Source: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS submitted to
UNDERSTANDING THE INTERSECTION BETWEEN CHEMISTRY, FOOD PROCESSING AND HUMAN HEALTH
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1010477
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
CA-D-FST-6975-H
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Dec 2, 2016
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2021
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Mitchell, A.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS
410 MRAK HALL
DAVIS,CA 95616-8671
Performing Department
Food Science and Technology
Non Technical Summary
Research in my laboratory is focused on improving our understanding of the composition and chemical changes that occur in phenolic and other key bioactive compounds (e.g. vitamins, carotentoids) in response to genetic selection, cultivation practices and during post-harvest and food manufacturing processes (e.g., polymerization, oxidation, hydrolysis reactions). These biochemical/chemical changes are not well characterized, but the extent of these reactions will significantly affect the nutritional value and functionality of fresh and processed food. Recognition of biological and synergistic activities of phenolic compounsd in foods has increased the need for developing more sensitive, selective, high-throughput analytical methods for near real-time profiling of global and target metabolites (e.g. flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins) in order to assess the impact of cultivar selection, environment, transport, storage and physical processing (e.g. thermal processing, extrusion, spray drying, etc.,) on food quality.During the past 5 years, my laboratory has developed a range of quantitative chromatographic and analytical mass spectrometry methods for identifying a wide array of bioactive compounds (e.g. carotenoids, glycoalkaloids, amygdalin, ascorbic acid, etc.,) and phenolic compounds that significantly contribute to the nutritional quality, astringency and bitterness, toxicity and health promoting properties of foods [1-14].These methods were successfully used to quantify a wide range of quercetin and isorhamnetin gylcosides in onions (Allium cepa L.) and compare the physical distribution of these compounds in serval important commercial varieties of onion [1]; to investigate the impact of industrial tomato paste processing on levels of ascorbic acid, flavonoid and carotenoid in tomato paste and tomato processing co-product [2]; to evaluate effects of crop management practices on flavonoids, glycoalkaloids, oxalates, nitrates, and ascorbic acid in spinach and tomatoes [3, 4]; to characterize levels of amygdalin in sweet, semi-bitter and bitter almonds [5]; to measure the polyphenol composition in pre- and post-fermentation products of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Grenache noir [6]; to quantify levels of polyphenols and secoiridoids in California-style black ripe olives and dry-salt cured olives [7]; to determine the influence of precursor content, varietal selection, roasting time and temperature, and storage on acrylamide formation in almonds [8]; to determine the influence of California-style black ripe olive processing methods on the formation of acrylamide for mitigation [9]; to characterize advanced glycation endproducts in raw and roasted almonds [10]; to characterize the volatile flavor components in almonds and determine the impact of storage on the volatile composition [11, 12 ]; to evaluate levels of haloanisoles in wines [13] and evaluate the influence of packaging material and storage time on the trace metal composition of wines [14].My research group has also helped to demonstrate that dietary flavonoids undergo extensive metabolism upon absorption into the human body [15, 16]. Research in our lab, as well as others, clearly demonstrates glycoside composition of fruits and vegetables is species and cultivar specific and although it is apparent that the glycosidic moiety can influence flavonoid bioavailability [15], little data is available describing profiles in foods [1]. In a recent study, we demonstrated that fermentation alters the carbohydrate linkages of soy isoflavone glycosides and significantly influences the bioavailability of these isoflavones [16]. Twenty three isoflavone metabolites were identified in the plasma of individuals consuming soy [16]. In recent work, we were able to demonstrate that quercetin when consumed from onions as the 4'-O-glucoside, reaches a peak plasma concentration (255.5 ± 90.1 ng/mL) at ~1.7 hrs whereas when it is consumed from apples as a mixture of 3-O-galactoside, 3-O-glucoside, 3-O-rhamnoside and 3-O-rutinoside the maximum plasma level (58.5 ± 20.4 ng/mL) is reached at 2.9 hrs [15]. We have also been able to demonstrate that the range of circulating metabolites in plasma differs depending upon the range and glycosidic forms of flavonoids in a food [15, 16].More recently, our laboratory has focused on identifying the post-harvest conditions and biochemical changes that lead to a concealed defect in almond nutmeat [17, 18]. Concealed damage (CD), as it is known, is a brown discoloration of the almond kernel that appears only after the almond is subjected to moderate to high heat treatment (e.g. blanching, drying, roasting, etc.). Raw almonds with CD have no visible defects before heat treatment. We have demonstrated that post-harvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds, and that CD is accelerated by temperature and is related to lipid peroxidation [17]. Based upon these findings we were able to develop a non-invasive screening model for detecting CD based upon Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) [18].Tremendous innovations in mass spectrometry (MS) and analytical chromatography now enable rapid, highly sensitive analysis of target (identified compounds) and non-target compounds (i.e. new discovery) and new tools for the discovery, identification and quantification of target compounds [19]. We will continue to grow our partnership with Agilent Technologies in order to provide advanced MS training to students and faculty in the Food Safety and Measurement Facility. This facility, equipped with 4 state-of-the-art mass spectrometers, focuses on developing rapid, global and highly sensitive approaches for the analysis of non-target compounds (e.g. metabolomics) and new tools for the discovery, identification and quantification of target compounds (e.g. toxins, bioactives, etc.,). Additionally, accurate mass determination coupled with new statistical approaches allow for using MS data to "fingerprint" foods for novel discovery, authentication, and adulterant identification. My research program will continue to utilize these novel analytical approaches to promote a better understanding of food.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
70%
Applied
10%
Developmental
20%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
5021212200020%
5023040200010%
7021212200020%
7023040200010%
5021199200010%
5011199200010%
7111212200020%
Goals / Objectives
My appointment in the Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) is as a Food Chemist. Research conducted in my laboratory focuses on optimizing the quality of fresh and processed foods and support AES in its mission to improve the health and quality of life for the citizens of California. My research program is concentrated in three primary areas: (1) elucidating basic chemical reactions and changes in composition that occur in fruits, vegetables and nuts as a result of breeding, pre- and post-harvest processing, (2) identifying and quantifying target and non-target phytochemicals for authentication, safety and biological relevance, and (3) developing methods for the characterization and mitigation of chemical carcinogens and toxins developed during food processing.It is clear that the science of food is experiencing a paradigm shift toward a fully integrated approach to ensure an abundant, environmentally sustainable, safe, flavorful and healthful food supply. Food manufacturing has changed at an unprecedented rate during the 21st century, and is now a globalized endeavor. Ingredients are increasingly grown and purchased globally, through brokers and vendors and manufactured worldwide. There is a growing need to improve understanding of the chemical composition of foods, impact of contemporary processing, packaging, and storage on quality, and develop new analytical tools in areas of food quality assessment, traceability, verification and authentication.Achieving these goals begins with developing a foundational understanding of the chemical composition of foods, reaction mechanism (e.g. oxidation, reduction, polymerization, etc.,) and matrix interactions in food systems. Characterizing the phytochemical composition of foods is critical for improving the quality and health impact of fresh and processed foods, building reliable databases (e.g. the USDA flavonoid database), and for providing a foundation for food authentication and verification. Tremendous innovations in mass spectrometry (MS) and ultra-high pressure analytical chromatography (UHPLC) now enable rapid, global and highly sensitive analysis of non-target compounds (e. g., metabolomic) and new tools for discovery, identification and quantification of target compounds (e.g. toxins, bioactives, adulterants).Our research helps identify new strategies and processing innovations for retaining and optimizing levels of health beneficial compounds in finished food products, and decreasing the formation of toxic or undesirable compounds (e.g. acrylamide, oleuropein, off-flavors etc.,) in finished foods. Our research on improving analytical strategies (i.e. gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), UHPLC-MS/MS, and UHPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight MS) for identifying comprehensive profiles of both volatile and non-volatile compounds in fruit, vegetables and nuts lays the foundation for understanding quality difference in varietals and for food verification and authentication.My research will continue to focus on developing novel analytical approaches to promote a better understanding of food.
Project Methods
MethodsMy laboratory will continue to established novel mass spectrometry methods for target and non-target analysis for food authentication, safety and to determine biological relevance. We plan to grown and extend to research including:1. Continue to develop simplified extraction protocols and UHPLC separations for isolating the range of phenolic compounds from various foods matrices. The goal is to provide data that can be used to harmonize extract protocols across laboratories to support more comprehensive database development and standardize extracts used in intervention studies.2. Continue to develop novel and improved UPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-QTOF-MS methods for identifying and quantifying target and non-target secondary plant metabolites and toxins (e.g. acrylamide) in foods for authentication, safety and biological relevance.3. Continue to explore the mechanism of formation of acrylamide in California Style black ripe olives and identify practical ways to decrease formation during processing.4. Identify dry-resin methods for de-bittering table olives with minimal water usage to improve industry sustainability.5. Identification of volatiles markers and the chemistry associated with the formation of concealed damage (CD) almonds; and explore IR as a screening method for CD.6. Identify the progression of chemical rancidity in roasted almonds and correlate rancidity development with sensory evaluation.7. Continue to evaluate and measure the volatile profile in mono-floral honeys and determine if volatile profiles can be used to distinguish botanical origin.All data will be evaluated and submitted to peer-review journals for external evaluation. Impact will be assessed through publication of results, adoption of recommendations (e.g. changing roasting parameters for almonds) and interest at national meetings of professional organizations.

Progress 10/01/19 to 09/30/20

Outputs
Target Audience:My research efforts have reached several key target groups during this period including: students, academics and numerous industry stake-holders (e.g. The Almond Board of California, Agilent Technologies, Center for Advanced Packaging and Processing, Brassica, USDA, CA EPA and members of the American Chemical Society). I have disseminated knowledge through presentations at professional meetings including a keynote address at the 7th International Conference on Food Factors and the 12th International Conference and Exhibition on Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, and invited presentations at the 3rd International Conference on Flavors and Fragrances, and at the annual conference of the California Almond Board. Additionally, I have given interviews for the popular press including Martha Stewart Living. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Students: Under this project, I have actively mentored a postdoctoral scholar, four graduate students, and three under graduate students in my laboratory. Additionally, I have mentored numerous undergraduate Food Science majors (~20) and supervised student internships in my role as Master Advisor for the Food Science & Technology program. I also serve as a student advisor for Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry and Food Science graduate programs. Additionally, I hosted a visiting scholar Stanislau Bogusz, PhD, from the University of São Paulo, Brazil and mentored a research scientist, Ana Maria Ibenez, supported by the USDA, Albany. Collaborators: I have continued to expand collaborations with Dr. Wally Yokoyama, USDA, Drs. Marjoria Haskell and Patricia Oteiza from the department of Nutrition at UC Davis, and Drs. Aza Bradman and Rosemary Castorina from the Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. As co-director of the Food Safety and Measurement Lab, I have helped to support the mentoring of numerous students and stakeholders from a wide array of disciplines. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Industry Stakeholders: I interacted and continued to build relationships with industry stakeholders including Agilent Technologies, Blue Diamond Almonds, The Almond Board of California, Center for Advanced Packaging and Processing, Brassica and with Mark Miller MD, MPH, Director, Children's Environmental Health Center Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California EPA. All/Public/Media: I gave the keynote address at the 7th International Conference on Food Factors, the 12th International Conference and Exhibition on Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, and was an invited presenter at the 3rd International Conference on Flavors and Fragrances, and the annual conference held by the California Almond Board. I also gave presentations at professional meetings of The American Chemical Society where I also serve as Secretary to the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Results from research conducted in my laboratory resulted in the publication of 3 peer reviewed manuscripts, and numerous invited presentations. Additionally, I gave interviews (e.g. radio, newspaper, magazine) and as my schedule allowed. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? My appointment in the Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) is as a Food Chemist. Key goals of this AES project are to improve the quality of agricultural products and processed foods, while emphasizing the utilization of processing by-products, reducing water usage and promoting sustainability. My research activities directly support the AES in its mission to improve the health and quality of life for the citizens of California. I value my position in the AES and appreciate the opportunity it affords me to work with the California food industry and related stakeholders to develop new solutions to provide healthful foods while meeting contemporary global food challenges. Research conducted in my laboratory emphasizes the development and application of analytical methods for elucidating the composition and basic chemical reactions (e.g., polymerization, oxidation, hydrolysis) of key bioactive compounds (e.g. vitamins, phenolic compounds, etc.,) in fruits, vegetables and nuts in order to assess the impact of cultivar selection, environment, transport, storage and physical processing (e.g. thermal processing, extrusion, etc.,) on food quality. These biochemical/chemical changes are not well characterized, but the extent of these reactions will significantly affect the nutritional value and functionality of fresh and processed food. This research is critical for identifying new strategies and processing innovations for retaining and optimizing levels of health beneficial compounds in finished food products, decreasing the formation of toxic or undesirable compounds in processed foods, and identifying biomarkers for food authentication and verification. Accomplishments include: advancing understanding of the fate and bioavailability of anti-cancer glucosinolates using simulated human digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake models (published), establishing the levels of certified food dyes in over the counter medicines and supplements marketed for children and pregnant women for the first time (published), advancing knowledge of how post-harvest agronomic factors influence the shelf-life of raw almond products (published) and establishing the chemistry of California blue elderberry. I have disseminated this knowledge through presentations at the Children's Environmental Health Center Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Sacramento CA, Elderberry Field Day, Cloverleaf Farm, Dixon CA, the 3rd International Conference on Flavors and Fragrances, 7th International Conference on Food Factors and the 12th International Conference and Exhibition on Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, and at the annual conference of the California Almond Board. Additionally, I have given interviews for the popular press as time allows including Martha Stewart Living.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Hwang, E-S., Bornhorst, G., Oteiza, P., Mitchell, A.E. Assessing the fate and bioavailability of glucosinolates in kale (Brassica oleracea) using simulated human digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake models. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(34): 94929500.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Lehmkuhler, A. L., Miller, M.D., Bradman, A., Castroina, R., Mitchell, A.E. Certified food dyes in over the counter medicines and supplements marketed for children and pregnant women. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 143: 111499.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Luo, K.K., Chapman, D. M., Lerno, L., Huang, G., Mitchell, A.E. Influence of post-harvest moisture on roasted almond shelf life and consumer acceptance. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 101(1): 139-150.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Mitchell, A.E. and Uhl, K. Honey authentication using head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and multivariate analysis. Invited presentation. 3rd International Conference on Flavors and Fragrances, Vina del Mar, Chile, Oct 4, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Mitchell, A.E. Franklin, L., Chapman, D., Huang, G. Linking Chemical Measurements with Sensorial Correlates to Understand Consumer Liking and Product Quality. Plenary Lecture. The 7th International Conference on Food Factors and The 12th International Conference and Exhibition on Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Kobe, Japan, Dec 4, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Luo, K and Mitchell, A.E. Influence of pasteurization on raw almond storage and quality. Poster presentation. The Almond Conference, Sacramento, CA. Dec 12, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Luo, K., Mitchell, A.E. The Effect of Post-Harvest Moisture Exposure on Lipid Oxidation in Raw Almond. Poster presentation. The Almond Conference, Sacramento, CA. Dec 12, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Mitchell, A.E. and A. Lehmkuhler. Laboratory Analysis of Food Dye Content in Various Products, Synthetic Food Dye Risk Assessment California Office of Environmental Health Hazard. Sacramento, CA. Sept 18, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Understanding Elderberry Chemistry, Elderberry Field Day: Planting Hedgerows for Additional Farm Sales, Cloverleaf Farms, Dixon CA. Sept 17, 2019.


Progress 10/01/18 to 09/30/19

Outputs
Target Audience:Students, academics, government, and industry stake-holders (e.g. The Almond Board of California, Agilent Technologies, Center for Advanced Packaging and Processing, Members of the American Chemical Society). Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?This project has resulted in the mentoring of four graduate students, one post-doctoral scholar, one visiting scientist (Eun Sun Hwang, Hankyong National University) and several undergraduates on AES related projects during this review. AES related projects have resulted in presentations at the Annual Almond Board Conference, and meetings of the American Chemical Society providing me the opportunity to grow and expand my professional network. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Data obtained from AES related projects has been disseminated through presentations at the Annual Almond Board Conference, International Flavor Conference and meetings of the American Chemical Society. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Future research projects involve identifying safe compounds that can be used as markers of dietary compliance to support the goals of nutritional intervention studies; identifying levels of FD&C food Dyes in a range of over the counter medications and foods marketed for children; and continuing to understand the chemical process of lipid oxidation in almonds and how this impacts almond stability.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? My appointment in the Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) is as a Food Chemist. Research conducted in my laboratory focuses on optimizing the quality of fresh and processed foods and support AES in its mission to improve the health and quality of life for the citizens of California. My research program is concentrated in three primary areas: (1) elucidating basic chemical reactions and changes in composition that occur in fruits, vegetables and nuts as a result of breeding, pre- and postharvest processing, (2) identifying and quantifying target and non-target phytochemicals for authentication, safety and biological relevance, and (3) developing methods for the characterization and mitigation of chemical carcinogens and toxins developed during food processing. During this review (10/1/2018-9/30/2020) my laboratory has developed a range of quantitative chromatographic and analytical mass spectrometry methods for identifying an array of volatile and nonvolatile compounds that significantly contribute to the nutritional quality, flavor, bitterness, toxicity and health promoting properties of foods. These methods were used to [1] identify the use of Amberlite macroporous resins to reduce bitterness in whole olives using less water than traditional processing methods; [2] define the sensory profiles of raw almond (Prunus dulcis) varieties and the contribution of key chemical and physical properties related to their flavor; [3] compare the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of several new early to mid-season apple cultivars developed for a warmer climates with traditional cultivars; and [4] assess the fate and bioavailability of glucosinolates in kale (Brassica oleracea) using simulated human digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake models. In addition, we wrote the first review available on the sensory and chemical characteristics of almond flavor.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Kafkas, N.E., Ko?ar, M., �z, A.T., Mitchell, A.E. Advanced analytical methods for phenolics in fruits. Journal of Food Quality, doi.org/10.1155/2018.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Johnson, R., Mitchell, A.E. The Use of Amberlite � macroporous resins to reduce bitterness in whole olives for improved processing sustainability. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(5): 1546-1533.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Franklin, L.M., Mitchell, A.E. Review of the sensory and chemical characteristics of almond flavor. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(10): 2743-2753.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: King, E., Champan, D., Luo, K., Ferris, S., Huang, G., Mitchell, A.E. Defining the sensory profiles of raw almond (Prunus dulcis) varieties and the contribution of key chemical compounds and physical properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(11): 3229-3241.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Inhwan, K., Kyung-Hyung, K., Moon-Cheol, J., Sang Seop, K., Mitchell, A.E., Lee, J. A comparison of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of several new early to mid-season apple cultivars for a warmer climate with traditional cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99(10).
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Hwang, E-S., Bornhorst, G., Oteiza, P., Mitchell, A.E. Assessing the fate and bioavailability of glucosinolates in kale (Brassica oleracea) using simulated human digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake models. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.


Progress 10/01/17 to 09/30/18

Outputs
Target Audience:Students, academics, government, and industry stake-holders (e.g. The Almond Board of California, Agilent Technologies, Center for Advanced Packaging and Processing, Members of the American Chemical Society). I have given presentations at workshops and professional meetings during this period of review which include: The 7th International Symposium on Almond and Pistachios (Nov 5-9th, Adelaide South Australia; Keynote address); The Almond Conference (Sacramento, California, Dec, 5-7, 2017), and the annual Spring and Fall meetings of the American Chemical Society. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?This project provided training opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, post-doctoral students and visiting scholars. My laboratory and provides students with exceptional training opportunities through collaborative interactions in the Food Safety and Measurement Facility and with industry stakeholders such as Agilent Technologies, Blue Diamond Almonds, the Almond Board of California, and Siliker Laboratories. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Our results have been disseminated to communities of interest through manuscripts, professional presentations, workshops, abstracts, symposium, and through interactions with the general media. During this past year, we have shared our research findings, through direct interactions with professionals at the Almond Board of California, Agilent Technologies, and with growers and processors at the International Symposium on Almond and Pistachios (Nov 5-9th, Adelaide South Australia. I have given several presentations by invitation at professional meetings of the American Chemical Society, Almond Conference, and Almond Board Annual Leadership meeting. I am active in the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) of the American Chemical Society. I served on the Communication Committee and Strategic Planning Committee and am the editor of an E-Newsletter that reaches over 3,000 ACS members each month. I help to organize several symposium relevant to our research so it can reach a wider audience. Additionally, I participated in several media interviews. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? My appointment in the Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) is as a Food Chemist. Research conducted in my laboratory focuses on improving the quality of agricultural products and processed foods by emphasizing the development of analytical methods, and supports AES in its mission to improve the health and quality of life for California citizens. My research program primary objectives include: elucidating basic chemical reactions and changes in composition that occur in fruits and vegetables as a result of breeding, pre- and post-harvest processes, identifying and quantifying target and non-target secondary plant metabolites for authentication, safety and biological relevance, and developing methods for the characterization and mitigation of chemical carcinogens developed during food processing. This research is focused on developing new strategies and processing innovations for retaining and optimizing levels of health beneficial compounds in finished food products; decreasing the formation of toxic or undesirable compounds in processed foods; and provided new methods for identifying the composition of a wide array of bioactive compounds (e.g. flavonoids, carotenoids, etc.,) that significantly contribute to the nutritional quality, astringency and bitterness, toxicity and health promoting properties of foods. These activities are listed below: Students: · I have mentored four graduate students and three under graduate students in my laboratory. Additionally, I have mentored numerous undergraduate Food Science majors (~20) and supervised student internships in my role as Master Advisor for the Food Science & Technology program. I also serve as an advisor for Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science graduate programs. Academia: · I hosted and mentor two visiting scholars (Eun Sun Hwang, Hankyong National University, S. Korea, Sean Mckeown, PhD, University of Georgia) in my laboratory. Industry Stakeholders: · I interacted and continued to build relationships with industry stakeholders including Agilent Technologies, Blue Diamond Almonds, The Almond Board of California, Center for Advanced packaging and processing, Ferrero, and Silkier Laboratories. All/Public/Media: · I gave the keynote address at the 7th International Symposium on Almond and Pistachios (Nov 5-9th, Adelaide South Australia; Keynote address). I gave presentations and career workshops at professional meetings of The American Chemical Society (March 2018, August 2018). I also presented at the Almond Conference (Sacramento California, Dec, 5-7, 2017). · Results from research conducted in my laboratory resulted in the publication of 7 peer reviewed manuscripts. · I gave interviews (e.g. radio, newspaper, magazine) and as my schedule allowed.

Publications

  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Suthawan Charoenprasert and Alyson Mitchel. Improving the quality of processed olives: acrylamide in Californian table olives. In Olives and Olive Oil as Functional Foods: Bioactivity, Chemistry, and Processing, First Edition. Edited by Paul Kiritsakis and Fereidoon Shahidi.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Johnson, R, Zweigenbaum, J, Mitchell A.E. Quantitation of Oleuropein and Related Phenolics in Cured Spanish-Style Green, California-Style Black Ripe, and Greek-Style Natural Fermentation Olives. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Mar 7;66(9):2121-2128. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b06025.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: K.K. Luo, D.A. Kim, K.C. Mitchell-Silbaugh, G. Huang and A.E. Mitchell. Comparison of amygdalin and benzaldehyde levels in California almond (Prunus dulcis) varietals. Acta Hortic. 1219. ISHS 2018. DOI 10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1219.1
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Franklin LM, King E, Chapman D, Byrnes N, Huang, G, Mitchell AE. Flavor and Acceptance of Roasted California Almonds During Accelerated Storage. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Feb 7;66(5):1222-1232. J. Agric. Food Chem DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05295. Publication Date (Web): 09 Jan 2018
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Mitchell, AE, Robertson, D, and Koh, E. Optimizing the Extraction of Procyanidins Oligomer through Decamer. Nutri Food Sci Int J 4(3): NFSIJ.MS.ID.555636.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: LY, Mitchell AE. Determination of D-myo-inositol phosphates in ⿿activated⿝ raw almonds using anion exchange chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-(ESI-)-MS/MS). J. Sci Food Ag. DOI:10.1002/jsfa.9151
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Johnson, RJ, Mitchell AE, Reducing Phenolics Related to Bitterness in Table Olives: A Review. Journal of Food Quality. Journal of Food Quality. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3193185. Published Aug. 13, 2018.


Progress 12/02/16 to 09/30/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Students, academics, government, and industry stake-holders (e.g. The Almond Board of California, Agilent Technologies, Center for Advanced Packaging and Processing, Members of the American Chemical Society). I have given presentations at workshops and professional meetings during this period of review which include: The 1st International Flavor and Fragrance Conference, Cartagena, Colombia, May 10-12, 2017 (Short course May 8-9); The Almond Conference, and the annual Spring and Fall meetings of the American Chemical Society. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?This project provided training opportunities for undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral students. We partnered with Agilent Technologies and provide students with exceptional training opportunities through collaborative interactions in the Food Safety and Measurement Facility and with industry stakeholders such as Agilent Technologies, Blue Diamond Almonds, the Almond Board of California, Musco Family Olive Company and Covance Laboratories. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Our results have been disseminated to communities of interest through manuscripts, professional presentations, workshops, abstracts, symposium, and through interactions with the general media. During this past year, we have shared our research findings, through direct interactions with professionals at the Almond Board of California, Agilent Technologies, Musco Family Olives and Covance Laboratories. I have given several presentations by invitation at professional meetings of the American Chemical Society, International Flavor and Fragrance Conference, and Almond Conference. I am active in the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) of the American Chemical Society. I served on the Communication Committee and Strategic Planning Committee and am the editor of an E-Newsletter that reaches over 3,000 ACS members each month. I help to organize several symposium relevant to our research so it can reach a wider audience. I have also given numerous tours of the Food Safety and Measurement Facility at UC Davis, and co-wrote and presented a proposal for the Big Idea campaign at UC Davis for a Center for Food Authentication. Additionally, I participated in several media interviews. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? My appointment in the Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) is as a Food Chemist. Research conducted in my laboratory focuses on improving the quality of agricultural products and processed foods by emphasizing the development of analytical methods, and supports AES in its mission to improve the health and quality of life for California citizens. My research program primary objectives include: elucidating basic chemical reactions and changes in composition that occur in fruits and vegetables as a result of breeding, pre- and post-harvest processes, identifying and quantifying target and non-target secondary plant metabolites for authentication, safety and biological relevance, and developing methods for the characterization and mitigation of chemical carcinogens developed during food processing. This research is focused on deceloping new strategies and processing innovations for retaining and optimizing levels of health beneficial compounds in finished food products; decreasing the formation of toxic or undesirable compounds in processed foods; and provided new methods for identifying the composition of a wide array of bioactive compounds (e.g. flavonoids, carotenoids, etc.,) that significantly contribute to the nutritional quality, astringency and bitterness, toxicity and health promoting properties of foods. These activities are listed below: Students: · I have mentored two undergraduate, and five graduate students in my laboratory. Additionally, I have mentored numerous undergraduate Food Science majors, and supervised student internships in my role as Master Advisor for the Food Science & Technology program and as an advisor for Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science graduate programs. Academia: · I hosted and mentor a visiting scholar (Eun Sun Hwang, Hankyong National University, S. Korea) in my laboratory. Industry Stakeholders: · I interacted and continued to build relationships with industry stakeholders including Agilent Technologies, Blue Diamond Almonds, The Almond Board of California, Musco Family Olive Company, Ferrero, the Covance Laboratories. All/Public/Media: · I gave presentations at professional meetings of The American Chemical Society, Almond Conference and at the International Conference on Flavors and Fragrances. · Results from research conducted in my laboratory resulted in the publication of four peer reviewed manuscripts and the filing of one patent. · I gave interviews (e.g. radio, newspaper, magazine) and as my schedule allowed.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Cristian Rogel-Castillo, Kathleen Luo, Guangwei Huang, Alyson E. Mitchell. Effect of Drying and Storage on Almonds after Moisture Exposure leading to Concealed Damage. JAFC. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03680 " Publication Date (Web): 22 Sep 2017.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Lee, J., Chan, B., L., S., C, and A. E. Mitchell. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Food Chemistry, 215: 301-310.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Franklin LM, Chapman D, King E, Mau M, Huang, G, Mitchell AE. 2016. Chemical and Sensory Characterization of Oxidative Changes in Roasted Almonds Undergoing Accelerated Shelf-life J. Agric. Food Chem.,�2017,�65�(12), pp 2549 -2563. DOI:�10.1021/acs.jafc.6b05357. Publication Date (Web): March 11, 2017
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Charoenprasert S, Zweigenbaum J, Zhang G, Mitchell AE. 2017. The influence of pH, sodium hydroxide exposure time on glucosamine and acrylamide levels in California-style black ripe olives. J Food Sci. 2017 Jul;82(7):1574-1581. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13748. Epub 2017 May 27.