Source: OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
FOOD FOR A LONG LIFE: A COMMUNITY-BASED INTERGENERATIONAL PROJECT
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1010669
Grant No.
2016-41520-25616
Project No.
OHOW-2016-04761
Proposal No.
2016-04761
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
MC
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2016
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2017
Grant Year
2018
Project Director
Jarrott, S.
Recipient Organization
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY CENTER
COLUMBUS,OH 43210
Performing Department
College of Social Work
Non Technical Summary
We propose to use a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) approach with intergenerational strategies to increase healthy food access, consumption and education for at-risk young children and their families living in high poverty areas in Columbus, Ohio and Lynchburg, Virginia. Specifically, we will partner with community stakeholders and four early childhood centers, two in each state, in a process of planning, program development, implementation, and examination of results followed by adaptation of activities. Evidence-based intergenerational programming methods will be integrated into activities, and the abilities of young children, elders, and their families will be harnessed. Community partners include experts in early childhood development, nutrition and food security, community engagement, and intergenerational programming. Efforts will incorporate the SNAP-Ed and EFNEP curricula and standard USDA instruments of food security and behavior change. The SNAP-Ed and EFNEP outcome measures will be adapted not only to collect information from families, but also from preschool children. A delayed treatment design of introducing the intergenerational approaches at two sites initially, while utilizing the others as comparisons, will be used to examine the benefits of incorporating elders in the activities. All four sites will engage in the intergenerational programming in Year 3. The CBPAR process will develop and enhance long-term sustainable networks of early childhood educator, food, and community stakeholders supporting the continuation of programming after grant funding has ended. This project supports the National CYFAR Outcome to reduce food insecurity by increasing access, consumption, and nutritional education to improve health in early childhood.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
0%
Applied
50%
Developmental
50%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
8026099308050%
8056099308050%
Goals / Objectives
We propose to use a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) approach withintergenerational strategies to increase healthy food access, consumption and education for at-risk young children and their families living in high poverty areas in Columbus, Ohio and Lynchburg, Virginia. Specifically, we will partner with community stakeholders and four early childhood centers, two in each state, in a process of planning, program development, implementation, and examination of results followed by adaptation of activities.Short Term ObjectivesYoung children, elders and their families will increase their access to nutritional food as measured by a program participation tracking system, participant questionnaires and semistructured interviews and focus groups.Young children, elders' and families' nutrition-based knowledge will increase and attitudes and behaviors will improve as evidenced by participant questionnaires, semistructured interviews and focus groups, and observations.Intergenerational best practices will be implemented in the nutritional interventions as indicated by administrative program tracking.Long Term ObjectivesFood, early childhood, social services and OSU Extension and VA Cooperative Extension will provide better coordinated, sustainable services as evidenced by the establishment and reporting of food networks/coalitions in the communities where the sites are located.Intergenerational approaches to addressing food security and nutrition challenges of young children and their families will be integrated in the communities where the program sites are located as evidenced by the development and implementation of new intergenerational approaches used by the food networks/collaborations.
Project Methods
EffortsA child's contact with the program will be twice weekly activities lasting 30-minutes, with at least one activity being intergenerational (IG). Older adult participants' contact will be 1-2 times weekly for 30-minutes. Family carers' contact with the program will be at least twice monthly, and contact may be through electronic or print material or site-based (sorting donated food or attending a cooking demonstration). Staff members, administrators, and stakeholders' contact with Food for a Long Life program content will vary depending on the individual's role. For example, the children's teachers and elder program staff will have weekly contact of 30-90 minutes per activity (including preparation and documentation). Administrators and stakeholders will have quarterly contact with project members via conference calls, face-to-face meetings, or scheduled programming.Curriculum for young children and families will include accessible, culturally relevant nutrition, resource management, and food handling opportunities. Activities will be hands-on, interactive, empowering (with knowledge and choice), and incorporate participants' interests and histories. The program content will be driven by the existing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) and Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) curriculum utilized in each state, and will reflect the ages and abilities of participants. Staff will facilitate activities to support interaction between child and elder partners. High- and low-technology tools will be incorporated regularly. Curriculum for service providers will be just-in-time training that addresses nutrition, food security, and IG best practices via quarterly in-service sessions and distance education. SNAP-Ed and EFNEP utilizes a train the trainer model to deliver curricula. Extension professionals will train teachers to implement nutrition programming incorporating IG programming.EvaluationIncreased access to nutritional foods by participants will be measured annually starting in Year 2 with standard measures of household food security: (a) USDA US Household Food Security Survey, (b) Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, and (c) Food Security Survey Module for children. Existing pantry tracking systems starting in year 1 and repeated annually will report age, gender, and household information on participants. Program participation logs (dosage) will be completed by staff for each activity to indicate participation and increased access to nutritional foods.Increased nutrition-based knowledge and behaviors among participants will be measured annually starting in year two with modified existing SNAP-Ed and EFNEP outcome measures including the EFNEP Behavior Checklist, USDA Food Frequency Questionnaires, EFNEP Eating Right Survey, and Guidelines for Measuring Household and Individual Dietary Diversity. Program participation logs (dosage) will be completed by staff for each activity to indicate participation and increased nutrition-based knowledge and behaviors. Finally, participant and staff focus groups will be conducted annually starting in year 2 to address barriers to food access and effective implementation of the activities and technology, the utility of intergenerational strategies, and perceived impact on young children, elders, families, and staff.Increased use of intergenerational best practices by program staff and volunteers will be measured with quizzes completed by all site staff and volunteers (who may complete an abbreviated curriculum) as part of the intergenerational best practices curriculum. Staff will complete an intergenerational Best Practices checklist for each activity reflecting child and elder participation, program staffing, and self-assessed use of best practices. Finally, direct observations of child and elder participants and staff behaviors during programming using the Intergenerational Observation Scale will be conducted monthly by trained observers.Data analysis of qualitative data (e.g., focus groups) will involve content analysis of transcripts, looking for themes of barriers, successes, and impacts. Some quantitative data (e.g., the Household Food Inecurity Access Scale) will be analyzed with measures of central tendencies and correlations with repeated measures analysis between groups. Regression models will be tested to examine predictors of program outcomes (e.g., with the participation logs, Best Practices Checklist, Intergenerational Observation Scale, and nutrition-based knowledge and behavior measures), looking at intraindividual change and site differences.

Progress 09/01/17 to 08/31/18

Outputs
Target Audience:The target audience is pre-school age children attending four early childhood education sites that are partnering with adult care or volunteer programs in Columbus, Ohio and Lynchburg, Virginia. During theSeptember 2017-August 2018reporting period (Year 2),programming began in both states, reaching 37 children in Ohio and33children in Virginiawhose parents consented to data collection on their child's participation.The sites serve racially(77%ofconsented childparticipants areAfrican American)and socioeconomically diverse participantsand an approximately equal number of males and females. The Columbus sites are located in an urban area, while the Lynchburg sites are located in a semi-urban area. All four sites are located in food deserts and were selected for their limited access to healthy food. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? FFLL team members, including theco-PDs,project evaluator, project manager,oneVA Cooperative Extension Educator,technology consultantand the Ohio Intergenerational Coordinator attended the CYFAR Conference inJune2018. PD, Ohio extension educator and IG coordinator attended community engagement conference at the Ohio State University in January 2018. PD attended IRB workshops and consultations at the Ohio State University (August 2017-May 2018) DataManager attendedRedCaptraining and met withRedCapconsultant to build skills in data management. Project manager and Virginia extension staff traveled to Columbus, Ohio for team building and project planning across states in February 2018. The Ohio Intergenerational Coordinator completed training that included attendance at: Nationwide Children's Early Childhood Wellness and Nutrition Symposium (January 2018), OSU Community Engagement Conference (January2018), OSU IRB Social and Behavioral and Responsible Conduct ofResearch (May 2018) OSU Extension Educator attended the following: OSU Crane Center Family Partners Practitioner Workshop, LEAP Curriculum Training (November2017), Farm to Early Care Education Webinar (October2017), OSU Community Engagement Conference (January 2018), SNEBJournalClub Webinar on Together WISE curriculum (February 2018), Ohio Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Annual Conference (May 2018), Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior Annual Conference (July 2018) How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? An infographic summarizing efforts of year onewasdistributed during discovery council meetings. A summary of nutrition education efforts in Virginia was shared with participants and families in May 2018. Monthly newsletters and recipes were shared with families in Ohio January-August 2018. See also dissemination products listed under Products What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? During yearthreeof FFLL: The Discovery Councils willcontinueto meet on a regular basis to contribute to thecommunity-basedparticipationresearch strategy.This will involve sharing process evaluation data about FFLL programming and data collection efforts, collaborating to address new opportunities, respond to challenges, and disseminate FFLL information and findings. Single generationwillcontinue atthe fourearly childhood education sites.Intergenerationalnutrition programmingwill continue at the two sites that initiated it in Year 2, and it will launch at the other two sites this year.Specific initiatives include: Assess satisfaction and quality assurance withCSA bagsin Ohio that were initiated in summer 2018 to determine their potential for continuing to reachproject goals through integration in nutrition education and community outreach. Deliverhealthy luncheslesson and materialsat Rivermontin spring 2019,in response toneed identified by site partners,usingaPhotovoicemethod toreview items in preschooler lunches prior to and following FFLL programming. Focus onconnecting families to FFLL classroom activitiesthrough increased communication (e.g. newsletters, stickers of foods tried), social media,and events already sponsored by sites (e.g. family service provider events at White Rock, caregiver support groups at PACE, in OHIO?) Compilepreschool IG nutrition educationprogramming/curriculumdelivered through FFLL. TheTechnologyConsultant will continue toprovide guidance tosites on high- and low-tech resourcesthat supportsite needs andFFLL goals. Continued efforts to build relationships will permeate FFLL activities.Specifically: Connecting people to other resourcesthroughExtensionnetwork. Process, implementation, and outcome data willcontinueto becollected, including: Continued collection ofHousehold Food Security and Healthy Kids Surveys Piloting a direct report measure with the preschool children, such as a picture pairmeasureto indicate knowledge gained. Ongoing collection of implementation data from program staff and stakeholders Piloting assessment (qualitative interviews or quantitative - DETERMINE checklist) ofhealthy food accessamong older adultsat one siteinfall 2018. Utilizing video recordings of programming to explore the unique contributionsof the intergenerational componentto nutrition knowledge. Researchers will prepare at least oneresearch article and a conference presentation for dissemination to broader audiences of scholars and practitioners interested in healthy food access, community-based services, participatory action research, and intergenerational strategies.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Data Collection to Demonstrate Progress towards Short-Term Goals Gathered consent and demographic information on a total of237 participants(children, their parents, elders, and staff)across both states. Collected baseline datafrom a total of 54families of children, 7 older adults, and 26 staffacross both states(Healthy Kids: 54 parents/children, 10 staff;HHFS:53 parents/children, 26 staff, 7 older adults). Collected follow-updata (HHFS and HK) from a total of 23 parents/children and 2 staff. Dosagewastrackedacrosstheyear for childand elderparticipation in single generation nutrition programming and intergenerational programming as well as family events. Ohio Programming in Support of Short-Term Goals Between January and August 2018 in Ohio, FFLL delivered 40 singlegenerationnutrition education programs at 2 sites (20 programs per site) reaching approximately 61 children(37 consented). Between January and August 2018 in Ohio, FFLL will have delivered27intergenerationalnutrition education programs atonesite reaching19children and15older adults. Between June and August 2018,58Community SupportedAgriculturebags will have beendistributed to familiesofchildren, elders, and staff attheOhio sitethat launched intergenerational programming in Year 2. OhiohostedtwoDiscoveryCouncilmeetings(March and August 2018)attendedby anaverage of12 community partners. Ohio conductedtwostaff focusgroupsandfiveone-on-one interviewsMay-June 2018related to FFLLimplementation. Virginia Programming in Support of Short-term Goals Between September 2017 and May 2018 in Virginia, FFLL delivered or supported11singlegenerationnutrition educationprogramsatone childcare site (White Rock: WR)forapproximately120children(33forwhomwehadconsent). At this site,twoclassrooms(approximately 36children)had theopportunitytojoinseven intergenerationalnutritional activities attheolder adults'site (Program for All-inclusive Care of the Elderly:PACE)where approximately32older adults joined in as active participants or observers of programming Between June and August 2018 in Virginia,FFLLwill havedelivered single generationnutritioneducationprogrammingat Rivermont Early Learning Center,reachingapproximately40children. BetweenSeptember2017 and August 2018 inVirginia,fivefamily events were hosted by FFLL(with an average of10 families of children and staff as well as 6 stakeholdersattending each session). In addition,access to food was provide toapproximately178families(children and staff)atone childcare site (WR)andapproximately 98older adultparticipants(PACE)through food distribution (strawberriesandsnap peas). VirginiahostedtwoDiscoveryCouncilmeetings(March andJuly2018)attendedby anaverage of10community partners. Two focus groups were conducted inVirginiain May 2018regarding FFLL implementation. Intergenerationaltrainingwasprovided to 17 staff representing two sites in Virginia. Progress Towards Long-Term Goals Through partnerships withOhio State University Extension,Virginia Cooperative Extension, and other local organizations,childcare programs in two food deserts have been introduced to available education resources that will remain available to them beyond the FFLL grant-funding period. For example, the Ohio sites were able to save significant money byreplacingmostof the services previously provided bya nutrition education provider who charged fees with SNAP-Ed lessons delivered by a Franklin County Extension Educator. Discovery Council members and FFLL contractors (e.g., Great River Organics and Abe's Kitchen) have introducedchildcareproviders and families to resources that will be available to them beyond FFLL grand funding, therebybuildinga dense network of healthy food access connections.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Lobb, J. (in press). Optimizing the planning year to build on strengths and create a successful team. Journal of Extension
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Lobb, J., Jarrott, S., Dalbelko-Schoeny, H. & Speidel, E. (2018). Food For a Long Life: A Local Case Study of Community-Based Participatory Action Research (CBPAR). The Ohio State Universitys Outreach and Engagement Conference; Columbus, Ohio.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Cao, Q., Jarrott, S. E., Dabelko-Schoeny, H., & Kaiser, M. (September, 2018). Application of Community-Based Participation Action Research Principles to a Multi-Site Intergenerational Food Security Project. Paper to be presented at Engagement Scholarship Consortium. Minneapolis, MN.


Progress 09/01/16 to 08/31/17

Outputs
Target Audience:The target audience is pre-school age children attending four early childhood education sites that are partnering with adult care or volunteer programs in Columbus, Ohio and Lynchburg, Virginia. During the September 2016-August 2017 reporting period, an introduction to FFLL involved distribution of strawberries to 248 children enrolled at the two sites in Lynchburg, and ingredients and recipe for corn salsa to 100 children and 24 elders at sites in Columbus. The sites serve racially and socioeconomically diverse participants and an approximately equal number of males and females. The Columbus sites are located in an urban area, while the Lynchburg sites are located in a semi-urban area. All four sites are located in food deserts and were selected for their limited access to healthy food. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? FFLL team members, including the PD and two graduate research assistants attended a Research Methodology Center workshop on Community Based Participatory Action Research, March 2017. Hosted CYFAR Coach Jan Carroll in Virginia March 6-9 and in Ohio April 25-27. Jan met with PDs, Extension Agents, graduate research assistants, site liaisons and staff, and Extension administrators. Additionally, the PDs meet with Jan monthly for a coaching call. FFLL team members, including the PD, two VA Cooperative Extension Educators, and the Ohio Intergenerational Coordinator attended the CYFAR Conference in May 2017. FFLL team members, including the PD, Project Evaluator, Ohio Intergenerational Coordinator, and the Virginia doctoral research student will attend the Generations United Conference and present findings from FFLL in July 2017. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Themes that emerged from the listening sessions conducted in Ohio were shared with partner representatives in May 2017 at the Community Conversation described above. A parallel event will be held in Virginia in June 2017. Jarrott. S. E., Dabelko-Schoeny, H., & Naar, J. J., (2017, June). Pick your partners prudently: Bridging the town gown divide. Workshop presented at the biennial meetings of Generations United, Milwaukee, WI. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?During year two of FFLL: The Discovery Councils will meet on a quarterly basis to contribute to the community-based participatory action research strategy. This will involve sharing process evaluation data about FFLL programming and data collection efforts, collaborating to address new opportunities, respond to challenges, and disseminate FFLL information and findings. Intergenerational nutrition programming will begin at two of the early childhood education sites, one in Ohio and one in Virginia. Staff working at these sites will receive intergenerational cross-training. Nutritional programming without the intergenerational component will begin at the other two early childhood education sites, one in Ohio and one in Virginia. The Technology Consultant will consult with sites on high- and low-tech resources to incorporate that support FFLL goals. Continued efforts to build relationships will permeate FFLL activities, including relationships with families and community partners. Communication efforts will be diverse and evaluated to explore the most effective ways to engage different groups of constituents. Process, implementation, and outcome data will be collected related to items 1-5 above. Researchers will prepare a research article and a conference presentation for dissemination to broader audiences of scholars and practitioners interested in healthy food access, community-based services, participatory action research, and intergenerational strategies.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Conducted 14 listening sessions with staff, administrators, partner representatives (e.g., local food banks), Additionally, to get adequate representation of parents of children and caregivers of elders enrolled at participating sites conversations were held at a time convenient to families. The listening sessions focused on needs and assets related to healthy food access, consumption, and knowledge within the communities where sites are located. Listening session themes were presented at a Community Conversation in Ohio in May 2017 (Virginia's Community Conversation is scheduled for June 2017) in order to conduct a member check, gather additional information, and invite membership on a FFLL Discovery Council that will collaborate with researchers on project development, implementation, and evaluation. Representatives of 10 organizations or constituent groups (e.g., parents/caregivers) attended the conversation, and the majority accepted the invitation to continue contributing to FFLL through membership on the Discovery Council. Nine additional organizations were identified as potential partners to engage in FFLL and the Discovery Council. FFLL researchers are in the process of inviting representatives of these groups to get involved. In Virginia (May 2017), researchers met with teachers and staff representing the project to ascertain existing data collection requirements and methods. Information will inform FFLL data collection instruments and procedures. To support a sustainable project, FFLL researchers aim to minimize burden associated with documentation of FFLL activities. Representatives were also asked how the data they collect is used. FFLL researchers will share project findings in a timely manner to demonstrate the value of partners' involvement in the project. Such effort is consonant with FFLL's use of a community-based participatory action research strategy; site representatives need to receive outcome reports so they can actively contribute to ongoing research efforts.

Publications

  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Jarrott. S. E., Naar, J. J., & Dabelko-Schoeny, H. (2017, June). Pick your partners prudently: Bridging the town gown divide. Workshop presented at the biennial meetings of Generations United, Milwaukee, WI.