Source: UNIVERSITY OF GUAM UOG STATION submitted to
PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE PRACTICES ON GUAM
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1011453
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
GUA0916
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Nov 3, 2016
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2021
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Gong, HU, .
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF GUAM UOG STATION
(N/A)
MANGILAO,GU 96913
Performing Department
Experiment Station
Non Technical Summary
Aquaculture has been the fastest growing food sector in the world and is considered by many as the fuel for net food revolution globally. Nowadays, aquaculture is responsible for supplying half of the total seafood consumption worldwide. As compared to farming of terrestrial livestocks, many aquaculture products have better food conversion efficiency, and are nutritious, rich in protein and healthy omega-3 fatty acids, low in carbon footprint.Asia is the center of aquaculture, which contributing 88.5% of total aquaculture production, while Oceania accounts for 0.3%. Located in Western Pacific, Guam's position is strategically important for sustainable aquaculture development both locally and regionally, because of the Guam's cultural heritage, ethnic diversity and tourists oriented demands, clean water source as well as close proximity to Asia - the center of global aquaculture, the capability and availability of rearing high health aquaculture seed stocks at UOG hatchery. Infectious disease outbreaks are the most catastrophic threats to the aquaculture everywhere, and health management via establishment of high health stock, implementing the systematic prevention and control is fundamental to the sustainable aquaculture development. Moreover, such sustainable aquaculture development consists of a component that is potentially necessary for the island food security. However, the aquaculture industry on Guam hasn't made substantial progress in the past three decades, though interests from the community towards aquaculture activities remains. Among the multiple restrictions, the most significant one is that Guam aquaculture community is not keeping up with the most updated technologies and methodologies of the sustainable aquaculture development gradually evolved from the outside world. Currently, the major culture species in Guam comprise of various strains of tilapia, white shrimp, milkfish, product of which are usually sold in the local flea markets. Farming systems varied greatly from earthen ponds to backyard tanks with different sizes and numbers. Most existing and interested aquaculture farmers are lack of understanding of the importance of health management and implementation of new technologies/practices and management. Therefore, there is a great need of introducing the high quality clean seed stocks of existing and/or new aquaculture species to Guam and making the related culture technologies available to the aquaculture stakeholders in order for Guam to benefit from the environmental friendly practice for producing safe-nutritious food supply, long term sustainability, and increased aquaculture competitiveness in the global market. As aquaculture in the region advances, Guam's position as a major Micronesian hub, educational/reserch center and market place become more critical than ever. Guam is also geographically positioned to be an integral part of Micronesian and Asian economies. It can provide technology, research and aquaculture seeds to the region and also serve as a market for many additional regional products.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
80%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3073714108130%
3013729108020%
3033719105020%
3153721310010%
3023722101010%
3082150104010%
Goals / Objectives
The objectives of the proposed research program is to introduce the new opportunities for aquaculture on Guam and in the Micronesian region, examine feasibility of introducing new stocks and related sustainable technologies/practices into the industry, to develop strategies for expanding and diversifying aquaculture, and to prompt the sustainable aquaculture practices on Guam and in the region.
Project Methods
The methodology and research approaches are set as follows,Survey the aquaculture activities islandwide regular and establish the updated information and database.Establish health management in GADTC as a model and promote the similar practice in other aquaculture facilities in the region through biosecurity implementation, disease screening/monitoring and stock health surveillance.Set up the infrastructure for conducting experiments, such as spawning tanks and larval rearing lab, cages and grow-out tanks for breeding, experiments and performance tests.Adopt new culture technologies and practices for multiple species selected and transfer such technologies to the community.Design the mating schemes and develop breed strategies for producing the stocks with better production performance.Design and conduct experimental trials to evaluate the effects of environmental parameters and genetics on the stocks' performance.

Progress 10/01/18 to 09/30/19

Outputs
Target Audience:Existing and prospective aquaculture farmers, government agencies, University of Guam students who are interested in aquaculture, and other stakeholders. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Dr. Hui Gong delivered presentations of the health management and aquaculture program of University of Guam hatchery to Pacific Community (SPC) sponsored aquatic disease workshop held in Noumea, New Caledonia and Macronesian Association for Sustainable Aquaculture held in Guam. The audience were mainly government officials in aquaculture and fishery from other pacific islands. I taught "Science of Aquaculture" (AL136) with combination of lectures and labs at University of Guam, aiming at the University students on understanding the principles and practices of sustainable aquaculture from January to May of 2019. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Provided extension service via individual meetings, phone calls or emails to address issues and answer questions for the local community. Results were also disseminated to the aquaculture community by delivering the presentation in workshop, regional and other aquaculture related meetings. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Develop the disease diagnostics capacity on Guam to serve the island and other Pacific islands and improving the health status of stocks by implementing biosecurity and conducting the health surveillance/monitoring regimes.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? 1. Experimented with husbandry methods and bred for multispecies: shrimp, tilapia, and freshwater prawn. Different feeding regimes (Combination of microalgae, artemia, and self made and manufactured larval feed) and other larval rearing conditions (aeration level, density, light intensity, and water exchange rates) have been tried depending on the larval stage to improve the quality and quantity of larvae and increase postlarvae production. In overall, there were 33 families of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and 46 families of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) produced during 2019. The growout performance were also evaluated with high stocking density (100 per square meter) vs. medium density (40 per square meter) and low density (25 per square meter) for growing to the broodstock size. The density effect was present for the growth, as 20% higher average weight was achieved in shrimp from the low density pond than those from the high density pond after 8 months stocking. However, the biomass from the high density pond reached 1.9 kg per square meter upon the completion of the 8 month-period with the harvest of over 30 gram shrimp in average. The biggest shrimp reached 92 gram in weight. In addition, several tilapia strains were reared and kept separately and bred to generate the frys and fingerlings which supply to PIC, the UOG Triton Farm and other interested backyard farms. 2. Established contacts for the local stakeholders interested in aquaculture activities. I took part in the Aquaculture Task Force to reinvigorate efforts to develop aquaculture industry according to the executive order signed by Governor Leon Guerrero on April 30, 2019. I was invited and attended Micronesian Association in Sustainable Aquaculture (MASA) Regional Meeting and was sponsored by the Pacific Community (SPC) to participate in the workshop on shrimp diseases and aquatic diseases and established contacts of the government agencies in aquaculture and fisheries fields. Collaborated with Delos Santos from Palau community college for mangrove crab larval rearing project. 3. Implemented biosecurity and conducted health management for producing/maintaining high health stocks at university of Guam hatchery. The shrimp/prawn stock have been under strict health surveillance and monitoring regimes for species specific diseases, and remain specific pathogen free status for all the OIE listed pathogens and known emerging diseases from the Asia, the world center of aquaculture.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Delos Santos, M., Gong, H., 2018. Domestication of mangrove crab, Scylla serrata in Palau: Larval rearing and nursery experience. Aquaculture Magazine 44 (6), 70-73.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2020 Citation: Tan, K., Jiang. H., Jiang, D. ,Wang, W. (In Press) Sex reversal and the androgenic gland (AG) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii: A review. Aquaculture and Fisheries. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaf.2019.11.004


Progress 10/01/17 to 09/30/18

Outputs
Target Audience:Existing and prospective aquaculture farmers, UOG students and other interested stakeholders for aquaculture. Changes/Problems:There were seven major pump break-downs/failures caused by fluctuating power supply mostly due to the recurring tropical storms and subquent electricity outages on Guam. Among them, two were for the freshwater pumps and five were for the saltwater deep well pumps. All the pumps were not only costly, but also very difficult to find the replacement on island in a timely manner. It ususally take weeks or months to get the replacement from off-island vendors. Because of this persistent problem, there have been up to several weeks without new water going to the rearing system when all the back up pumps run out, replacement pump not yet arrive. Mortality of the aquatic stocks occured sometimes, although routine management regimes were adjusted to cope with the crisis. The survived animals were significantly stressed under the circumstances. It took long time from these aquatic organisms to recover after the water intake resumed. Option of renewable energy as alternative source of power supply needs to be looked into. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Taught "Science of Aquaculture" (AL136) with lab at University of Guam from Jan to May of 2018, aiming to help the University students better understand the principles and practices of sustainable aquaculture. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Provided extension service via individual meetings, phone calls or emails to address issues and answer questions for the local community. Results were also disseminated to the aquaculture community by delivering the articles at Aquaculture Magazine to a larger aquaculture community. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Continue the efforts of producing and maintaining specific pathogen free or high health status of the aquatic stocks while implementing biosecurity and conducting the health surveillance/monitoring regimes.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? 1. Experimented with husbandry methods and bred for high health freshwater prawn Both green water system and recirculating system were experimented in the larval rearing of M. rosenbergii. Eight runs of larval rearing trials of M. rosenbergii were conducted in 12 ppt green water system, all of which were unsuccessful in completing all the larval stages, mainly due to the fluctuation of various water parameters, such as temperature, salinity, pH, ammonia, and nitrite concentrations in the water. The probiotics was also applied to improve the water quality during the larval rearing process in some trials. In some cases, it resulted in gettig the prawn larvae up to developmental stage V, however not beyond the fifth stage. A small scale recirculating system was established by installing a 3-ton fiberglass tank coupled with a 30 gallon trash bin filled gravel medium serving as the physical and biological filter. The newly developed recirculation system was innoculated with nitrifying bacteria by introducing two adult Tilapia individuals (2 lb) in the tank for 40 days or so prior to the stocking of the nauplii into the tank. The larvae were fed continously via automatic feeders at night, in the water covered by plastics and heated with submersible heater, as well as other regular and frequent tank management routines. After a couple of runs, 50% survival rate was achieved and postlarvae were generated out of this self-made recirculating system. 2. Serving the local stakeholders who are interested in aquaculture activities and for educational purpose. There were multiple inquiries via phone calls, and e-mails with regards to potentially starting up shrimp farms or aquaculture operations. Meetings were set up with interested groups to provide technical assistance and advice. In order to serve the community and fulfill the educational purposes, the high health aquatic stock were provided to a few interested stakeholders for tryout, as well as to the college students in the aquaculture lab as the experimental animals in the aquarium to have hand-on experience in learning various aspects of growout management in aquaculture. 3. Implemented biosecurity rules and conducted health management in maintaining high health status of stocks at university of Guam hatchery. In addtion to the implementation of biosecurity rules for the daily operation in UOG hatchery, operational record review and health surveillance/monitoring of the aquatic stocks were also regularly performed. Over 200 representative shrimp/prawn samples were collected from the facility and dignosed via both hispathology and PCR (RT-PCR) tests for specific pathogens. Shrimp stock remained as SPF stock as they were tested free of all OIE and USMSFP listed pathogens, in addition to other newly emerging pathogens in the sourtheastern Asia, such as EHP, SMV etc.

Publications

  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Gong, H., 2018. Diseases of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium Rosenbergii. Aquaculture Magazine 44(2), 58-60. Gong, H., 2017. How Does Penaeus vannamei Cope with Low Salinity Water? Aquaculture Magazine 43 (5), 68-70.


Progress 11/03/16 to 09/30/17

Outputs
Target Audience: Aquaculture farmers (current and interested), UOG students and stakeholders Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Conducted "Aquaculture Forum & Workshop: How to Start Sustainable Aquaculture on Guam" from May 26-27, 2017 at College of Natural and Applied Science, University of Guam. Taught GE course "Science of Aquaculture" at University of Guam. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Provided extension service via workshop, meetings and phone conversations to address issues and answer questions for the local community. Results were also disseminated to the aquaculture community by delivering presentation at world aquaculture society conference to a larger aquaculture community. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Continue the efforts of producing and maintaining the specfic pathogen free or high health status of the aquaculture stocks by implementing biosecurity and conducting the health surveillance/monitoring regimes.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? 1 Investigated the salinity effects on the growout performance and gene expression in 10 families of Penaeus vannamei, and idenfied the familial difference at different salinty levels. Two families could grow faster in low salinity (2ppt), even though the majority of the shrimp families performed better in normal seawater. 2. Established contacts for the local stakeholders interested in aquaculture activities. 3. Experimented with husbandary methods and bred for multispecies: shrimp, tilapia and freshwater prawn. 4. Implemented biosedurity and conducted health managment for producing/maintaining high health stocks at university of Guam hatchery.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Gong, H., T. Huang, Y. Li, X. Dai., 2017. Evaluating Salinity Effect of Production Performance and Gene Expression of Various Families of Penaeus vannamei. World Aquaculture Cape Town 2017, Jun. 26-30.