Progress 01/08/18 to 09/30/18
Target Audience:Members of the target audience included producers, consumers, and the foodindustry. Changes/Problems:
What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Participation and networking in scientific meetings: Americal Chemical Society. Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Oral presentation by invitation. August 19, 2018 - Boston Convention and Exhibition Center. American Chemical Society. Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Natural Alternatives to Artificial Food Additives. Oral presentation. August, 23, 2017 - Walter E. Washington Convention Center. American Society for Nutrition (June 9-12, 2018, Boston). How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Presentation in scientific meetings: Luna-Vital, D. A and, de Mejia, E.G. 2018. Current evidence of beneficial effects of anthocyanins from colored corn in in vitro models of obesity and diabetes (AGFD 59). In: Health Promoting Food Ingredients. Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Oral presentation by invitation. August 19, 2018 - Boston Convention and Exhibition Center. de Mejia, E. andLuna-Vital, D. 2017. Stabilization of anthocyanins with food pigment potential and their insulin sensitizing effect in adipocytes under inflammatory status (final paper number: AGFD 219) PAPER ID: 2739944. Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Natural Alternatives to Artificial Food Additives. Oral presentation. August, 23, 2017 - Walter E. Washington Convention Center. Luna-Vital, D. and Gonzalez de Mejia, E. 2018. Activation of novel type-2 diabetes markers free fatty acid receptor-1 and glucokinase by anthocyanins from colored corn in vitro. American Society for Nutrition (June 9-12, 2018, Boston). Abstract ID: 435046. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Continue with the analyses of the samples from the animal study and submit for publication the following manuscripts: Zhang, Q., Luna-Vital, D. and Gonzalez de Mejia, E. 2018. Anthocyanins from colored maize ameliorated the inflammatory paracrine interplay between macrophages and adipocytes through regulation of NF-κB and JNK-dependent MAPK pathways. Luna-Vital, D., Chatham, L., Juvik, J., Singh, V., Somavat, P. and de Mejia, E. 2019. Water soluble phenolics from an improved variety of Apache red maize activated free fatty acid receptor-1 and glucokinase in vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Science. Zhang, Q., Gonzalez de Mejia, E., Luna-Vital, Tao, T., Chandrasekaran, S., Chatham, L., Juvik, J., Singh, V. and Kumar, D. 2019. Anthocyanins from colored maize ameliorated the inflammatory paracrine interplay between macrophages and adipocytes through regulation of NF-kB and JNK-dependent MAPK pathways.
What was accomplished under these goals?
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of anthocyanins (ANC) present in purple corn to enhance insulin secretion and hepatic glucose uptake in pancreatic cells and hepatocytes, through activation of the free fatty acid receptor-1 (FFAR1) and glucokinase (GK), respectively. Using a dual-layer cell culture with Caco-2 cells, INS-1E or HepG2 cells were treated with an anthocyanin-rich extract from the pericarp of purple corn (PCW), as well as pure ANC cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), peonidin-3-O-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside. Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (D3G) was used for comparative purposes. Semipurified C3G (C3G-P) and condensed forms (CF-P) isolated from PCW were also used. At 100 μM, the pure ANC enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in INS-1E cells ranging from 18% to 40% (p<0.05) compared to untreated cells. PCW increased GSIS by 51%. D3G was the most effective anthocyanin activating FFAR1 (EC50: 196.6 μM). PCW had activating potential on FFAR1 (EC50: 77 μg/mL). PCW, as well as C3G and D3G increased the expression of FFAR1, PLC, and phosphorylation of PKD, related to the FFAR1-dependent insulin secretory pathway. The treatment with 100 μM of P3G and C3G increased (p<0.05) glucose uptake in HepG2 cells by 19% and 31%. PCW increased the glucose uptake in HepG2 cells by 48%. It was determined that CF-P was the most effective for activating GK (EC50: 39.9 μM) and the PCW extracts had an efficacy of EC50: 44 μg/mL. The ANC in purple corn also reduced AMPK phosphorylation and PEPCK expression in HepG2 cells, known to be related to reduction in gluconeogenesis. It is demonstrated for the first time that dietary ANC can enhance the activity of novel biomarkers FFAR1 and GK and potentially ameliorate type-2 diabetes comorbidities.
Luna-Vital, D.A. and Gonzalez de Mejia, E. 2018. Anthocyanins from purple corn activate free fatty acid-receptor 1 and glucokinase enhancing in vitro insulin secretion and hepatic glucose uptake. PLoS ONE 13(7): e0200449. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200449.