Source: UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO AT MAYAGUEZ submitted to
COORDINATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN IPM PROGRAM IN PUERTO RICO
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1013976
Grant No.
2017-70006-27199
Project No.
PRNN-2017-04497
Proposal No.
2017-04497
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
EIP
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2017
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2022
Grant Year
2020
Project Director
Almodovar, W.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO AT MAYAGUEZ
P. O. BOX 9000
MAYAGUEZ,PR 00681
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
The Extension Implementation Programin Puerto Rico (PR) most important goalsare to reduce human and environmental health risks,improvingagricultural biosecurity. The desire outcome is to increase the number of farmers that adopt Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices to manage diseases and pests through training in demonstration projects. The citrus commodity is one of great economic importance in PR contributing with 4.25 million to theagricultural income. The effect of the Citrus Greening (CG) disease in citrus orchards throughout the Island is increasing in an alarming way as observed byExtension faculty in their routine visits to citrus growers.Our main objective in CG is to reduce the impact of the disease on citrus orchards by developing a demonstrational project farm where IPM practices will be applied andcitrus growers trained.Workshops will showcase the demonstration and are directed to growersand other educators related to the citrus commodity. During the workshops, the Extension Fruit Specialist will emphasize the importance of the IPM practices applied in the project, and how this practices are related to improvement in production. During the second year results obtained in the demonstration project will be validated in other farms of interested farmers. During the third year extension agents and farmers participating in demonstration projects will participate in a forum to inform results to see the impact of CG management on their farms. The expected benefits are to increase grower profits by applying IPM practices, reduce the damage caused by CGdisease in PR Citrus production and strengthen the Citrus local market for agricultural produce. Banana production occupies the first place in importance among crops in PR. Due to its importance to the agriculture and preference of the consumers, local farmers are aware that they need to maintain good quality fruits for local markets.Recently,the banana rust thripwas reported causing significant damage tofarms. Extension faculty will survey banana farms for the presence of therust thrip, and help in the establishment of demonstrations, trainings andfield days. The technological publication for banana and plantain, with information of production and pest management will be revised and updated. The project will be established at twofarms ofthe southern part of the Island where the majority of banana production is located.Project benefits include: an increase of the number of growers that use IPM and their profits by applying IPM practices, reduction in the damage caused by rust thrip and strengthening of the Banana local market for agricultural produce. In Poinsettia IPM the need isto reducegrowers' reliance on pesticides. In PR the ornamentalindustry is heavily managed withfertilizers and pesticides creating a threat for runoff water pollution, human health and the environment. There is a lack of knowledge about IPM andbest management practices (BMP)in ornamental production. A survey will be administered to poinsettia plant growers to learn about current patterns of pesticide use and IPM - BMP knowledge. Results will be used to increase ornamental plant growers' knowledge on IPM - BMP and achieve a reduction of pesticide use. Educational materials and training ofgrowers will make them learn how the adoption of these practices will result in economic benefits and quality improvement in their production. The Dairy Industry is the most important agricultural entrepreneur in Puerto Rico, generating $212.7 M. Pathogens such as E. coli and S. aureus, two of themost important bacteria causing mastitis worldwidehave been commonly isolated in dairy farms causingeconomical losses of over 10 million dollars in 2014. Horn fly IPM in dairy herds will be achieved by the incorporation of an integratedfly control program consisting ofphysical control tools such as fly traps, manure management andbiological control with parasitic wasps. The Incidence of bacteriain bulk tank milk and in collected flies, pre- and post-implementation of the methods in each dairy herd will be determined molecularly. The program will include a population of 1,000 dairy cows distributed around PR.With the collaboration of Extension Economist Specialists, the data will be assessed to determine the economic benefits of the proposed IPM. Results will be presented in meetings as well as in peer review scientific journals.Benefits include a reduction of the overall incidence of diseases transmitted by flies in dairy cattle, improvement of farm profitability and animal wellbeing, reduction of the amount of chemicals used for fly control and an increase of the knowledge of the dairy farmers. IPM area for pesticide applicators include training by thePesticide Coordinator to Extension faculty in a train the trainer to pesticide applicators. This material will reinforce our educational work and serve as a future reference for pesticide applicators at both the private and commercial levels. New trainingmaterials, including video clips, will be developed in safe pesticide handling andapplication, pesticide application equipment,calibration, monitoring devices used oninstallations, Personal Protection Equipment (PPE), bed bugs and mosquito management. Benefits include a decrease of the impacts to non-target organisms from pesticides and a healthier environment due to wiser pesticide use and a reduction to human health risks and the environment. At the IPM for diagnostic facilities we will identify, with the help of Extension faculty, the farms in need of diseases diagnostic. Field days will be held at the most affected farms to collect samples, provide assistance in identifying plant diseases and provide educational information for their control. The WhatsApp application will be used as way to communicate sampling and report. A new Extension diagnostic clinic will be established to assist the farmers of the northeast and central region of PR to improve detection and tracking of new and invasive pests. Extension faculty and farmers will be trained on sample collection and handling, during field days at affected farms and informal meetings. Samples will be collected and diagnosis made in the field and in the laboratory. Results will be delivered to farmers during the field day, via Extension faculty, Whatsapp or email. This will provide the opportunity of identification of diseases and pests and educate farmers about best IPM practices. Also, is expected a decrease in yield losses and epidemics in crops and a reduction of inoculum and dispersion of diseases and pests.
Animal Health Component
14%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
100%
Applied
0%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2160999310014%
2161010113013%
2162123310013%
2163410111017%
2166050302015%
2161099310013%
2166010310015%
Goals / Objectives
The overall goals of our project are to reduce human and environmental health risks, improve IPM practices and increase IPM adoption. Our main objective in the citrus project will be to reduce the impact of the disease on citrus orchards in Puerto Rico by developing a demonstrational project where the recommended practices will be applied and demonstrate citrus growers the advantages of using IPM strategies to manage HLB (Citrus Greening).The proposed work aims to 1)conduct validation for Citrus greening management tactics with emphasis on cultural practices (foliar fertilizer and systemic fungicide applications), (2) to determine the effects of these tactics on disease incidence; and (3) to prepare a demonstration plot at a model farm located in Utuado municipality that will be used as a platform for farmers training. In Banana Rust Thrip IPM the goals are: (1) to promote the adoption and implementation of effective integrated management strategies to control banana rust thrip. This will be addressed in visits to banana growers by Extension Agents in collaboration with the Banana Specialist to identify the presence or absence of the rust thrip in banana farms, (2) establishment of a demonstrational project, (3) training of Extension agents and Agronomists of the Department of agriculture, (4) field days to demonstrate the results obtained in the project and (5) updating of the Technological package for banana and plantain. Our main goal in Poinsettia IPM is to increase ornamental plant growers' knowledge on IPM and BMP which can result in reduction of pesticide use. The objectives are, (1) to gather islandwide information and data through a survey to poinsettia plant growers related to current patterns of pesticide use, pesticide use safety, IPM and BMP knowledge, (2) prepare educational materials to train personnel and growers, (3) prepare and publish pest alerts and fact sheets and (4) measure the increase of knowledge in IPM and BMP. On the trainings, producers will understand the advantages of BMP in their nurseries and how the adoption of these practices will result in economic benefits and quality improvement in their production. In IPM Implementation in Animal Agriculture, specifically, Fly IPM the objectives includes the incorporation of innovative non-chemical and chemical fly management tools in tropical dairy herds to (1) provide continuous education to the dairy farmers about fly management control, (2) continued monitoring of fly counts in participating dairy herds, and (3) increase the number of dairy farmers that adopt IPM practices to manage flies. Participating Extension Agents will be trained in the recommended IPM practices for fly control. Using recommendations of the Extension Agents, dairy farmers will be register to participate in the program. These farmers will be trained about the IPM practices to be incorporated. In IPM Education for Pesticide Application the goal is to enhance the ability of extension educators to provide high quality training with updated educational materials by training and supporting initial pesticide applicator licensing of agricultural producers, government agency, and non-governmental organizations personnel. The objectives are: (1) Develop new trainings materials, (2)enhance, review and update presentations, (3) prepare presentations and training materials (pamphlet) about Bed bugs and mosquito management and (4) train the trainers educational program. Once the educational materials are ready, the program staff will be trained. These trainings (presentations) replace those currently used in their certification training. In IPM Support for Pest Diagnostic Facilities the main objectives are: (1) to provide assistance in identifying plant diseases, (2) provide educational information for their control and create more efficient use of information technology to speed up communication between Clinic staff and Extension agents and between Extension agents and farmers by creating a dedicated social group on WhatsApp where photos of pest and disease samples are submitted for visual observation and posting of results is made. (2) A new Extension diagnostic clinic will be established in one of the facilities of the Agricultural Experiment Station from the North East region at Rio Piedras. The primary goal will be to assist the farmers of the northeast and central region of the Island. This clinic will be connected to the Extension clinic in Mayaguez. (3) Training of Extension agents and farmers on sample collection and handling will be done thru field days to affected farms, informal talks in the field, sample collection and diagnosis in the field and in the laboratory with results delivered to farmers in the field day, via Extension agents, Whatsapp or email.
Project Methods
IPM Coordination. The project staff will be part of an IPM Committee that will serve as a focal point for communication and collaboration within the project, and provide coordination and leadership of impact and program evaluation. A monthly newsletter, Clinic Update will inform the public about the project's IPM efforts. In Citrus greening (CG) IPM, a field workshop will take place to show farmers citrus crops with and without a CG management plan. A 4-Step program will be implemented that consists of monitoring and management of the psyllid vector, soil and foliage nutritional program and Phytophthora control. At the end of each year a field workshop will show the clientele the development of new trees and how CG management practices improved tree condition. During the second year results obtained in the demonstration project will be validated with other interested farmers. An evaluation instrument will measure practice adoption by farmers and effect in citrus yield. It will be delivered to growers at the beginning and at the end of the year during the project. At the end of the third year a digital publication will be delivered and extension agents and farmers participating in demonstration projects will participate in a forum to inform results to see the impact of CG management on their farms. In Rust thrip IPM, during the first year the Banana Specialist in collaboration with Extension agents will visit banana commercial farms and identify the presence or absence of the rust thrip. A questionnaire will be administered to growers to document actual practices implemented by banana farmers. Two demonstrational projects in commercial farms will validate IPM practices like thrip monitoring, bagging of fruit bunches with insecticide impregnated bags, weed and canopy management and other practices that can be economically feasible to banana growers. Extension agents and farmers will be trained in banana rust thrip IPM. Results obtained in the demonstration project will be informed to farmers by means of field days. Results of the project will be presented in the banana and plantain commodity meeting and thru an extension publication developed by the Banana Specialist. During the third year the Banana and Plantain Technological Package will be updated focusing on banana rust thrip management. To measure the increase of knowledge in Banana Rust Thrip IPM at the end of the project, we will deliver the same questionnaire delivered to growers at the beginning to assess how they change their management practices and adopted banana rust thrip IPM. Floriculture - Poinssettia pests: During the first year this project will gather island wide information from poinsettia growers, like current patterns of pesticide use and their IPM knowledge. The IPM Specialist and Ornamental Plant Specialist will prepare the survey and interview and deliver the questionnaire to selected growers. A google site will be created and maintained by the Ornamental Plant Specialist, to publish information about the survey and IPM/BMP for Poinsettias. During the second year the IPM Specialist will compile information about IPM and BMP's in ornamental plants, prepare electronic presentations and field guide. During the third year five trainings will be held for Agricultural Agents and poinsettia growers. All growers will be invited to a field day where a demonstrative poinsettia production will be held at Agricultural Experiment Station at Corozal PR where the poinsettia growers will learn and see how their production should be. A second field day will visit one of the poinsettia growers with the best IPM and BMP to educate the other growers. In addition to the training pest alerts and fact sheets about BMP and poinsettias crop production will be distributed. To demonstrate what was learned through the IPM and BMPs promotions a survey is going to be delivered to growers, 6 months after the trainings, as a measurable tool of the increase in knowledge. Implementation of IPM in animal agriculture: The program will include a population of 1,000 dairy cows distributed around the island (n=10 dairy herds). An integrated fly control program will consist of physical control tools such as Fly traps (Trap 'n Toss Disposable Fly Trap; Starbar®), manure managements and Vacuum Fly trapper, biological control consisting of the parasitic wasps Muscidifurax (M) raptor and M. raptorellis and ear tags as low-labor intensity approach for fly control. Incidence of E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella in bulk tank milk and in collected flies, pre- and post-implementation of the aforementioned methods in each dairy herd will be determined molecularly using a 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System. In addition, presence of Anaplasma marginale in collected flies will be screened in all dairies through a commercial PCR-kit. Participating Extension Agents will be trained in the recommended IPM practices for fly control. Using recommendations of the Extension Agents, dairy farmers will be registered to participate in the program and will be trained in the use of power point and request to present their experiences in the program. With collaboration of Extension Economist Specialists, the data will be assessed to determine the economic benefits of the program. IPM Education for pesticide applicators: The Pesticide Coordinator will develop a train the trainer program including the 10 County Agents that collaborate in PSEP education across the island. The presentations and educational materials used in trainings to private and commercial applicators will be updated and other educational components like photos and video clips added to enhance presentations. New information about emerging pests and diseases of importance to public health, like bed bugs and Zika virus will be part of the train the trainer program to extension educators and supporting initial pesticide applicator licensing of agricultural producers, government agency, and non-governmental organizations personnel. This material would reinforce our educational work and serve as a future reference for pesticide applicators at both the private and commercial levels. These presentations replace those currently used in their certification training. Pesticide Coordinator will train County Agents using Core training presentation. IPM support for pest diagnostic facilities: to provide assistance in identifying plant pests and speed up communication between Clinic staff and Extension agents and farmers a social group on WhatsApp will be created where photos of diseased samples will be submitted for visual observation and posting of results. A new Extension diagnostic clinic will be established in the Agricultural Experiment Station region at Rio Piedras to assist the farmers of the northeast and central region, improve detection and tracking of new and invasive pests; and facilitate responses to the clients. Training of Extension agents and farmers on sample collection and handling will be done thru field days to affected farms and informal talks in the field. Sample will be collected and diagnosed in the field and in the laboratory and results delivered to farmers in the field day, via Extension agents, Whatsapp or email. An extension publication will assist farmers and Extension agents to recognize the most common diseases and insects detected in the field days. A brief survey will be administered at the beginning of the project to identify disease and pest problems and determine how the clinic will help growers and at the end of the second year to see how farmers improved their diagnostic abilities. At the end of the third year we will administer the survey to see how the educational program decreased yield losses in farms of participants.

Progress 09/01/20 to 08/31/21

Outputs
Target Audience: Plantain and banana farmers EXtension Agents NRCS Agronbomists Dairy farmers Vegetable growers Agromomists of the PR Department of Agriculture Students of the Department of Agroenvironmental Sciences Master Gardeners Root Crops Farmers Poinsettia producers Ornamental producers Changes/Problems: The objectives of the parts: IPM Conservation Partnerships and IPM Implementation in Specialty Crops: Banana & Plantain are not finished. Some of the reasons to fail in the completion of the objectives were the limitations caused by the COVID pandemic and a delay in the beginning of the collaboration with NRCS due to change in personnel working with us in the IPM Conservation Partnership objectives, specifically the IPM Tech Notes. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Ten students were trained in pathogen identification, plant pathology, diagnostics, data collection, and control practices. Five students were trained inmolecular identification of flies, data collection, experimental design, statistical analysis, and control practices. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Participation of the UPRM Diagnostic Clinic in fairs developed by Extension Agents in different municipalities around the Island. Posters and educational information were delivered to the community about the project, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis of diseases and pests and the use of IPM practices to reduce the use of pesticides and associated risks to humans and the environment. Conferences, training, and field days offered throughout the Island by the PD and COPD's. Posting of project's achievements in the Extension's official webpage (https://www.uprm.edu/sea/sea-del-oeste/) and the poinsettia google site, https://sites.google.com/upr.edu/pascuaspr/sobre-proyecto-ipm. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Plantain and Banana IPM Build macropropagation tunnels in two farms. Train farmers in how to establish the macrotunnels Make a publication about banana seed propagation in macrotunnels Field day to inform other farmers about the benefits of macrotunnels IPM Conservation Partnerships Prepare Banana and Plantain IPM Technical Note Prepare Citrus IPM Technical Note Prepare Pineapple IPM Technical Note Prepare Solanaceous Crops IPM Technical Note Prepare Cucurbit Crops IPM Technical Note Present IPM Technical Notes to NRCS personnel

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? In Poinsettia IPM weincreased ornamental plant growers' knowledge on IPM and BMPresulting in 30% pesticide reduction in nurseries. The IPM for Poinsettias google site:sites.google.com/upr.edu/pascuaspr was updated with all the information developed and the site is a very useful reference site for producers, Extension agents an the general public. The pest alerts and fact sheets prepared were posted and aphoto gallery was developed in the site with power point presentations that can be used by Extension personell. The results were presented in the Puerto Rican Agricultural Sciences Society (SOPCA). On the trainings, producers understood the advantages of BMP in their nurseries as demonstrated in routine visits of Extension Agents. Poinsettia growers were trained by Extension Agents in IPM and BMP andadoptedatleast three IPM practices in their nurseries, strengthening the poinsettia local market for the quality products. Evaluation of thetrainees showed that post-test scores were 40% higher when compared to pre-test scores, supporting the achievement of thelearning objectives. In Fly IPM the detection of the presence of pathogens in collected flies and milk samples through a commercial PCR-kit was completed.All dairy herds around the Island were screened to identify those with fly counts exceeding the economical fly threshold for dairy cows (>100 flies per cow). Results showed that none of the screened farms exceed the threshold. In order to keep adding herds into our data set and generate more accurate data that can be used to test the efficacy of the CowVac in reducing flies in herds and continuing collecting flies a Cow Vac wasinstalled at the AJ Farm. The acclimation process of the cows has been completed and we are currently waiting to synch the fly collections (with the Cow Vac) with the Dairy Herd Tick bath schedule. During the last semester, a new graduate student was hired and trained and flies from a dairy herd with known history of anaplasmosis and babesiosis were collected. These flies were used to train 2 undergraduate and 6 graduate students from UPRM (April 3-4, 2021;) about Molecular Testing to detect mastitis pathogens, anaplasma and babesia.Theefficacy of chemical fly control method and molecular screening of pathogens transmitted by flies to cattle was finished andfarmers trained so they canimprove their decisions regarding fly control in dairy herds. In vitroandin vivotests were performed anddetermined the efficacy of a pour on commercial product for fly control in dairy cattle that was reccomended to farmers. In December 17, 2020 entitled: a live broadcast seminar was offered to Extension Agents, Farmers and Students (29 viewers, 18 comments and 20 shares) about Fly IPM in dairy Herds. Four presenters participated in this webinar including the Extension Agents Angelica Alvarado, and the Researchers Joaquin Chong, Martha Giraldo and Jaime Curbelo. https://fb.watch/7vqGUkz3NX/The molecular screening of pathogens transmitted by flies is being used by dairy cattle farmers in Puerto Rico. We currently finished the manuscript entitled: In vitro evaluation of a permethrin-based pesticide for the control of Haematobia irritans and is being submitted to the editorial board of the Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. Based on the results of this study, additional trials will be conducted to rule out a new Hypothesis: Does the Commercial permethrin-based insecticide acts as a fly killer or repellent? In IPM support for Pest Diagnostic Facilities, Extension Agents and farmers were trained in pest identification and IPM in 4field days to affected farms in Mayaguez and Lajas. One live broadcast seminarwas offered to Extension Agents, farmers and the general public about and Diagnosis of diseases and how to take samples (1,600 persons reached). Four extension publications were developed to assist farmers and Extension agents in pest diagnosis and IPM. Outputs included timely diagnostic reports to clientele, with 79samples analyzed in this period in the diagnostic clinic. In Banana and plantain IPMcontinuous education was provided to the banana industry in disease management practices and biosecurity thru visits to the farm and demonstration methods of management practices.In September 8, 2020 a live broadcast seminar was offered to Extension Agents, Farmers and Students(57viewers)about Biosecurity Measures inBanana and Plantain Farms, https://youtu.be/uhpcuszbPgc.In September 15, 2020 a live broadcast seminar was offered to Extension Agents, Farmers and Students (155 viewers) about Exotic diseases of Banana and plantain, https://youtu.be/v8qIRpXklLo. Macro-propagation tunnels for production of banana seed free of diseases were constructed at the Agricultural Experiment Substation of Corozal and the UPRM Alzamora farm that served as training sites for Extension agents and farmers and providedan innovative and safe methodology for mass propagation of planting materials. Banana and plantain producers increased their knowledge inbiosecurity measures that they need to implement in their farms. Banana farmers visited by the project staff adopted at least threeIPM practices in their farms to reduce and prevent newdiseases and improve biosecurity. An Extension publication about prevention and biosecurity of Fusarium wilt FocTR4 was published.

Publications

  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Rivera, Dania. 2020. Good Agricultural Practices in Poinsettia.Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Rivera, Dania. 2020. Poinsettia Vegetative Growth. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2020. Poinsettia Pests and Diseases. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR.
  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Rivera, Dania. 2020. Poinsettia Production. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Rivera, Dania. 2020. Poinsettia: Cutting calculation in production tables. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Rivera, Dania. 2020. Poinsettia Growing Media. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Rivera, Dania. 2020. Transplanting Poinsettia. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. fact Sheet.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Rivera, Dania. 2020. Poinsettia Height Control. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Fact Sheet.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Rivera, Dania. 2020. Pinching Required by Poinsettia . Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Fact Sheet.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2020. Poinsettia IPM . Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Manual.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2020. Poinsettia: Sucking insects, whitefly and aphids. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Fact Sheet.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2020. Poinsettia Thrips. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Fact Sheet.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2020. Poinsettia Mites. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Fact Sheet.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2020. Poinsettia: Root & Crown Diseases. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Fact Sheet.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2020. Alternaria Leaf Spot of Poinsettia. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. fact Sheet.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2020. Poinsettia: Diseases caused by bacteria and virus. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. fact Sheet.
  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Almod�var, W. 2020. Biosecurity in Banana & Plantain farms to prevent Fusarium Wilt Tropical Race 4. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayaguez, PR. Fact Sheet.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Almod�var, W. 2020. Fusarium Wilt Tropical Race 4 - Threat to banana production in Puerto Rico. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayaguez, PR. Poster.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2021 Citation: Curbelo, Jaime. 2021. In vitro evaluation of a permethrin-based pesticide for the control of Haematobia irritans. Journal of Agriculture. University of Puerto Rico.


Progress 09/01/19 to 08/31/20

Outputs
Target Audience:Banana and Plantain Producers Starchy Crops Producers Vegetable Producers Extension Agents Horticultural Producers Poinsettia producers Beef Cattle Farmers Dairy Farmers Extension County Agents Agronomists of the Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture Puerto Rico Agricultural Industry Researchers of the Agricultural Experimental Station Pesticide Dealers Restricted use pesticide applicators Private pesticide applicators NRCS personnel Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Six studentswere trained in pathogen identification, plant pathology, diagnostics,data collection, and control practices. Two students and one research assistant were trained in the establishment of macro-propagation tunnels for the seed production of banana and plantain cultivars. Threestudents were trained inmolecular identificationof flies, data collection, experimental design, statistical analysis, and control practices. The Plant Pathology specialist and the Banana researcher attended the first global conference about Fusarium Wilt of Banana Tropical Race 4 that was held in Miami. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Participation of the UPRM Diagnostic Clinic in fairs developed by Extension Agents in different municipalities around the Island. Posters and educational information were delivered to the community about the project, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis of diseases and pests and the use of IPM practices to reduce the use of pesticides and associated risks to humans and the environment. Conferences, training, and field days offered throughout the Island by the PD and COPD's. Posting of project's achievements in the Extension's official webpage (https://www.uprm.edu/sea/sea-del-oeste/) and the poinsettia google site,https://sites.google.com/upr.edu/pascuaspr/sobre-proyecto-ipm. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?In Banana & Plantain, the goal is Fusarium Wilt prevention and farm biosecurity and training farmers in theproduction of healthy planting materials throughan innovative and safe methodology:macro-propagation tunnels. Demonstrative models of macro-propagation tunnels at the Agricultural Experiment Substation of Corozal and at three different plantains and banana farmwill serve totrain farmers to produce healthy planting materials. Extension publications will be developedto help farmers master this methodology.The results of the project will be informedto farmers by field days to the demonstrative project and informed in the banana and plantain commodity meeting to be held at the Experiment Station of Corozal. Extension agents, agronomists of the Department of Agriculture, and growers are going to be trained in Fusarium Tropical Race 4 prevention and biosecurity by Prof. Wanda Almodóvar. A pre-test and post-test will measure the increase in knowledge. An Extension publication about the prevention and biosecurity of Fusarium wilt FocTR4 will be prepared. The expected outcomeis topromote effective strategies to reduce the potential of introduction of FocTr4 to Puerto Rico and to respond to specific needs of banana growers providing the farmers an innovative and safe methodology to produce, high-quality disease-free seed to assure food security and income generation among small-scale farmers in Puerto Rico. In Citrus Greening IPM an online workshop for farmers and Extension personnel will be carried out on August 2020 to present the latest results in the Citrus greening demonstrative plot.A newsletter with the results will be posted on the Extension webpage and a video of the webinar published on Youtube. Inhorn fly IPM in dairy farms the detection of the presence of pathogens in collected flies and milk samples through a commercial PCR-kit will be expandedto other farms, further validating the molecular test that was developed to detect pathogens that affect cattle. Also, new data will be collectedto determine if certain flies are associated with mastitis pathogens recovered from bulk tank milk.Training of participating Extension Agents and registered farmers in the recommended IPM practices for fly control is intended. Additional training will be offered to this group regarding the findings of the IPM practices that worked in this study and results related to the pathogens associated with the studied cattle flies. The study on the efficacy of chemical fly control method and molecular screening of pathogens transmitted by flies to cattle will continue, to help farmers improve their decisions regarding fly control in dairy herds.In vitro and in vivo tests will be performed to determine the efficacy of a pour-on commercial product for fly control in dairy cattle. In the priority area of IPM Conservation Partnerships, IPM technical notes for crops to be used by soil conservationists as guidelinesare going to be developed. In the Extension Merit Review, the NRCS agronomist for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islandsrequested collaboration in the preparation of educational materials that producers will use to comply with the NRCS IPM practice. It is expected, that farmers will be able to select effective control methods to maintain the identified pest below the economic injury level, reduce production costs, and reduced impacts on human health risk and the environment.IPM notes will be developed for the most limiting pests and diseases of each crop.Each IPM Note will have an introduction to the selected pest or disease, principal and alternate hosts, and recommended IPM practices, including prevention, cultural practices, and mechanical, biological, and chemical control.IPM Notes will be supplemented with references and links to existent publications published through the Agricultural Extension Service webpage. In IPM for pest diagnostic facilities,training to Extension personnel and growers in symptom recognition, management practices, andsample collectionfor submission to the diagnostic clinic will continue. Also, the diagnostic clinic will providetimely pest identification and management information to producers and homeowners and support the specialty crops components by collaborating in the survey of Fusarium wilt in plantain and banana and farmer's training in biosecurity in their farms.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? In banana and plantain specialty crops the priority was toincrease knowledge of banana producers in rust thrip IPM, the Extension Banana Specialist provided continuing education to the banana industry in rust thrip management practices through visits to the farm and demonstration methods of management practices to control the banana rust thrip. The major outcome was that 94% of banana producers increased their knowledge ofrust thrip recognition and management and 85% of the banana farmers adopted at least five IPM practices,improving the banana local market for agricultural produce. In IPM in Poinsettias, the Ornamental and IPM Specialists trained Extension Agents in Poinsettia Best Management Practices andIPMand developed a manual andbudget model that was published online,https://sites.google.com/upr.edu/pascuaspr. The major outcomes werethe training ofExtension Agents andpoinsettia growers in IPM and BMP and the adoption of at least threeIPM practices in their nurseries, strengthening the poinsettia local market for the quality products. Evaluation of the traineesshowed that post-test scores were 40% higher when compared to pre-test scores, supporting the achievement of the learning objectives. In theCitrus Greening (CG) specialty crop priority results showed that the combined application of slow-release and foliar fertilizer every 6 months and the application of 3 to 4 insecticideand fungicide sprays during the year maintainedcitrus trees healthy. The average number of shoots per tree was63 compared to 48 in trees without the treatments. Treemortality was not observed in any treatment during the 3-year project duration, whilefivepercent mortality was observed inadult trees in the control plot. Threefield dayswere carried out with the participation of 29 farmers and 9 agronomists from the seed program of the Department of Agriculture. A newsletter about CG IPM including the results obtained in the demonstrational project was published as part of thedigital magazine El Frutal.The main outcome was an increase of 50% in the knowledge of farmers in the application of fertilization and fungicide programs to manage citrus groves. This will allow farmers to develop new citrus plantings with greater confidence and security. At the beginning of the project, only 13 farmers were carrying out a program for the management of Citrus Greening. With the project, 39 farmers adopted a management program for the disease on their farms. As a result of the education program, in the past 6 months, 108 farmers made requests for new citrus plantings. InIPM of dairy herds to control fliesthe molecular testto detect the presence of Anaplasma marginale and Babesia spp. in flies and blood from cattlewas validated presenting a 100% sensitivity and specificity and is used in farms for bovine parasite screening. This strategy is helping local dairy farmers to control and reduce the overall incidence of tick-borne diseases and other diseases transmitted by flies in dairy cattle. More than 70 cows from 5 dairy herds have been screened and recommendations for the control of these pathogens offered. Detection of mastitis pathogens in cattle flies and milk samples increased farmer's willingness to adopt recommended practices. This resulted in savings for their farm operations because they don't have to send the samples outside Puerto Rico. As a result, they adopted the practice of detecting pathogens in their farms to manage flies improving farm profitability and animal welfare as well as reducing the number of chemicals used for fly control in dairy farms.Forty-fivepersons, including Extensionagents, students, and researchers working in the Experimental Dairy, were trained about the most common cattle flies and their recommended IPM practices. Four Extension Agents reported using the educational material to help dairy farmers (n=10) to make correct decisions regarding fly control.The procedures, results, and experiences were presented to farmers at threeStake Holder meetings in Camuy, San Sebastian, and Gurabo counties, training more than 60 dairy farmers and other personnel associated with the Dairy Industry.Data collected from four dairy farms showed that certain flies carry pathogens such as coliforms (e.g., Escherichiacoli, Enterobacteria) and other environmental mastitis pathogens (Streptococcusdysgalactiae). In theIPM Education Program for Pesticide Applicators, the educational resources used by Agricultural Agents that offer pesticide courses were updated and improved.The commercial course in the plant category was revised to include the IPM component. The pesticide instructors are offering it to pesticide applicators. All Extension Agents (n=40) were trained in pesticide selection, use, and application, and a digital presentation was provided to be used in their training to farmers. The outcome was that Extension Agentsincreased their knowledge in pesticide selection, use, and application. They integrated this information in their orientation visits to farmers to reduce the risk to human health and the environment associated with pesticide use.Video clips about Personal Protection Equipment, pesticide equipment calibration, and use of nozzles were prepared and incorporated in the pesticide applicators certification course. InIPM support for pest diagnostic facilities, ExtensionAgents and farmers were trained in pest identification and IPM in 6 field days to affected farms throughout the Island. One workshop and fourconferences were offered about the prevention of Fusarium Wilt in banana and plantainand biosecurity measures in farms,with120 participants. Three online conferences were presented about banana Fusarium wilt TR4, Production of Farinaceous crops disease-free propagation material (https://www.uprm.edu/sea/extension-virtual/ and Integrated Disease Management of Vegetables (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-tpPwEQoYIA.) with the participation of farmers, Extension personnel and agronomists. Four extension publications were developed to assist farmers and Extension agents in pest diagnosis and IPM. Outputs included timely diagnostic reports to clientele, and collaboration with a survey for diseases on coffee, with 385 samples analyzed in 2019, in the diagnostic clinics.

Publications

  • Type: Other Status: Under Review Year Published: 2020 Citation: Almod�var, W. 2020. Diagnostic Clinic Report 2019. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR.
  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Almod�var, W. 2020. Fusarium Wilt Tropical Race 4. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Rivera Dania & Ada Alvarado. 2019. Poinsettia IPM and Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) demonstrational project in Puerto Rico. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Puertorrican Society of Agricultural Sciences. San Juan, PR.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Mart�nez, I., A. Brau, J.C. Rodr�guez, J. Genao, J. Pati�o and J. Curbelo. 2019. Association between the mastitic pathogen profile of bulk tank milk and cattle flies. Annual Meeting of the Puertorrican Society of Agricultural Sciences. San Juan, PR.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: A. Alvarado. 2019. Poinsettia IPM Guide. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayagu?ez, PR.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Rivera, D. & A. Alvarado. 2019. Development of Best Management Practices and Integrated Pest Management for Poinsettias in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayagu?ez, PR.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Almodovar, W., M. Giraldo, D. Rivera, A. Alvarado, J. Zamora, M. D�az & J. Curbelo. 2018. Coordinaci�n e Implementaci�n de un Programa de Manejo Integrado de Plagas en Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayagu?ez, PR.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Almod�var, W. 2020. Biosecurity in Banana & Plantain farms to prevent Fusarium Wilt Tropical Race 4. Coordination and implementation of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Brau-Rodriguez A. (2019). Validation of a Molecular Detection Test for Anaplasmosis and Babesiosis Pathogens and the Evaluation of Efficacy of a Chemical and a Non-Chemical Control Method for Bovine Biting Flies. University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Comas, M., D. Rivera & N. Laboy. 2019. Economic situation of the ornamental commodity and Poinssettia budget model. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayagu?ez, PR.


Progress 09/01/18 to 08/31/19

Outputs
Target Audience:Banana and Plantain Producers Starchy Crops Producers Vegetable Producers Extension Agents Horticultural Producers Poinsettia producers Beef Cattle Farmers Dairy Farmers Extension Specialists Agronomists of the Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture Puerto Rico Agricultural Industry Researchers of the Agricultural Experimental Station Pesticide Dealers Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Five students/technical person were trained in molecular ID of flies, data collection, experimental design, statistical analysis and control practices: 1) Astrid Brau-Rodríguez (Graduate student). trained in evaluation of a vacuum trap as a non-chemical strategy for the control of flies in dairy cattle. Marangely Alemañy-Ramos (Undergraduate student) helped in data collection of experimental trials.Joan Patiño (technical person)in molecular testing of experimental trials, Sonya Gonzalez (Undergraduate student)- trained in molecular detection of Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis pathogens (Moraxella bovis and Moraxella bovoculi) and their incidence in a Puertorican Dairy Farm. Antonio Camacho (new full time graduate student) - is being currently trained and will be in charge of data collection, analysis and publications of the association of mastitic pathogens in bulk tank milk from 9 dairy herds in Puerto Rico and their association with Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans, Musca domestica and Musca autumnalis flies. One graduate student and a technical person were trained in identification of plant diseases using conventional and molecular diagnostics. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Participation of the UPRM Diagnostic Clinic in fairs developed by Extension Agents in different municipalities around the Island. Posters and educational information was delivered to the community about the project, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis ofdiseases and pests and the use of IPM practices to reduce the use of pesticides and associated risks to humans and the environment. Conferences to junior and high school students in IPM in farinaceous crops by Dr. Martha Giraldo, Researcher and Plant Pathologist. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?In Citrus Greening IPM we will continue working on foliar sprays, data collection of the different treatments in the demonstrational project. The drone will be usedto monitor thetrees. It is planned to carry out 6practical trainings for farmers and agronomists in the application of IPM in the field and use of the drone to assess disease incidence. On March2020 we will have a workshop to present the final results of the project to farmers and Extension Agents. The digital magazine "El Frutal" will continue every 3 months and will include all data obtained from the project. In Rust Thrip IPM, the Plantain and banana crop profile will be updated to include the thrip and its management. Information obtained in the survey andexperiences from researchers and growers in other countries will be used to organize field days to train affected growers.The Ornamental and IPM Specialists will finish the preparation of the BMP & IPM Manual and will train Extension Agents and poinsettiagrowers. To demonstrate what was learned through the IPM and BMPs trainings we will deliver the survey used at the beginning of the project to the same growers, 6 months after the trainings, as a measurable tool of the increase in knowledge. In Fly IPM in dairy herdsmastitic pathogens will be evaluated in bulk tank milk from 9 dairy herds and their association with each of the following flies: Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans, Musca domestica and Musca autumnalis.In vitro trials will be conducted to evaluate resistance status of Horn Flies to commercial insecticides for the control of flies in dairy cattle. The procedures, results and experiences of farmers will be presented in the Stakeholder meetings that we coordinate around the island. Participating dairy farmers will be trained in the use of power point and requested to present their experiences in the program. Involvement of additional personnel associated with production, management and health of cattle such as beef cattle farmers, Extension Agents, Agronomists of PRDA, private and federal veterinarians, Extension Entomologists and local milk processors is expected. With collaboration of Extension Economist Specialists, the data will be assessed to determine the economic benefits of the proposed IPM. In IPM education to pesticide applicators, video clips about pesticide application equipment calibration, use and installation of monitoring devicesfor termites, roaches and rats;and Personal ProtectionEquipment (PPE) will be made. In pest diagnostics, we will continue working incollaboration with the Extension agents in identifying farmers withdisease and pest diagnostic needs and coordinate field days to train them insymptom recognition, how to take samples for submission to the diagnostic clinicand IPM practices. The survey administered to the growers at the beginning of the project will be delivered in the middle of the third year to see how farmers applied the IPM practices recommended to them after diagnosing pest and diseases and improved their diagnostic abilities.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? In Citrus Greening IPM, 11 agronomists of the Department of Agriculture and 3 farmers were trained. Aworkshop was carried outto promote management strategies.A total of 196 people participated in the field day, including 93 farmers. Fact sheets and posters about the disease, the vector and project results were distributed in the workshop and thru the Extension offices. A video of the activity is available inhttps://twitter.com/SEAUPRM/status/1126222892843327490/photo/1?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Eembeddedtimeline%7Ctwterm%5Eprofile%3ASEAUPRM&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.uprm.edu%2Fsea%2F. Until now the use of fertilization programs and soil fertilizerare maintainingtrees in active growth and with good fruit production. Next year we willdetermine which program is more effective based on results and cost of the inputs.In the trees in production a greater development and production in all fertilization programs was observed when comparing it with the control. Inbanana rust thrip IPM premature bunch bagging was evaluated with sulfur, spices and bifenthrin bags and conventional bunch bagging with bifenthrin 0.1%.Rust thrip damage was less than 10% in all treatments after 6 weeks of monitoring. A field day was celebrated to train Extension Agents in thrip biology and identification, monitoring in the field and use of premature bunch bagging. In farm visits farmers were trained to monitor the insect and in the application ofcultural practices. A questionnaire to banana farmers indicates that all banana farmers surveyed apply IPM. The most consistent practice is desuckering (100%) followed by the application of insecticides (85%). 77% of the participants use free planting material and remove the male bud to reduce the areas of shelter and feeding of the thrip. 62% carry out deflowering and keep the pseudostem free from dry leaves. 69% of the producers controlweeds. 46% of the participatingfarmers are not satisfied with their control of the rust thrip, and do not know the management costs associated to its control, including insecticide applications. In Poinsettia IPM, the results of the surveyindicate that 35% of the growers do not practiceIPM . All participants indicated that they control weeds inside and outsidetheir greenhouses and identify pests by experience. 88% of the growers remove diseased foliage, do not use preventive pesticide applications and do not follow the label instructions. 82% disinfect their tools, blades and hands. 53% use sticky traps to monitor insects and maintain record of identified insect pests. 65% of them indicated that have a registry of the pesticide use with the doses, frequency and date of application and reported the use of 32 different products for poinsettia pest management. 93% apply pesticides in a preventive way and only 18% uses biological control. This information was used to design the educational program and trainings to address deficiencies detected in the survey. The Ornamental Specialist compiled and integrated all information available about BMP's in poinsettia and adapted this information to the PR's Plant industry. A google site was created to publish information about the survey and post other educational materialshttps://sites.google.com/upr.edu/pascuaspr. We publish a podcast about the project https://www.uprm.edu/desdelaeea/2019/06/10/manejo-integrado-de-plagas-mip-del-servicio-de-extension-agricola/. Extension agents and producers are accesing the google site to learn more about the IPM practicesthey need to implement to have better control in their nurseries. In Horn Fly IPM we incorporatedinnovative non-chemical and chemical fly management tools in tropical dairy herds. Effectiveness of the Spalding Cow-Vac™ machine as a non-chemical control approach of flies populations in dairy heifers was evaluated. The average number of flies per heifer (n=13) was reduced from 164.38 in day one to 86.0 in day three. The economic threshold of infestation (>100 flies per cow) was reduced from 66.7 % in day 1 to 33.3% in day three. An in-house molecular testing for intracellular bovine parasite screening was developed and validated as a strategy to help local dairy farmers control tick born disease. From a total of 56 bovine blood samples collected in two dairy farms with history of tick infestations,31 were positive to Anaplasma marginale.26 Extension Agents were trained about the effect of flies in bovine production. Twenty six Extension Agents working with dairy and beef cattle were trained about identification of flies (using a microscope), IPM control practices for flies and thediseases they spread. The results of the IPM trials for fly control in dairy farms were presented in two different field days. The participants were: 4 Extension agents, 8 researchers and Dairy Specialists, 23 dairy farmers, 6 milk quality regulators, 6 University students, 1 dairy producer. In IPM education for pesticide applicators, the educational materials used in the Pesticide Certification program were updated to include IPM. All personnel of the Educational Program on Pesticide Certification participated in a"train the trainers" program. New training. materials like digital presentations and fact sheets about urban pests were developed and included in the training. In pest diagnostics,Extension Agents and farmers were trained in pest identification and IPM in 13 field days to affected farms throughout the Island. Fact sheets were produced about the management of diseases and pests found in the visits. A workshop about management of sweet potato and yam propagation material trained 120 persons inseed decontamination, identification of the most common pests and its control, and available registered insecticides. Educational displaysshowcased the diagnostic clinic services and how to collect and submit samples.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Almodovar, W., M. Giraldo, D. Rivera, A. Alvarado, J. Zamora, M. D�az & J. Curbelo. 2018. Coordinaci�n e Implementaci�n de un Programa de Manejo Integrado de Plagas en Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Puertorrican Society of Agricultural Sciences.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Giraldo, Martha & Wanda Almod�var. 2018. Cl�nica de Diagnostico: Identificacion y Manejo Integrado de enfermedades y plagas en los cultivos.University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Puertorrican Society of Agricultural Sciences.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Brau, Astrid, M. Alema�y, J. Pati�o & J. Curbelo. 2018. Evaluation of a vacuum fly trap as a non-chemical approach for the control of flies in dairy cattle. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Puertorrican Society of Agricultural Sciences.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: D�az, Manuel, Casiani Soto, Wanda Almodovar, Ada Alvarado e isbeth Irizarry. 2018. Manejo Inmtegrado del tripido de la mancha roja del guineo, Chaetanophothrips signipennis.University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Puertorrican Society of Agricultural Sciences.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Almod�var, Wanda & Martha Giraldo. 2018. Fumagina o moho de holl�n. Fact sheet. Periodical newsletter: Clinica de diagnostico UPRM. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: D�az, Manuel. 2018. El embolse de los racimos de guineos. Fact Sheet. Periodical newsletter: Manejo Integrado de Plagas en Platano y Guineo. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: D�az, Manuel. 2018. Manejo poscosecha de pl�tano. Fact Sheet. Periodical newsletter: Manejo Integrado de Plagas en Platano y Guineo. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2019. Ps�lido de las C�tricas. Poster. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Almodovar, W., M. Giraldo, D. Rivera, A. Alvarado, J. Zamora, M. D�az & J. Curbelo. 2018. Coordination and Implementaion of an IPM Program in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Proceedings of the Forward Research & Innovation Summit.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Rivera, D. & A. Alvarado. 2018. Development of Best Management Practices and Integrated Pest Management for Poinsettias in Puerto Rico. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Puertorrican Society of Agricultural Sciences.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2018. Tr�pido de la Mancha Roja del Guineo y Pl�tano. Fact Sheet. Periodical newsletter: MIP te Informa. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Almodovar, Wanda. 2019. Enfermedades ex�ticas de las C�tricas. Poster. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2018. Ratas y Ratones. Fact Sheet. Periodical newsletter: MIP te Informa. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Giraldo, Martha. 2018. Batata o Camote: Procesamiento de material de propagacion para la siembra. Fact Sheet. Periodical newsletter: Cl�nica de Diagn�stico UPRM. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: D�az, Manuel. 2018. Piche de la Batata. Fact Sheet. Periodical newsletter: Manejo Integrado de Plagas en Platano y Guineo. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: D�az, Manuel. 2018. Insecticidas con permiso de uso en batata. Fact Sheet. Periodical newsletter: Manejo Integrado de Plagas en Platano y Guineo. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Giraldo, Martha. 2019. IPM of Diseases in Farinaceous Crops. Digital presentation. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR. https://sites.google.com/upr.edu/pascuaspr�
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Feliciano, Merari. 2018. Manejo de la Pudrici�n Seca en el cultivo del �ame. Fact Sheet. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experimental Station. Isabela, PR
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Almod�var, Wanda. 2019. Riesgos Fitosanitarios de la Importaci�n de Material de Siembra y Alimentos a Puerto Rico. Digital presentation. University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Extension Service. Mayag�ez, PR


Progress 09/01/17 to 08/31/18

Outputs
Target Audience:Banana and Plantain Producers Starchy Crops Producers Vegetable Producers Extension Agents Horticultural Producers Beef Cattle Farmers Dairy Farmers Extension Specialists Agronomists of the Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture Puerto Rico Agricultural Industry Researchers of the Agricultural Experimental Station Pesticide Dealers Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?In IPM on pest diagnostic facilities we havetrained two farmers; two graduate students and one research assistant in the plantain micropropagation technique as a methodology to produce disease-free propagation material for farmers.Extension Agents and farmers weretrained on sample collection and handling, during field days at affected farms and informal meetings. In Citrus IPM training on monitoring of Citrus greening incidence was oferred to 5 Extension Agents and two technicians of NRCS.A full time graduate student, Astrid R. Brau, was trained on data collection and analysis offly screening performancein twoparticipating dairy herds. and identification by dichotomous key of fly species: Haematobia irritans, Stomoxys calcitrans, Musca domestica, Musca autumnalis.Four Extension Agents were trained about disease transmitted by Flies and basic IPM practices for the control of these vectors.A halftime graduate student, Casiani Soto, was trained on rust thrip collection and monitoring, cultural practices for its management in bananaandanalysis of information obtained in the questionnaire delivered to farmers.ThreeExtension Agentsweretrained in thrip monitoring and recognition in banana farms. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?We are disseminatingresults thru a Facebook page of the Diagnostic Clinic,newsletters of the Specialists: El Frutal, IPM informa, Clinica al Dia, Clinica Diagnostico Zona Noreste. Also in the exhibitions made by the Project staff in Extension activities, as well as in the Extension webpage. Also thru the Commodity meetings andactivities of Extension Agents in their municipalities. Three radio programs were produced by the Banana Specialist, Starchy Crops Plant Pathologist and Researcher, the project director and the Fruit Specialist to disseminate information about the project findings and results. Informal talks in field days are also a way to spread the project info to the field. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?In IPM for pesticide applicators, the projected activities will be done during this summer and fall semester, presentations will be prepared for the general private course (aimed at farmers and applicators of pesticides) and commercial basic (aimed at those who aspire to be certified as commercial applicators). These presentations will be updated and developed so that each pesticide user will better preparedto perform their work safely and effectively. During spring semester the Educational Certification program staff will be trained. These trainings will include the developed presentations and information on how to deliver them to the clientle in an effective way. The trainings andpresentations will be delivered to Extension Agents in a jumpdrive and printed form. Handouts will include a guide on how to offer each presentation and examples to discuss. In poinsettia IPM wewill prepare educational material to train personnel and growers in IPM and Best Management Practices (BMP). The educational materials that will be included are: presentation material,identification field guide and a BMP manual. We expect to train Agricultural Agents and growers in IPM and BMP for poinsettia production to increase grower's IPM knowledge.The information gathered in the surveys will help us to focus on the areas were most growers need to improve in their production. The results will be delivered in the Ornamental commodity meeting. All the information will be posted in ia google site,IPM & BMP for Poinsettiasso all the attendees and other audience can reach the information. The information will be printed for the attendees on presentation day. In Citrus Greening IPMall the practices of the first year will be maintained, but increasing the amount of fertilizer to the soil. In the new orchard monthly monitoring psyllid program will be maintained. In the old grow acre (5 years or more): An insect (Psyllid) Monitoring program and the control program will be continued according to the monitoring performed. Two applications of the controlled release fertilizer of 3.0 pounds per tree (6.0 lbs/year) will be made. The trees will be sprayed with the nutritional solution every 2 months. A systemic fungicide spray program will be maintained for Phytophthora control. During the second year in the new trees grow, the development of new sprouts, the size of the trees and the presence of the symptoms of HLB will continue to be recorded. In the old citrus grow the development of new foliage, flowering, number and size of fruits and the presence of the symptoms of HLB will be observed and measured. At the end of the year there will be another field workshop to show agronomists, Extension agents and farmers the development of new trees and how HLB management practices in established crops improved tree condition. During the second year results obtained in the demonstration project will be validated in other farms of interested farmers as described above. During this second year disease incidence will be drone monitored. In Banana Rust Thrip IPM , Extension agents, agronomists of the Department of Agriculture and growers are going to be trained in banana rust thrip identification, monitoring and integrated management practices by the Banana Specialist in colaboration with the IPM Specialist. Results obtained in the demonstration project will be informed to farmers by means of field days to deliver the information developed in the demonstrative project The IPM Coordinator will oversee coordinating the field days with participation of Extension and Research personnel as well as invitation of growers and other public related to the banana industry. mResults of the project will be presented in the banana and plantain commodity meeting. An extensionpublication will be developed by the Banana Specialist and revised by the Project director,IPM Specialist and the Commodity leader to assist growers, extension Extension agents and other agricultural professionals to recognize and manage the pest effectively. On Fly IPM on Dairy herds, for the following year,individualized protocols and determination of levels of fly populations pre- and post-IPM incorporation, will allow usto evaluate the progress and efficiency of implemented control. Also,analyse preliminary data, finish training Extension Agents and continue registering farmers toparticipate in the study. The preliminary data generatedhelpedus to better understand the most prevalent fly species our dairy farmers have. Thus will help us better tackle this vector using appropriate IPM. In IPM for pest diagnostic facilities we will continue delivering questioannaires to farmers and making field days in the municipalities selected during 2017. The Diagnostic Clinics staff willdeliverdisplays and informal talks in the field to train Extension personnel and growers in common diseases and pests, common symptoms and management practices.For the new Extension diagnostic clinic we will continue with the preparation of the facilities to perform diagnosisfrom the Agricultural Experiment Station region at Rio Piedras, for now we are processing all the samples at the Diagnostic Clinic in Mayagüez. A new publication will be prepared with new pests and diseases detected in field days. Also, all information will be posted through the Diagnostic Clinic Facebook page and the Extension webpage, as well as in radio programs.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? As a result of Hurricane Maria effect in plantations throughout the Islans we had a delay of three months in the beginning of the project. On January 2018, activities were initiated but development has been slow due to instability in the electricity, water and internet services; andthe recovery process for farmers as a result of crop damage.The project staff participated in the annual meetings for the commodities and other meetings coordinated by farmer's associations. In these meetings, growers, extensionists and researchers defined new IPM priorities and identified critical information needs. One of the most important issues discussed were the change in pests and the need for new information about IPM in crops. The project director presented exhibitions in activities of the Extension agents and in the meetings of the Vegetable and Starchy Crops commodities about Diagnosis of pests and IPM technics to manage them. Also, an IPM Committee was constituted to follow up the project's activities and progress. The members are the project staff, 2 farmers, and the leader of the starchy crops commodity. Through this process we increased knowledge of Extension personnel, growers, students, researchers and the general public in IPM and obtained growers involvement and participation in IPM activities. In Citrus Greening IPM, a demonstrationalproject was establishedandis being usedfor farmertraining.The emphasis is on cultural practices, nutritionalmanagement (foliar and slow release fertilizers) andinsecticideapplicationsto determine their effect on disease incidence.Two field days were celebrated to train Extension agents and producers. A demonstrational activity using a drone to assess disease incidence was included as part of the demonstrational project. Onepublication, about nutritional management was distributed to farmers and agronomists. The Fruit Specialist offered two field days and three trainings with the participation of27farmers, 6 Extensionagents, 5Agronomists of the Department of Agriculture, 4 technicians of NRCS and 4agronomists from Italy. Increased knowledge of participants in Citrus greening IPM and involvement of citrus growers was achieved in this first year of the project implementation. During next year adigital magazine and a field day will be delivered every 3 months to inform and train farmers using the demonstrational site.In Banana Rust Thrip IPMthe demonstrational project promoted the adoption of cultural practices and early monitoring for thrip detection. TheBanana Specialist and the IPM Specialist in collaboration with Extension Agents of the banana producing region monitored the presence of the thrip in banana farms. The presence of the rust thrip, was confirmed by Prof. Irma Cabrera, entomologist of the Experimental Station in Juana Diaz. A graduated student was trained in thrip detection and monitoring in farms and is helping to assess incidence of the pest in banana farms. The project director delivered a questionnaire to farmers to know their IPM knowledge and practices used for rust thrip management in banana.In Poinsettia IPMa new designed questionnaire to know IPM and Best Management Practices knowledge of poinsettia producers was made by the IPM and Ornamental Plant Specialists, and was delivered in collaboration with Extension agents. Many growers are not producing as a result of the damage caused by the hurricane to nurseries. Twenty producers were surveyed and a student was contracted to help with data collection and data entry. All the collected data is in the analysis process. A google site wascreated and is being maintained by the Ornamental Plant Specialist, Dr. Dania Rivera. The site purpose isto publish information about the survey andpost othereducational materials about production and IPM in poinsettias.In IPM Implementation in Animal Agriculture, specifically, Fly IPM the vacuum wasincorporated as a non-chemicalfly management tool in tropical dairy herds. With theExtension Agents, dairy farmers were registered to participate in the program.Two Spalding Cow-Vac™ machines were acquired and one was installed in a commercial dairy farm and validation trials are taking place. We expect to produce the first information with the data generated during validations during June and July 2018. According to the flies identified so far, specific fly traps are being evaluated. Collaboration with Dr. Paul Barttlet, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University was established. Collected flies with the Cow-Vac from Puerto Rico dairy herds will be sent to Dr. Barttlet's lab for quantification of Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV) by fly specie. This will add more data to the project by having for the first time in Puerto Rico an estimate of the prevalence of BLV. Objectives not yet accomplished as originally stated are being work during the summer. Reasons for this delay are directly related to the recent Hurricane Puerto Rico experienced in 2017and indirectly due to the difficulties we have experienced in registering farmers.In IPM Education for Pesticide Application we began the update of educational materials and developed new trainings materials, enhance, review and updated presentations.We completed the training presentations onintegrated pest management,description of urban key pests and its management alternatives, andsafety during handling and application of pesticides. Publications about IPM on mosquitoes,mice,leptospirosis, bed bugs and general urban pest management were prepared and incorporated into the course for certification in the use of pesticides.In IPM Support for Pest Diagnostic Facilities we provided assistance in plant pest and disease identification, to producers in banana and plantain, starchy crops and vegetable crops that are emerging as a new alternative to farmers as a result of the losses due to Maria. We made a new form for sample submission at the new diagnostic clinic. The new clinic is in via of opening and other proposals were submitted to help to buy new equipment. A survey was developedto know producers knowledge of IPM and identification and management and also on how to collect samples for identification in the diagnostic clinic. A new Extension diagnostic clinic was established in one of the facilities of the Agricultural Experiment Station at Rio Piedrasto assist the farmers of the northeast and central region of the Island. This clinic is connected to the Extension clinic in Mayaguez. We had a coordination meeting with the Extension Agents from the central region of the Island to identify diagnostic needs. 10 municipalities from the central region were selected and field days were held at the most affected farms to collect samples, provide assistance in identifying plant diseases and provide IPM practices.Training of Extension agents and farmers was made on sample collection and handling, nematode assessment, symptoms recognition, and cultural, biological and other management practices.Diagnostic reports have being prepared and delivered through email and whatsapp. Three newsletters were produced to assist farmers and Extension agents on how to collect samples, symptom recognition and management practices.

Publications

  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Almodovar, W. 2018. Coordinacion e Implementacion de Manejo Integrado de Plagas en Puerto Rico. Newsletter. Agricultural Extension Service. University of Puerto Rico. Mayaguez Campus. 3pp.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Giraldo, Martha. 2018. Instrucciones para la toma de muestras de suelo para nematodos. Newsletter. Agricultural Extension Service. University of Puerto Rico. Mayaguez Campus. 2pp.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Giraldo, Martha. 2018. Practicas Culturales de manejo integrado para el control eficaz de la pudricion del cormo del apio. Agricultural Extension Service. University of Puerto Rico. Mayaguez Campus. Poster.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2017. MIP te Informa: Manejo integrado de Plagas despues del Huracan. Agricultural Extension Service. University of Puerto Rico. Mayaguez Campus. 3pp.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2017. MIP te Informa: Mosquitos. Agricultural Extension Service. University of Puerto Rico. Mayaguez Campus. 2pp.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Alvarado, Ada. 2018. MIP te Informa: Leptospirosis. Agricultural Extension Service. University of Puerto. Mayaguez Campus. 2pp.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Zamora, Jose. 2017. El Frutal: Manejo Nutricional del HLB "Citrus Greening". Agricultural Extension Service. University of Puerto. Mayaguez Campus. 6pp.