is providing numerous opportunities for professional development for students, with 11 presentations at 3 meetings. In addition, travel awards were presented to ten students from the US and Canada to attend the North American Pulse Improvement Association meeting in Fargo, ND. This meeting gave participants an opportunity to meet and exchange ideas with pulse researchers from the US, Canada, and Australia. Due to COVID, most relevant meetings have been cancelled but the travel funds opportunity is regularly shared at pulse meetings and via social media. We anticipate this will pay off and a number of research exchanges will be funded in the final two years of the project. We are considering extending the opportunity to post-doctoral fellows in addition to graduate students, pending approval from the NIFA NPL.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Parikh, L.P., Moparthi S., Burrows M.E., and Agindotan, B.O. Efficacy of five herbal essential oils for management of Didymella rabiei. North American Pulse Improvement Association, Biennial Meeting, Fargo, ND. 8th November 2019.NAPIA conference
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Monica Brelsford, M. Burrows, C. Coyne, M. Grusak, R. McGee, P. Miller, L. Porter, J. Pasche. Building a Better Lentil.NAPIA 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Fonseka, D. L., Lamppa, R. S., Zitnick-Anderson, K., and Pasche, J. S.Insensitivity to Pyraclostrobin in Peyronellaea pinodes affecting field pea. NAPIA 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Zitnick-Anderson K., Sharma Poudel, R., Bruggeman, R., and Pasche, J. S.Genetic characterization of Aphanomyces euteiches. NAPIA 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Zitnick-Anderson K., Bandillo, N., Friskop, A., and Pasche, J. S.Importance of Fusarium species in the field pea: cereals rotation. NAPIA 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Ma, Yu, Clare Coyne, and Rebecca McGee. Integration of Traditional and Image-Based Phenotyping Tools to Identify QTL for Aphanomyces Root Rot Resistance in Lentil. Napia 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Moparthi S., Parikh, L.P.,Burrows M.E., and Agindotan, B.O.Identification and Prevalence of Seedborne Botrytis spp. in Pulses of Montana. NAPIA 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Murphy,Carmen and Burrows M.E.In-Field Distribution of Aphanomyces euteiches in Montana. NAPIA 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Burrows, M.E.Root rots of pulse crops in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Emerging Opportunities for Pulse Production: Genetics, Genomics, Phenomics, and Integrated Pest Management. Workshop, June 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Burrows, M.E. Crop rotation and pulses. Montana Agribusiness Association. Conference, January 2020
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Burrows, M.E. Montana pulse research update. Workshop at Pulse Crop Working Group. February 2020
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Monica Brelsford, M. Burrows, C. Coyne, M. Grusak, R. McGee, P. Miller, L. Porter, J. Pasche. Building a Better Lentil. Western Pulse Growers meeting. November 2019
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Coyne, C., Porter, L. D., Boutet, G., Ma, Y., McGee, R., Lesne, A., Baranger, A., Pilet-Nayel,M. 2019. Confirmation of Fusarium root rot resistance QTL Fsp-Ps 2.1 of pea Under controlled conditions. BMC Plant Biology 19:98.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Ma, Y., Marzougui, A., Coyne, C.J., Sankaran, S., Main, D., Porter, L.D., Mugabe, D., Smitchger, J., Zhang, C., Amin, M.N., Rasheed, N., Ficklin, S., and McGee, R. 2020. Dissecting the genetic architecture of Aphanomyces root rot resistance in lentil by QTL mapping and genome-wide association study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21: 2129.


Progress 09/01/18 to 08/31/19

Outputs
Target Audience:Target audience includes farmers, agricultural industry, bankers, farm service agency, extension professionals, graduate students, post-docs, faculty and administrators. Changes/Problems:Dr. Julie Pasche has accepted another position at North Dakota State University and will be transitioning off of this project starting in Feb 2020. We are planning for this change and do not forsee any barriers to completion of the project. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Students have presented their research at field days. Three graduate students and one post doc were hired for the project. Most or all will attend the North American Pulse Improvement Association meeting in November in Fargo, ND. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?See outputs for list of stakeholder meetings, social media, extension publications, trade publications, radio, television, websites, field days, extension presentations, scientific presentations, etc. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?In Year 2, the lentil survey and field studies will proceed as conducted in Y1, as will lab research and administrative coordination. Some alterations to the survey instrument will be made to answer questions raised by results in Y1. Funding for student travel and research experiences should increase due to publicity.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? This was the first year of the 4 year project to investigate agronomic, pathological, and genetic aspects of root rot management in lentils. PIs hired staff, field trials were established in Montana and North Dakota, field surveys were performed in four states. Genetic materials were obtained and are being processed. Currently (August 2019) we are in the midst of harvest so results are largely pending and will be compiled this fall and winter. Extension and evaluation goals, as well as project coordination goals, were met. In Montana, two graduate students (Collins Bugingo and Sydney Atencio) were hired for a PhD and MS degree. All field trials were established at the four research centers. These include a study of fertility, roll timing, variety selection and fungicide seed treatments as they affect disease. Low disease was generally observed. The variety trial and seed treatment trial were inoculated with five isolates of Fusarium spp. Surveys conducted in North Dakota in 2017/2018 identified the most commonly isolated species: F. oxysporum (36 / 38%), F. graminearum (11 / 6%), F. sporotrichioides (10 / 4%), F. acuminatum (8 / 21%), F. equiseti (7 / 6%), F. culmorum (6 / 0%), F. avenaceum (3 / 6%) and F. redolens (3 / 19%). Based on that survey, we used two isolates of F. oxysporum, and one isolate each of F. avenaceum, F. acuminatum and F. redolens for field inoculations. These were the top 5 most pathogenic species based on greenhouse trials and represents the higher frequency of F. oxysporum. All isolates used in Montana were originally isolated in Montana, and those used in North Dakota were obtained from North Dakota. For the field survey, lentils from twenty five locations were collected and sent to NDSU for processing to identify the primary Fusarium species causing root rot. We are currently collecting seed samples from those fields prior to harvest. In addition, weeds were collected from 29 fields in five counties to determine if weeds could be important alternative hosts of the Fusarium spp. associated with root rot. Based on brown and black discoloration of lateral and tap roots, weeds were categorized as symptomatic (36 plants) and asymptomatic (81 plants). Based on colony color, spore size and shape, preliminary results showed successful isolation of Fusarium from 16 weed species. Fusarium isolates from weeds with a positive host status will be identified to species and tested for pathogenicity on lentils. In North Dakota, Dimitri Lakshan was hired for an MS degree in the lab of Dr. Pasche. He performed the lentil survey and coordinated field operations at research centers.Lentil samples from surveys in Washington, Montana, and North Dakota were sent to NDSU for processing via traditional plating techniques and GBS.Overall, disease pressure was low and very few significant differences were seen in plant establishment, canopy cover, nodulation and disease severity in the fertility, plant variety, and seed treatment trials. Dr. Mike Grusak's lab at USDA-ARS in Fargo, ND received lentil seed samples (greenhouse study) from Clare Coyne and Rebecca McGee for mineral analysis and we have started to digest and analyze this material. Dr. Grusak has had phone conversations and/or email exchanges with team members regarding field sampling to get clean seeds for seed quality analyses (minerals and protein). Seed is currently being collected from survey sites and field plots for analysis after harvest. Dr. Lyndon Porter at USDA-ARS in Prosser, WA conducted a survey of 25 lentil fields in Washington and Idaho and sent samples to NDSU. He is currently characterizing the isolates of pathogens used for the field study for use in breeding efforts.Drs. Rebecca McGee and Clarice Coyne at USDA-ARS in Prosser, WA have hired a post doc (Yu Ma) and organized the lentil diversity panel (LDP) at the Pullman site, a total of 564 lines (cultivars, landraces, wild lentils). After discussions with our North Dakota project Co-PD, they decided to focus phenotyping on lentil root rot caused by Fusarium avenaceum. The first 324 LDP lines were distributed to Prosser site for greenhouse disease screening for reaction to F. avenaceum. This will give us our first understanding of the genetics controlling genetic resistance in lentil to this pathogen. SNPs for exome capture of these 324 LDP were re-mapped to the new lentil reference genome (LenRef 2.0). LenRef 2.0 is far superior assembly to the first reference genome LenRef 1.2 as it includes additional long reads and Hi-C sequence data. DNA has been extracted from an additional 240 LDP lines and submitted for sequencing at U.C. Berkeley Vincent J. Coates Genomics Sequencing Lab, & Computational Genomics Resources Lab using Illumina NovaSeq PE150 technology. 2020 field study of the 564 LDP lines has been designed to assist in identifying agronomically superior lines with high levels of resistance to F. avenaceum. The PIs have conducted a number of presentations, field days, media alerts, and radio and television appearances to raise awareness about root rot of pulse crops, as listed in our outputs. A website was established at http://www.montana.edu/legumes/. PIs have met formally three times and informally countless times in person, via email and phone. A stakeholder kickoff meeting was held and regular updates are being sent. Stakeholders are being put to work helping with aspects of the project, which increases engagement with the group. This REEport and a report following harvest summarizing this year's results will be sent to all stakeholders and cooperators. Graduate students have been given the opportunity to present at field days and most will be attending the North American Pulse Improvement Association meeting in Fargo, ND in November 2019. This is an excellent opportunity to meet the genetics and pathology leaders in the field from the US, Canada, Europe, Australia, and other countries. The travel scholarship and research experience funding availability has been advertised via the website, direct emails, and the NAPIA website and email solicitations (https://www.bic-napia.org/). We conducted the lentil production practice survey 4 times to a total of 89 participants in 4 states. The survey represented 52k acres of peas, 44k acres of lentils, and 56k acres of chickpeas (152k total acres). Most respondents were experienced pulse growers (>4y). For all growers, the main target for disease management is Ascochyta blight. There were very few growers using organic growing methods, indicating we largely missed this audience during the surveys. Growers used most IPM practices, with agronomic practices and crop rotation being the most dominant. Growers in newer production areas were most interested in disease ID. On average, seed testing was reported as an IPM practice by only 40% of growers. We don't know if this is because growers don't test seed or if they are relying on their seed supplier to do the testing. This bears further investigation. Fungicide use for seed and foliar disease management varied by production area. On average, 50% of growers were using fungicide resistance management as an IPM technique, while only 24% were interested in more information on the topic. Interestingly, when asked where they get their information about pulse disease management, growers primarily used personal communications and websites. Zero percent chose social media as a principle source of information. One can speculate that growers may be alerted to problems via social media but do not rely on it for decision making. This also bears further investigation.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: G. Vandemark, H. Yeager and B. Pittendrigh. 2019. Emerging Opportunities for Pulse Production: Genetics, Genomics, Phenomics and Integrated Pest Management. NIFA Conference white paper. https://sites.google.com/view/pulseconference/conference-materials (Burrows, Coyne, McGee, Pasche, Porter participated in this meeting)
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: M. Burrows, L. Porter and J. Pasche. 2018. Game of Crops: managing pulse root rots. Take Your Pulse Magazine (USA Dry Pea and Lentil Association). http://pubhtml5.com/gtwd/knox
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: M. Burrows. 1 May, 2019. Seed and foliar fungicide tables for pulse crops and foliar table for wheat. Montana AgAlert. Over 1000 email, text, and fax subscribers.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: M. Burrows. 14 May, 2019. Sites requested: Lentil root rot. Montana AgAlert. Over 1000 email, text, and fax subscribers.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: M. Burrows. 8 July, 2019. It started raining: prevalent diseases in cereals and pulses. Montana AgAlert. Over 1000 email, text, and fax subscribers.
  • Type: Websites Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Project website. http://www.montana.edu/legumes/
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Kalil, A., and Pasche, J. 2019. Lentil Root Rot. North Dakota State Cooperative Extension Service - Crop and Pest Report. August 15, 2019 (14):8-9.