Source: PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
INSECT ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT IN AGROECOSYSTEMS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1009990
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
PEN04606
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 2016
Project End Date
Jun 30, 2021
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Deans, AN, RO.
Recipient Organization
PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY
208 MUELLER LABORATORY
UNIVERSITY PARK,PA 16802
Performing Department
Entomology
Non Technical Summary
Northeastern U.S. agriculture is characterized by a complex mosaic of numerous small farms nested in heterogeneous, often urbanizing landscapes. This agriculture is placed within mountainous and forested areas with significant topographic relief, resulting in complex and unique spatial variability at multiple scales. Nearly 60% of the land is forested, 11% of the land is in crops, and it is in this non-forested land that agriculture is concentrated and co-existing with urbanization. These farms are among the oldest intensively farmed areas in the U.S., often with 200 or more years of farming history. Most of the farm acreage is in field and forage crop production, in part to support the strong animal agriculture in the state. Many of the farms are multigenerational, and they often integrate higher value fruit and vegetable agriculture, and some have become certified organic operations, allowing them to charge a premium for their products. In a time of vertical integration and increasing farm size, the contribution from this diverse agricultural mosaic can be too-easily overlooked. Interestingly, however, it is in this northeastern mosaic where diversified small farms are being sustained, and crop diversity ranks among the highest in the nation (Pfleeger et al. 2006). The integration of large acreage field and forage crops with higher value production (fruits, veggies, organic), rapid access to markets, and a strong generational tie to the farms helps farms persist and enter new markets. This diversified and integrated agriculture also creates value-added production which helps sustain agriculture and jobs within local environments, and sustains family farms. To support this industry, we need to advance environmentally sound invertebrate (insects, mites, slugs, and other pest species) management practices that are economically feasible, effective, improve farm-worker safety, and relevant to conventional and organic growers. Pest management practices that meet these goals are based on an understanding of local pest population, community ecology in these agroecosystems, and migratory pests that may arrive. Understanding species composition, densities, trophic roles, and bottom-up and top-down factors that influence abundance of key pest species and effectiveness of beneficial species, along with phenology to determine the time of life stages, are all critical components of applying insect ecology to pest management. This research contributes towards sustaining farms in the northeast by enhancing our understanding of insect populations and community dynamics of both pest and beneficial species, including natural enemies and wild pollinators, in northeastern field, forage, vegetable, and vineyard agroecosystems.Field and forage crop production dominate Pennsylvania agriculture with about 4 million acres of corn, soybean, alfalfa, and grass hay supporting a vibrant livestock business raising dairy cows, beef cattle, swines, poultry, among other animal species. For good reason Pennsylvania is known as a dairy state (we have around 7000 dairies) but the other diverse animals raised on Pennsylvania farms need feed and forage also. By some estimates, as much as 100% of the conventional corn production in Pennsylvania receives insecticides each year, while about 50% of soybean acreage does (Douglas and Tooker 2015). It is clear that most of this insecticide use is preventative and much of it could be avoided if growers relied on scouting and using the framework of Integrated Pest Management to direct any insecticide usage. Vegetables are grown commercially on > 4,300 Pennsylvanian farms that produce over 30 crops, and the state ranks in the top 10 in production of sweet corn, several species of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae, and processing snap beans. Sweet corn dominates diversified fresh-market farms: it is grown on approximately 75% of these farms. About 85% of the acreage is chemically treated for control of a complex of lepidopterans, but resistance to several relevant insecticide options is now common in the US. Cucurbits rank high: Pennsylvania now ranks second or third in pumpkin production and a diverse array of other cucurbits are produced. Grapes are grown on over 14,000 acres of land in Pennsylvania, ranking the state fourth nationally in grape production and eighth larges in wine production. These crops are chemically treated for multiple species of insects that vector pathogens, increasingly with systemic neonicotinoids that can negatively influence pollinators and natural enemy species (Henry et al. 2012, Whitehorn et al. 2012, Douglas et al. 2015). At least 5 newly invasive species are now causing dramatic changes in management practices. Transgenic cultivars that are genetically modified to be insect resistant are commercially available for field corn, sweet corn and squash, more approaching the marketplace pending further research, and seed- and transplant-based technologies are increasing. Reliance on pesticides, however, is becoming increasingly difficult to sustain. Over 500 arthropods are resistant to insecticides, including two relevant to northeastern agroecosystems with field resistant to transgenes (Storer et al. 2010, Gassmann et al. 2011), and non-target and pollution effects are getting harder to ignore (Hladik et al. 2014; Douglas et al. 2015). Societal, environmental, and legislative pressures push towards biologically intensive insect management options, and various "green-labelled" systems provide a marketing premium, or are required for participation in some marketing chains.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2111599113025%
2161599113025%
2161499113025%
2111499113025%
Goals / Objectives
The goal of this project is to improve our understanding of insect population andcommunity ecology associated with agroecosystems. We will focus efforts on thefollowing groups:1. epigeal coleopterans and other natural-enemy species2.slugsother soil borne pest3. lepidopterans4. non-Apis pollinators
Project Methods
1. Epigeal coleopteran and other natural-enemy communities: Work with epigeal predator communities (Leslie et al. 2009, 2010) and the pest and beneficial community in diversified agroecosystems (Hoheisel and Fleischer 2007, Leslie et al. 2007) suggest beneficial or benign community changes within crop fields due to transgenes, but coupled neonicotinoid seed treatments pose risks to predatory epigeal coleopterans (Mullin et al. 2005, Douglas et al. 2015), and influences of communities across ecotones have yet to be defined for our agroecosystems. To complete this past work, pitfall traps will be positioned across transects that span agricultural fields and field edges. Community composition will be determined to the species level. We will adapt principal response curves, which traditionally define changes in community composition across a temporal gradient, to define changes in community composition across a spatial (transect) gradient. Species that move easily along this gradient will be identified as most likely to both contribute to biological control in fields and benefit from conservation practices that preserve forest edge habitats.2. Slugs and other soil borne pests: Slugs have been one of the most serious pests of crops grown in no-tillage systems since these conservation-based farming practices were first adopted in North America. Slugs thrive in the low-disturbance, residue-rich environments characteristic of no-till fields, and now with no-till farming practiced on more than 88 million acres (35.5%) of US cropland, slugs have become a prominent pest in parts of the United States with high no-till adoption rates. For instance, in a recent Pennsylvania survey, over 80% of no-till growers identified slugs as their most challenging pest problem (n = 61, Douglas and Tooker 2012). Heavy and perennial slug damage can even convince some frustrated growers to return to tillage to control their heavy slug populations. Our research thus far indicates that cover crops and use of IPM can help solve challenges posed by slugs. Both these practices foster better populations of ground beetles and other invertebrate predators that can contribute to slug control. We will work with diversified crop rotation to understand their influence on slug populations, trapping for slugs and natural enemies and identifying individuals to species.3. Lepidopterans: We will focus research efforts on fall armyworm, black cutworm, European corn borer, and western bean cutworm. Our work with fall armyworm will entail collaboration with an ARS laboratory for molecular analyses, and an ongoing pheromone-trapping network that we will established through collaborations among land-grant institutions. We anticipated from 50 to 100 sites at a semi-continental scale (east of the Rocky Mountains). Similar trapping efforts will be made in Pennsylvania for black cutworm and western bean cutworm. These data will be web-mapped in real time using PestWatch (www.pestwatch.psu.edu), and the PA-PIPE system with information utilized in local Extension programs. We will also focus on the grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana, (GBM) as it is the principle insect pest of grapes. In the recent past, an artificial diet for mass rearing this insect has been developed (Nagarkatti et al. 2000), environmental cues for induction of diapause have been elucidated (Nagarkatti et al. 2001), a temperature dependent development model has been developed (Tobin et al. 2001), and efficacy of biological control of this important pest with a native egg parasitoid has been explored (Nagarkatti et al. 2002). Most of the information and tools needed to develop a comprehensive IPM program for control of this insect are ready for field testing and eventual regional implementation. Of particular importance is the development of an accurate and grower-friendly biofix for initiating degree day accumulation for the monitoring of within season GBM population dynamics.4. Non-Apis pollinators: Crops in northeastern agricultural landscapes may have a very significant fraction of their pollination achieved through conservation of non-Apis bees (bees other than honey bees) (Winfree et al. 2007, 2008). We will advance the use of floral provisioning for bee conservation through the use of horticultural cultural practices that can be easily implemented on Pennsylvania vegetable farms, and determine the bee species composition visiting those plants. We will compare that to the species composition visiting Cucurbita and Cucumis crops, both close to floral provision plots and on-farms. This work will focus on organic farms, and be replicated in two additional states. Much of the understanding of bee ecology uses visitation data to more directly assess populations without the confounding effects from insect behavior; we will strive to estimate nest density. To begin this process, we will adapt population genetic methods that determine 'sisterhood' relationships among foragers, and apply that to foragers within pumpkin fields, to estimate the number of nest provisioning foragers to that field.

Progress 10/01/19 to 09/30/20

Outputs
Target Audience:Undergraduate and graduate students; scientists in the fields of entomology, biology, ecology, or agriculture; agricultural producers, extension educators, and other agriculture professionals Changes/Problems: The arrival of invasive species has led to focusing research efforts on these pests. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?We supervised or served on the thesis committees of 14 graduate students, three of which finished their PhD degrees, and one who finished aMasters degree. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Research results and updated best practices have been published in peer-reviewed journals, published as extension resources (available online), and delivered to stakeholders at regional meetings, workshops, and extension events. Results from this project reach farmers and land managers through direct involvement with extension at county, state, and national meetings. We also disseminate this information to this audience and the public through websites hosted by extension, and websites that produce interactive web-mapping of insect activity. We participate in additional meetings with Master Gardeners and organizations focused on producers and distributors of certified organic food. We have reached wider audiences through participation in summer camps targeting youth (middle school grades), and the Great Insect Fair, a one-day program with an attendance of ~3,000 to 6,000 each year, Wings in the Park (a celebration of pollinators, which reaches about 1,000 attendees), and WPSU's Eventapalooza (~1,500 people). We also have reached audiences focused on conservation through participation in programs hosted by non-governmental organizations (NGOs). What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We will validate and deploy our phenology model that estimates the time of spring emergence of the invasive Allium leafminer, alerting growers to when the adult stage begins activity, which helps withtime management tactics. For another invasive species, the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, we will focus modeling studies to assess how egg parasitism and predation, in combination with abiotic factors, are influencing populations. We will expand our studies of colony level measures of wild bumble bee to ascertain the rates of monogamy, which are essential for using population genetic methods to estimate colony abundance from field captures of foragers. We also plan field assays to determine the effects of agricultural practices, such as tillage and cover crops, on arthropod natural enemy abundance, diversity, and community composition, and on prevalence of infection of sentinel insects by insect pathogens, and on predation by arthropod natural enemies. We will conduct greenhouse assays to determine the effects of insect-pathogenic fungi on plant growth and defense gene expression, and on insect growth. We will also conduct assays on the role of endophytic Metarhizium in plants infected with Cochliobolus heterostrophus, the causative agent of southern corn leaf blight, and their role in gene expression regulation in plants. We will determine the influence of cover crops and insecticide use on pest, natural enemy, and decomposer species. We will also work to understand the influence of two poorly studied nutrients (phosphorus and zinc) on insect populations. Nitrogen can clearly influence the amount of feeding done by herbivorous insects, but our preliminary work suggests that these two nutrients can also have effects. We will also study the influence of crop species and genotypic diversity on crop productivity and insect pest populations.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1 (Barbercheck) One of the aspects of soil health that we are studying in connection with this project is the effect of agricultural practices on the beneficial entomopathogenic and endophytic soil fungus, Metarhizium robertsii. We recovered more than 420 isolates from Metarhizium-infected cadavers of Galleria mellonella. Sanger sequencing of translation elongation factor (TEF) 1-alpha of representative isolates from our research site. All the selected isolates were M. robertsii. We inoculated seeds of maize (Zea mays L.) with spores of Metarhizium robertsii and evaluated V4 maize for endophytic colonization of leaves and roots, measured plant height, chlorophyll content and above-ground biomass, and relative growth rate of black cutworm, and expression of selected plant defense genes. We recovered M. robertsii from 91% of plants grown from inoculated seeds. We detected M. robertsii more frequently in roots compared with leaves. Colonized plants were greater in plant height and above-ground biomass compared to control plants suggesting a beneficial effect on plant growth. Leaf tissue from colonized plants showed changes in the expression of genes involved in plant defense. Phytohormone analyses of leaf tissues showed that the levels of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were not different between control and M. robertsii-treated plants. In feeding bioassays, the relative growth rate of black cutworm was lower on leaves from endophytic plants compared to control plants. We evaluated the effects of seed inoculation of maize with M. robertsii on southern corn leaf blight caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus at V4-V5 growth stage. Biomass and chlorophyll content were not different among treatments. There was significant difference in plant height among treatments. We evaluated the effects of treatment on the concentration of different defense and growth related phytohormones in maize leaf at V4-V5 stage. There was significant difference in the concentration of salicylic acid (SA) among treatments SA induction is the marker of defense response by in diseased plants. There was no difference in the levels of jasmonic acid among treatments suggesting the absence of herbivory defense response due to no herbivory stress. Endophytic colonization of maize plants by M. robertsii promoted plant growth and altered defense gene expression in maize, and suppressed growth rate of black cutworm larvae. Objective 2 (Tooker) Our main research efforts over the reporting period wereto test the influence of preventative pest management tactics on the benefits of conservation-based farming tactics in terms of arthropod diversity and pest control in maize and soybean production. In two separate, but related projects, we studied connections among prophylactic insecticide use, soil quality, and populations of invertebrate pests (insects and slugs), weeds, and arthropod predators (spiders and insects). Our hypothesis is that annual deployment of prophylactic insecticides and fungicides will decrease soil quality and function, and populations of beneficial arthropods associated with soil, particularly, predaceous insects and spider and and detritivorous species like Colembola and mites. Simultaneously, we tested the benefits of cover crops for dampening potential negative effects of preventative use of insecticides and fungicides. We collected our last data in the project in fall of 2019, and have since been compiling data, conducting statistical analyses and learning what our results mean. Because pest populations were low, we found that using insecticides provided very little benefit to pest management and yield. Instead, cover crops reduced pest density and damage, largely because most arthropod predator groups were more abundant in cover-crop plots. Further, preventative pest management decreased predation rates compared to control plots that did not receive any pest management tactics. Within our IPM treatment, we used a pyrethroid application because one group of pests exceeded economic thresholds, and this insecticide application was actually more disruptive in some respects to the predator community than preventative insecticide use. Our results suggest that the best pest management outcomes may occur when preventative pest management tactics are avoided and biological control is promoted. Moreover, when pest populations in field crops are relatively low, cover crops may offer apromising alternative to insecticide pest management. We also finished two other projects within the last year that address goal 2. In both we tested the benefits of crop species diversity for crop productivity and insect control, one in a vegetable system and the other in silage production. In a vegetable production system, we assessed the strength of crop species relatedness on insect pest populations. Using squash as a focal species, we studied the influence of different crop species with known evolutionary divergence time from squash on the pest complex that developed on squash plants. We found that crop relatedness influenced herbivore abundance later in summer when plants may have been large enough to influence their neighbors. Evolutionary relatedness of crop plants did not affect predator, pollinator, or detritivore populations. As we summarize our results, we expect to be able to use our results to generate recommendations so that farmers can take advantage of crop evolutionary relationships to improve pest control when laying out their farms. In silage production, we assessed monocultures of typical silage crops (e.g., corn, sorghum, and soybeans) to mixtures of these crops (e.g., corn and soybean, corn and sorghum, and corn, sorghum, soybean, and sunflower). We confirmed that corn monocultures tend to be most productive, but some mixtures do not lag very far behind and provide pest management benefits and resistance to drought that are likely to become more important as climate change progresses. Objective 3 (Fleischer) We contributed to management of migratory noctuid lepidopteran species that annually re-invade our geographic region. We showed that there is a recent genetic differentiation of corn earworm in our region compared to about 10 years ago. We expanded on an aerobiology model for fall armyworm, evaluating it for a 4-year time span, using pheromone-trap captures and SNPs that map to natal origins as validation tools. Objective 4 (Fleischer) Another aspect we focused on was understanding the population dynamics and ecosystem service of pollination by wild bees in commercial production systems. We focused on the pumpkin production system which is entirely dependent on insects for pollination. We determined that 37 species of bees utilize pumpkins as a resource. Visitation rates and pollen deposition rates showed that wild bees provide sufficient pollination in our settings to achieve commercial yield. We explored this further for a social species of bumble bee using population genetics methods to measure populations at the colony level. We showed that our agricultural landscapes are resulting in a remarkably high (~450) number of colonies sending foragers into pumpkin fields during the time when pollination services are most relevant. Together, these studies show that conservation ecology of wild bees will suffice to achieve pollination of a commercial crop. An underlying assumption has been that visitation rate would be a direct function of colony numbers, however we showed that both visitation rate and colony numbers are a declining function of field area. This suggests a dilution effect: as field area increases, both visitation rate and colony numbers decease. Visitation rate is a function of colony numbers when both measures are expressed on a per hectare, as opposed to a per field, basis.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Ahmad I., Jim�nez-Gasco, M.D.M., Luthe, D., & Barbercheck, M. 2020. Mighty Microbes: The tri-trophic interactions of endophytic Metarhizium in maize. XXVIII Plant and Animal Genome, 2020, San Diego, CA, USA, Jan. 11-15, 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Tooker, J. F. Toxic slugs chart a path back to IPM. Departmental Seminar. Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 24 October 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Tooker, J. F. Slugs as a motivating force for IPM in no-till crop production. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, St. Louis, MO, 19 November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Yip, E., and J. F. Tooker. Microevolution of plant defenses: What do we know and where should we go? Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, St Louis, MO, 19 November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Tooker, J. F. "Toxic slugs and plants that can smell: unexpected interactions influence herbivore populations." Departmental Seminar. Biology Department, Mercyhurst University, Erie, PA, 6 December 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Tooker, J. F. "Toxic Slugs Chart a Path Back to Integrated Pest Management." Agricultural Research Seminar. FedEx Institute of Technology, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, 4 March 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Pearson, E. A., and J. F. Tooker. Toxicity of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids to non-target soil invertebrates. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, St. Louis, MO, November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Fennell, L, J. F. Tooker, and K. G. Wickings. Calendar-based pest management tactics in field crops have seasonal impacts on the abundance of epigeic predators and their activity. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, St. Louis, MO, November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Golinski, J. E., E. Yip, and J. F. Tooker. Plant defense by eavesdropping on the communication of herbivores: Is it common or rare? Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, St. Louis, MO, November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Rowen, E. K., and J. F. Tooker. Getting more Zs: Can zinc fertilizer boost corn resistance to chewing herbivores? Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, St. Louis, MO, November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Kammerer, M., S. Goslee, M. Douglas, J. F. Tooker, and C. M. Grozinger. Investigating seasonal variation in wild bee responses to landscape resources and risks. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, St. Louis, MO, November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Bock, H., J. Baniszewski, M. A. Bruns, and J. F. Tooker. Does planting density influences granivory in polyculture systems? Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, St. Louis, MO, November 2019. (Poster presentation)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Rowen, E. K., and J. F. Tooker. Zinc fertilizer boosts corn nutrition and FAW performance. 2020 Joint Eastern & Southeastern Branch Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Atlanta, Georgia, March 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Leake, L, R. Cocroft, E. Yip, J. F. Tooker, S. Michael, and K. Rice. Are females better listeners? Interactions between herbivore bioacoustics and chemical defenses in dioecious plants. 2020 Joint North Central Branch and Southwestern Branch Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Oklahoma City, OK, March 2020.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Ahmad, I., Zaib, S. (2020). Mighty microbes: Plant growth promoting microbes in soil health and sustainable agriculture. In: Giri, B. & Varma A. (Eds). Soil Health, Vol. 59, Springer Nature.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Barbercheck, M. (organizer and presenter) 2020. Organic Research Flash Talks & Discussion Session. PASA Farming for the Future Conference, 8 Feb. 2020. 80-min workshop. Lancaster, PA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Barbercheck, M. 2019. (Discussion facilitator, Co-organizer). Research and Equity Action: A Panel and Workshop on Community-driven Research. 18 December 2019. PA-WAgN 13th Annual Symposium: Growing Rural Urban Perspectives. Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Lopez-Uribe, M. and S. J. Fleischer. 2020. Bees, Pollinators, and Pollination. Full day workshop, with 9 topics and hands-on identification session. MidAtlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Lopez-Uribe, M and S. J. Fleischer. 2019. Pollinator In-Service Program. July 9-10. Two day workshop, with 15 speakers and poster session. Along with Penn State main campus expertise, we brought in expertise from the Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA ARS, North Carolina State University, Michigan State, Cornell University, and the Altoona Campus at Penn State. Pennsylvania State University. 121 attendees.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Sweet corn pest update. S. J. Fleischer. 2020. 15 products, produced weekly from June 10 to September 16. Delivered to audiences via Penn State Extension, IPM updates produced by the Pennsylvania Vegetable Growers Association, and a 1-800 telephone summary.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Nault, B., S. J. Fleischer, T. Elkner, E. Grundberg, T. Rusinek, R. Harding & B. Lingbeek. 2019. Initial steps in managing the new invasive Allium leafminer in Allium crops. Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America. Blacksburg, VA. March 9-12.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Nault, B., R. Harding, L. Iglesias, E. Grundberg, T. Rusinek, T. Elkner, B. Lingbeek and S. Fleischer. 2019. Management of Allium leafminer (Phytomyza gymnostoma): A new invasive pest of Allium crops in North America. Entomological Society of America. St. Louis, MO. Nov. 16-20.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Lingbeek, B., S. J. Fleischer, A. Corcoran and T. Elkner. 2019. Predicting allium leafminer (Phytomyza gymnostoma) emergence with degree-day accumulations and phenological observations. Entomological Society of America. St. Louis, MO. Nov. 16-20.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Cornelisse, S., D. Hartman, M. Barbercheck. 2020. Five considerations for adopting alternative forage rotations. Progressive Forage 9:18. 1 October 2020.
  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Cornelisse, S., Borrelli, K., Baraibar, B., Barbercheck, M. 2019. Organic Grain Crop Enterprise Budgets. https://extension.psu.edu/organic-grain-crop-enterprise-budgets
  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Borrelli, K., Busch, A., Barbercheck, M. 2020. Transitioning to Organic Crop Production. Field Crop News, 1 October 2020. https://extension.psu.edu/transitioning-to-organic-crop-production?j=561154&sfmc_sub=35519620&l=159_HTML&u=11842937&mid=7234940&jb=9&utm_medium=email&utm_source=MarketingCloud&utm_campaign=FAFC-2020-SEPT-30-GN-EM-Field+Crop+News&utm_content=FAFC-2020-SEPT-30-GN-EM-Field+Crop+News&subscriberkey=0030W00003P0ySiQAJ
  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Barbercheck, M., Borrelli, K. 2020. Terminating Winter Cover Crops in Organic Feed and Forage Crops. Field Crop News, July 8, 2020. https://extension.psu.edu/terminating-winter-cover-crops-in-organic-feed-and-forage-crops
  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Barbercheck, M. 2020. Many Factors Influence Interpretation of Soil Health Tests. Field Crop News, 15 May 2020. https://extension.psu.edu/many-factors-influence-interpretation-of-soil-health-tests
  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Barbercheck, M. 2020. Predators control pests and crop damage during transition to organic. Research highlight. Field Crop News 15 April 2020. https://extension.psu.edu/predators-control-pests-and-crop-damage-during-transition-to-organic
  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Borelli, K. Busch, A., Barbercheck, M. 2020. Is organic certification right for your operation? Field Crop News 27 May 2020 https://extension.psu.edu/is-organic-certification-right-for-your-operation?j=538536&sfmc_sub=35519620&l=159_HTML&u=10818935&mid=7234940&jb=9&utm_medium=email&utm_source=MarketingCloud&utm_campaign=FAFC-2020-MAY-28-GN-EM-Field+Crop+News&utm_content=FAFC-2020-MAY-28-GN-EM-Field+Crop+News&subscriberkey=0030W00003P0ySiQAJ
  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: 40 newsletter articles published in Penn State Extension website for Commercial Vegetable Production during 2019 and 2020. List of these are at https://extension.psu.edu/shopby/shelby-fleischer,-ph-d/news?dir=desc&limit=50&order=publish_date
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Trietsch C, Mik� I, Ezray B, Deans AR (2020) A taxonomic revision of nearctic Conostigmus (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea: Megaspilidae). Zootaxa 4792 (1): 1155 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4792.1
  • Type: Other Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Barbercheck, M. (panelist with J. Wallace, K. Borrelli, J. Cook). 2020. Organic Crop Production Q & A. Virtual Ag Progress Days Session. 34 attendees. 11 August 2020.


Progress 10/01/18 to 09/30/19

Outputs
Target Audience:Undergraduate and graduate students; scientists in the fields of entomotolgy, biology, ecology, or agriculture; agricultural producers, extension educators, and other agriculture professionals. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?We organized a two-day educational program delivered by Penn State personnel plus 6 out-of-state speakers from academia, USDA, and NRCS that provided professional development for Extension Educators and Master Gardeners that focused on pollinators and pollination. Approximately 120 attendees participated in hands-on identification activities and talks that covered the ecosystem service of pollination in multiple cropping systems, factors that impact pollinator populations, and resources for conserving pollinators. For our farming system project, we organized on 14 August a public tour of our research site during Penn State's Ag Progress Days. Six presenters interacted with approximately 60 attendees, sharing the key findings of our project, including our IPM-based findings on the importance of conserving natural enemies for pest control. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Information useful for managing insect pests and conserving beneficial species and pollinators reached farmers, Master Gardeners, and professionals in the agricultural sector through talks at county, state, and regional meetings, at twilight meetings, and webinars. Barbercheck. 2019. Managing soil health on urban farms. Homewood Historical Farm. Pittsburgh, PA. 13 July 2019. 35 attendees, 3 African American, 3 youth, 20 women. Barbercheck, M., Gruver, J. Pest and weed management strategies for the transitioning producer. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Webinar and Podcast Series. 19 March 2019. 175 Attendees. Barbercheck, M. 2019. Organic 101. A growing Opportunity for PA Farmers. Allegheny Co. Crops Day. Meadville, PA. 21 March 2019. 20 attendees, 2 women. Barbercheck, M, Wallace, J., Hoover, R., Smyer, A., Esbenshade, W. Managing Organic Feed Grain Crops for Soil Health: Reduced-Tillage and Cover Crops. PASA Farming for the Future Conference, 9 Feb. 2019. 3-hr workshop. 30 attendees. Fleischer, S. J. 2019. Sweet corn insect pests: adapting to changing conditions. Empire State Producer's Expo. Syracuse, NY. January 15-17. Fleischer, S. J. 2019. Allium leafminer: what we now know, and how to manage it. Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. Jan. 29-31. Fleischer, S. J. and D. Biddinger. 2019. Pollinators, pesticides, and the use pattern of neonics. Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. Jan. 29-31. Fleischer, S. J. and D. Biddinger. 2019. Wild and managed pollinators doing the job in tree fruit and cucurbits. Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. Jan. 29-31. Fleischer, S. J. 2019. Managing insect pests while protecting pollinators in pumpkins. Tri-County Vegetable Grower's Meeting. Shippensburg, PA. Feb. 6. Fleischer, S. J. 2019. The latest in sweet corn pest management. Tri-County Vegetable Grower's Meeting. Shippensburg, PA. Feb. 6. Lopez-Uribe, M., S. Fleischer, D. Biddinger, K. Gill. 2019. Pollination services in fruits and vegetables in the Mid-Atlantic region. Pennsylvania Association of Sustainable Agriculture Conference. Lancaster, PA. Feb. 9. Fleischer, S. J. 2019. Insect Updates: Sweet corn, Allium leafminer, Pumpkin pollinators. Small Fruit and Vegetable Meeting. Montgomery County, Worchester, PA. March 7. Gugino, B., S. J. Fleischer, T. Butzler. 2019. Keystone Family Farm Twilight Meeting. Clinton County. July 1. Fleischer, S. J., L. Fronk, T. Ford. 2019. Vegetable Twilight Meeting. Belleville. August 7. Deans, A. R. 2019. Use of natural history collections in research. Lecture to 14 students in ENT 432: Insect Biodiversity and Evolution. Sept. 2019 Tooker, J. F., Insecticides, IPM, and some new ways to control insects, Penn State Commercial Applicator's School, 27-Aug-2019, attendees: 70. Tooker, J. F., The benefits of non-Bt corn, Penn State Agronomic Diagnostic Clinic, 17-Jul-2019, attendees: 35. Tooker, J. F., The benefits of non-Bt corn, Penn State Agronomic Diagnostic Clinic, 16-Jul-2019, attendees: 65. Tooker, J. F., Insects, slugs, soil health and IPM, Pennsylvania Furnace, Weed/Insect Field Day, 10-Jul-2019, attendees: 40. Tooker, J. F., Cover Crops, Slugs, and Naked Seed, Online, Cover Crop Innovators webinar, 18-Apr-2019, attendees: 23. Tooker, J. F., Insect & Slug Management in No-till Cropping Systems: a case for IPM, Wellsboro, PA, Women in Agriculture conference, 17-Apr-2019, attendees: 65. Tooker, J. F., IPM & Soil Health: An Argument for Avoiding Preventative Pesticide Use, Danville, PA, Connecting Soils and Profits Tools for Improving Soil Health, 14-Mar-2019, attendees: 200. Tooker, J. F., IPM & Soil Health: An Argument for Avoiding Preventative Pesticide Use, Wysox, PA, Connecting Soils and Profits Tools for Improving Soil Health, Wysox, PA, 13-Mar-2019, attendees: 70. Tooker, J. F., IPM & Soil Health: An Argument for Avoiding Preventative Pesticide Use, State College, PA, Connecting Soils and Profits Tools for Improving Soil Health, 12-Mar-2019, attendees: 45. Tooker, J. F., Controlling slugs and insects with no-till and cover crops, Prospect, PA, Western Pennsylvania Regional Soil Health Workshop, 7-Mar-2019, attendees: 55. Tooker, J. F., Do not Let Slugs Slow you Down, Batavia, NY, Annual Meeting of Western New York Crop Management, 20-Feb-2019, attendees: 130. Tooker, J. F., IPM for controlling pests in no-till fields, Selinsgrove, PA, Snyder County Conservation District Winter Meeting, 15-Feb-2019, attendees: 70. Tooker, J. F., Controlling slugs and insects in no-till fields with cover crops, Columbus, OH, Ohio AgriBusiness Association Industry Conference, 31-Jan-2019, attendees: 65. Tooker, J. F., Slugs and IPM--Healthier soil decreases troubles from menacing molluscs?, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, FarmSmart Conference, 19-Jan-2019, attendees:25. Tooker, J. F., Slugs and IPM--Healthier soil decreases troubles from menacing molluscs?, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, FarmSmart Conference, 19-Jan-2019, attendees: 125. Tooker, J. F., Pest Management in Reduced Tillage Production, Boalsburg, PA, Pennsylvania Agronomic Education Society, 17-Jan-2019, attendees: 70. Tooker, J. F., Integrated pest management, Lamar PA, Soil Health Breakfast, 5-Jan-2019, attendees: 16. Tooker, J. F., Slimy Slugs and IPM - to Conquer Your Slugs You Have to Think Like a Slug, Indianapolis, IN, Indiana CCA Conference, 18-Dec-2018, attendees: 110. Tooker, J. F., Slimy Slugs and IPM - to Conquer Your Slugs You Have to Think Like a Slug, Indianapolis, IN, Indiana CCA Conference, 18-Dec-2018, attendees: 90. Tooker, J. F., Identifying Strategies for Fighting Slugs, weeds and pests, Washington, NJ, New Jersey No-Till and Cover Crop Conference, 13-Dec-2018, attendees: 45. Tooker, J. F., Controlling insects and slugs in no-til fields, University of Vermont No-Till Training, 3-Dec-2018, attendees: 51. Tooker, J. F., Insect and Slug Management in Reduced Tillage and Cover Crop Production Systems: Plant-Insect Interactions in Agriculture Systems, Big Flats, NY, NRCS Cover Crop and Soil Health Workshop and Tour, 20-Oct-2018, attendees: 65. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Work to provide the basis for managing invasive species will continue, with a focus on allium leafminer. We will determine developmental thresholds and variation in host-plant interactions with varying allium crop species, which will enable growers to optimize management options and timing. We will continue our work studying the influence of diverse rotations and cover crops on natural enemy populations and the control they provide. We are also studying the response of herbivores to plants over- or under-fertilized with phosphorus and zinc--two nutrients whose influence on pest populations that have not received much attention. In a new project, we will test the influence of moth pheromones on physiology of cranberry plants and their capacity to defend themselves against caterpillar pests. We will continue our research on the effects of agricultural production practices and biotic and abiotic environmental factors on the occurrence, relative abundance, and diversity of natural enemies of insects in organic feed grain cropping systems that focus on tillage reduction and plant biodiversity. Additionally, we will continue to examine the plant-protective and plant growth promoting effects of endophytic entomopathogenic fungi in corn. Digitization efforts at the Frost Entomological Museum will shift in 2020 to focus on other non-Apis pollinators, especially hover flies (Syrphidae). There will also be development of an exhibit on invasive species that demontrate the utility of natural history collections for research in this context and also will provide visitors with the knowledge needed to recognize invasive species and understand the life history traits that make them more or less successful than other alien species.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? In 2019, we continued to study in a long-term farming system project the influence of diverse rotations in maize production on pest and natural-enemy populations. Our research continues to find that arthropod predators can control common early season pests, mainly slugs and caterpillars, if management specifically accommodates these beneficial species. The main practices that are useful for fostering better populations of natural enemies are following a diverse crop rotation that include cover crops and relies on IPM for pest control. In our case, IPM involves avoiding unnecessary preventative, insecticide applications; meaning that we are avoiding neonicotinoid seed treatments and pyrethroid sprays unless pest populations or damage exceed economic thresholds. We also completed the final year of research on the influence of crop phylogenetic relatedness on insect pests and natural enemies. We explored the influence of phylogenetic distance on associational resistance to insect communities, using butternut squash as a focal crop species and we varied the crop species that neighbored squash in the field; these crop species differed in their evolutionary divergence times relative to butternut squash. The divergence times and plant species were: Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita pepo (butternut squash), 0 mya; Cucurbita pepo (zucchini), 32 mya; Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), 147 mya; Solanaceae: Capsicum annuum (sweet pepper), 238.3 mya; Asteraceae: Helianthus annuus (sunflower), 238.3 mya; Poaceae: Zea mays (sweet corn) and Avena sativa (common oats), 376.5 mya. We tracked herbivore populations on squash foliage and flowers, and the amount of insect damage received by squash plants in each plot. We gathered data using scouting, sticky traps, pitfall traps, and dissections of cucumber beetles to find parasites. Generally we found that phylogenetic relatedness of neighboring plant species had an no consistent significant effect on abundance of predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. However, phylogenetic diversity did consistently influence stripped cucumber populations late in the season; a finding that could be harnessed for better control of this challenging pest species. We also examined the growth promotion and insect pest suppression effects of the endophytic entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii, in corn and in species commonly grown as winter cover crops. We inoculated seeds of corn, (Zea mays L.), Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Arvika.), cereal rye (Secale cereale L. var. Aroostook) and canola (Brassica napus L. var. Wichita.) with conidia of M. robertsii to assess endophytic colonization of roots and leaves, and plant height, above-ground biomass, and chlorophyll 30 days after germination. We recovered M. robertsii from 91.06 ± 4.05 % of maize plants grown from treated seed. Detection was more frequent in root sections (49.66 ± 2.33 %) compared with leaf sections (33.33 ± 2.43 %) of endophytically colonized plants. Height and above-ground biomass of endophytically colonized maize plants was significantly greater when compared to control plants. In insect feeding bioassays, the relative growth rate of 2nd instar black cutworm was lower when fed on maize leaves from endophytic plants compared to control plants. Plant defence genes involved in jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways were upregulated. Endophytic M. robertsii increased plant height of Austrian winter pea and cereal rye and increased above-ground biomass of Austrian winter pea, cereal rye, and canola plants. The ability of M. robertsii to colonize plants commonly grown as winter cover crops suggests that an additional benefit of cover crops may be to help conserve Metarhizium in annual cropping systems. In a related effort under this project, we coupled biological, ecological, and air-flow trajectory meteorology into an insect migration modeling framework for a pest that is a major invasive in Africa and Asia and validated this with population surveys and genetic markers at a semi-continental scale. We demonstrated that sexual selection far outweighed other factors in explaining sympatric speciation in a pest of field and vegetable crops. We showed that an agent-based phenology model correlated with field trap data for another invasive species across a wide geographic range. We showed that variation in pollens affected adults bumble bee reproductive physiology and documented the wild pollinator species relevant to sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) pollination. The Frost Entomological Museum holds a historic arthropod collection, with a global representation of species and specimens that date as far back as 1859. The specimen data - including what a specimen is, where, when, how, and by whom it was collected - primarily exist in analog, written on paper labels. We have been digitizing the non-Apis pollinators and beetles so that their population dynamics can be analyzed through time. To that end we now have data for >130,000 specimens available for research, 99,000 of which are Coleoptera.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Deans AR, Sandall EL. PVA is not OK? A short review of adhesives for insect specimens. Entomological Collections Network annual meeting, Vancouver, BC, Canada. November 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Pearsons, K., E. Rowen, K. Wickings, R. Smith, and J. F. Tooker. Unintended consequences of pest management on soil ecosystems. Annual Meeting of the Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America, Blacksburg, VA, March 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Deans, A. R. and Sandall, E. L. Digitizing the Frost Entomological Museum: Lessons learned and given. Meeting of the Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America, Blacksburg, VA, March 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J., T. Elkner, C. M. McGrady, D. Roberts, B. A. Nault, T. Rusinek, E. Grundberg, J. Ali, S. Ray & B. Lingbeek. 2018. Allium leafminer: A new invasive threat to Allium crops in North America. Entomological Society of America. Vancouver, Canada. Nov. 10-13
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J., A. Nielsen, S. Chen, S. Crawford & G. Von Kuster. 2018. Brown marmorated stink bug model updates and training. BMSB Areawide Project IPM Working Group. Winchester, VA. Nov. 28
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Barbercheck, M. 2019. Ecology of a multifunctional fungus, Metarhizium robertsii, in organic cropping systems. Invited seminar. Dept. of Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology, Penn State University. Sept. 30, 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Ahmad, I., M. Jim�nez-Gasco, D. S. Luthe, S. N. Shakeel, M. E. Barbercheck (2019). Endophytic Metarhizium robertsii promotes maize growth and suppresses insect growth by eliciting plant defense. ASPB Annual Conference, Plant Biology 2019, Aug. 3-7, 2019, San Jose, USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Ahmad, I., M. Jim�nez-Gasco, D. S. Luthe, S., M. E. Barbercheck (2019). Endophytic Metarhizium robertsii Affects Maize Growth and Gene Expression and Growth of Black Cutworm. Society for Invertebrate Pathology/IOBC Annual Meeting, Valencia, Spain, July 29  Aug. 1, 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Barbercheck, M., Voortman, C. 2019. Conservation of Metarhizium, a multifuctional beneficial fungus, in agronomic crops. Eastern Branch Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Blacksburg, VA, March 9-12, 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. Combining No-till and IPM to increase diversity and conservation biological control in field crop production. Joint Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America and Entomological Society of Canada, Vancouver, BC, Canada, November 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Pearsons, K. A., and J. F. Tooker. Response of non-target epigeal communities in field crops to neonicotinoid seed coatings. Joint Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America and Entomological Society of Canada, Vancouver, BC, Canada, November 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Rice, K.B., Hernandez M., Tooker, J.F., Medeiros, H., Tabb, A. and Leskey, T.C. 2018. Lights lasers and drones: New techniques for tracking insects in the field. Joint Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America and Entomological Society of Canada, Vancouver, BC, Canada, November 2018
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F., and K. Wickings. 2018. Exploring Soil Biological Health and Pest Management Trade Offs to Maximize Crop Productivity. 2018 Climate and Agroecology Project Directors Meeting. USDA NIFA, Washington, D.C. 6-7 December 2018
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Jabbour, R., Francis, C., Barbercheck, M., Ullman, K, Organic Agriculture Teaching and Learning in 2025: An Exercise in Visioning. (poster) June 18-21, 2019. University of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Mik� I, Trietsch C, van de Kamp T, Masner L, Ulmer JM, Yoder MJ, Zuber M, Sandall EL, Baumbach T, Deans AR (2018) Revision of Trassedia (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae), an evolutionary relict with an unusual distribution. Insect Systematics and Diversity 2(6): 4 DOI: 10.1093/isd/ixy015
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Mik� I, Rahman SR, Anzaldo SS, van de Kamp T, Parslow BA, Tatarnic NJ, Wetherington MT, Anderson J, Schilder RJ, Ulmer JM, Deans AR, Hines HM (2019) Fat in the leg: function of the expanded hind leg in gasteruptiid wasps (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae). Insect Systematics and Diversity 3(1): 2 DOI: 10.1093/isd/ixy020
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Trietsch C, Mik� I, Deans AR (2019) A photographic catalog of Ceraphronoidea types at the Mus�um national dHistoire naturelle, Paris (MNHN), with comments on unpublished notes from Paul Dessart. European Journal of Taxonomy 0(502). DOI: 0.5852/ejt.2019.502
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Sharanowski BJ, Peixoto L, Dal Molin A, Deans AR (2019) Multi-gene phylogeny and divergence estimations for Evaniidae (Hymenoptera) PeerJ 7:e6689 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6689
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Baraibar, B.; D. A. Mortensen, M. Hunter, M. E. Barbercheck, J. P. Kaye, D. Finney, W. Curran, J. Bunchek, C. White. 2018. Growing degree days and cover crop identity explain weed biomass in cover crops. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 38: 65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-018-0543-1
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Bell, T., K.L. Hockett, R.I. Alcal�-Brise�o, M. Barbercheck, G. A. Beattie, M.A. Bruns, J. Carlson, T. Chung, A. Collins, B. Emmett, P. Esker, K. A. Garrett, L. Glenna, B. Gugino, M. del mar Jimenez-Gasco, L. Kinkel, J. Kovac, K. Kowalski, G. Kuldau, J. Leveau, J. Myrick, K. Peter, A. Shade, N. Stopnisek, X. Tan, A. T. Welty, K. Wickings, E. Yergeau. 2019. Manipulating Wild and Tamed Phytobiomes: Challenges and Opportunities. Published Online: 9 May 2019. https://doi.org/10.1094/PBIOMES-01-19-0006-W
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Hunter, M.C., M. E. Schipanski, M. H. Burgess, J. C. LaChance, B. A. Bradley, M. E. Barbercheck, J. P. Kaye, D. A. Mortensen. 2019. Cover Crop Mixture Effects on Maize, Soybean, and Wheat Yield in Rotation. Agric. Environ. Lett. 4:180051 (2019) doi:10.2134/ael2018.10.0051
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Pisani-Gareau, T., Voortman, C., Barbercheck, M. 2019. Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) differentially respond to soil management practices in feed and forage systems in transition to organic management. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems (First View, published online 13 August 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742170519000255
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Westbrook, J., S. Fleischer, J. Jairam, R. Meagher, and R. Nagoshi. 2019. Multigenerational migration of fall armyworm, a pest insect. Ecosphere. DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.2919
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Coates, B. S., G. M. Kozak, K. Seok Kim, J. Sun, Y. Wang, S. J. Fleischer, E. B. Dopman, and T. W. Sappington. 2019. Influence of host plant, geography and pheromone strain on genomic differentiation in sympatric populations of Ostrinia nubilalis. Molecular Ecology. 2019;00:114 DOI: 10.1111/mec.15234
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Acebes-Doria, A. L. (37 co-authors). 2019. Season-long monitoring of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (St�l) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), throughout the United States using commercially available traps and lures. J. Econ. Entomol. doi: 10.1093/jee/toz240
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Treanore, E. D., A. D. Vaudo, C. M. Grozinger, and S. J. Fleischer. 2019. Examining the nutritional value and effects of different floral resources in pumpkin agroecosystems on Bombus impatiens worker physiology. Apidologie DOI: 10.1007/s13592-019-00668-x
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Meagher, R. L., Jr., K. Watrous, S. J. Fleischer, R. N. Nagoshi, J. T. Brown, K. Bowers, N. Miller, S. D. Hight, J. C. Legaspi, and J. K. Westbrook. 2019. Documenting potential sunn hemp pollinators in Florida. Environ. Entomol. doi: 10.1093/ee/nvy190
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: M. J. Skvarla and S. J. Fleischer. 2018. First report of yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma St�l, 1860 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Pennsylvania. Coleopterist Bulletin 72(4):688-690
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Reed, H., W. Curran, J. Tooker, S. Duiker, and H. Karsten. Planting green effects on corn and soybean production. Agronomy Journal 111: 2314-2325
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Acevedo, F. E., P. Smith, M. Peiffer, A. M. Helms, J. F. Tooker, and G. W. Felton. 2019 Phytohormones in fall armyworm saliva modulate defense responses in plants. Journal of Chemical Ecology 45: 598609
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Rowen, E. K., J. F. Tooker, C. Blubaugh. 2019. Soil fertility management to promote arthropod pest suppression. Invited manuscript, Biological Control 134: 130-140
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Zemenick, A. T., R. R. Kula, L. Russo, and J. F .Tooker. 2019. A network approach reveals parasitoid wasps to be generalized nectar foragers. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 13: 239-251
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Trietsch, C (2019) Exploring Megaspilidae (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea) Through Morphology and More. Dissertation. Penn State Entomology
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: McGrady, C (2018) Pollination services, colony abundances and population genetics of Bombus impatiens. Masters Thesis. Penn State Entomology
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Coco, A (2019) The influence of crop phylodiversity on herbivorous insects of squash and their natural enemies. Masters Thesis. Penn State Entomology
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: McTish, S (2019) Diversified integrated pest management cropping systems influence pest populations and the potential for environmental pollution. Masters Thesis. Penn State Entomology


Progress 10/01/17 to 09/30/18

Outputs
Target Audience:Undergraduate and Graduate students; Scientists in the fields of entomology, biology, ecology, or agriculture; Agricultural Producers, Extension Educators, and other Agriculture professionals. Changes/Problems:The arrival of invasive species has led to focus research efforts on these pests What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?A technician gained expertise in plant volatile collections and isolation, and several graduate students received training in agricultural entomology: Carley McGrady (MS Entomology, 2018) Jermaine Hinds (PhD, 2018) Brianna Flonc (MS, 2019) Karly Regan (PhD, 2019) Elizabeth Davidson-Lowe (PhD, Entomology) Sarah McTish (MS, Entomology) Hassani Hussein Karemera (MS, Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology) Nursyafiqi Zainuddin (PhD, Entomology) Genna Tesdell (MS, Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology) Kirsten Pearson (PhD, Entomology)Elizabeth Rowan (PhD, Entomology) Emily Sandall (PhD, Entomology) We also gave the following broad outreach programs and workshops: Barbercheck, M. 2018. Women farmers sustaining agriculture. Pasto Museum Women in Agriculture Day. Pasto Museum, Rock Springs, PA. 22 September 2018. 15 attendees, 13 women, 2 men. Barbercheck, M., Regan, K., Baraibar, B. 2018. Kazakhstan Farmer tour of organic research sites at Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center. 25 attendees. 17 September 2018. Barbercheck, M. 2018. Organic Agriculture: A growing opportunity for Pennsylvania farmers. Farm Bureau Commodity Committtee Meeting. Camp Hill, PA. 10 July 2018. 35 people. Barbercheck, M. 2018. Soil health and pest management. Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. 31 January 2018. 200 people. Barbercheck, M, Baraibar, B., Mortensen, D. 2018. Putting cover crop mixtures to work: Lessons from 8 farms in PA and NY. PASA Farming for the Future Conference, 8 Feb. 2018. 4-hr workshop. 100 people How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Research results and updated best practices have been published in peer-reviewed journals, published as extension resources (available online), and delivered to stakeholders at regional meeting, workshops, and extension events. Results from this project reach farmers and land managers through direct involvement with Extension at county, state, and national meetings. We also disseminate this information to this audience and the public through websites hosted by Extension, and websites that produce interactive web-mapping of insect activity. We participate in additional meetings with Master Gardeners and organizations focused on producers and distributors of certified organic food. We have reached wider audiences through participation in summer camps targeting youth (middle school grades), and the Great Insect Fair, a one-day program with an attendance of ~3,000 to 6,000 each year, Wings in the Park (a celebration of pollinators, which reaches about 1,000 attendees), WPSU's Eventapalooza (~1,500 people). We also have reached audiences focused on conservation through participation in programs hosted by NGOs. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We plan field assays to define phenological times of crop risk from the new invasive Agromyzid fly, and determination of parasitism. We also have studies designed to determine behavioral choice of this fly to varying hosts and growth stages, and insecticide management assays. For another invasive species, the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, we will run modeling studies to assess how biocontrol and abiotic factors are influencing populations, in conjunction with an areawide management project. We are also integrating cooperative on-line monitoring of migratory pest lepidopterans with a USDA funded effort to achieve wider scale monitoring capabilities. We also plan field assays to determine the effects of agricultural practices, such as tillage and cover crops, on arthropod natural enemy abundance, diversity, and community composition, and on prevalence of infection of sentinel insects by insect pathogens, and on predation by arthropod natural enemies. We will conduct greenhouse assays to determine the effects of insect-pathogenic fungi on plant growth and defense gene expression, and on insect growth. We will also conduct assays on the role of endophytic Metarhizium in plants infected with Cochliobolus heterostrophus, the causative agent of southern corn leaf blight, and their role in gene expression regulation in plants. We will determine the influence of cover crops and insecticide use on pest, natural enemy, and decomposer species. We will also work to understand the influence of two poorly studied nutrients (phosphorus and zinc) on insect populations. Nitrogen can clearly influence the amount of feeding done by herbivorous insects, but our preliminary work suggests that these two nutrients can also have effects. We will also study the influence of crop species and genotypic diversity on crop productivity and insect pest populations.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? When insects vector plant pathogens, management often results in reliance on systemic insecticides, especially in high value vegetable crops. These insecticides increase risk to pollinators. We demonstrated a novel biological control approach to ameliorate this risk. We dramatically reduced the ability of a beetle pest to vector a bacterial pathogen with the use of a microbial competitor delivered within the beetle gut.We also addressed a new invasive species, an agromyzid fly that attacks cultivated and wild Allium plants (onions and their relatives). We reviewed the distribution, pest implications, and biology of this new invasive, to help reduce the rate of its geographic distribution and agricultural impact. We also helped quantify rates of mating in field settings between two strains of fall armyworm, a lepidopteran pest that has become a problematic invasive species in Africa. One aspect of soil health that we are studying in connection with this project is the effect of agricultural practices on the beneficial entomopathogenic and endophytic soil fungus, Metarhizium robertsii.Our main findings include: Prevalence of M. robertsii was greatest where cash crops are no-till-planted into rolled cover crops compared to systems in which cash crops are established with tillage; detection was greater in cash crops compared to the standing cover crops;detection was greater in reduced tillage (31.8% ± 4.9%) vs tilled (20.2% ± 3.8%); the percentage of silt in the soil was positively related to the detection of M. robertsii; number of soil disturbing management practices in the season before sampling was negatively related to the detection of M. robertsii; the number of days since a soil disturbing practice was negatively related to the detection of M. robertsii; the concentration of zinc (Zn) in the soil was negatively related to the detection of M. robertsii.As Zn increases, the detection of M. robertsii decreases. In greenhouse experiments, Metarhizium robertsii showed higher endophytic colonization in maize (90%), than in Austrian winter pea (62.5 %), canola (52 %) and cereal rye (50%) plants grown from seeds exposed to a spore suspension of M. robertsii.M. robertsii re-isolation frequency was higher in roots than leaves in all crop plants treated with M. robertsii. Endophytic colonization helped plants grow better by improving the plant height of maize, Austrian winter pea and cereal rye as compared to control plants. Similarly M. robertsii colonization imparted plant growth promotive effects by improving the above-ground biomass of maize, austrian winter pea and canola plants grown from M. robertsii -treated seeds. Detached leaf feeding insect bioassay suggested suppressed relative growth rate of 2nd instar black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) feeding on corn leaves colonized with M. robertsii as compared to non-treated control plants. Our ongoing research continues to explore the influence of preventative pest management tactics, no-till, cover crops, and crop rotational diversity on insect pest, slug, and natural enemies species. In the past year, from summarizing six years of data we learned that rotational diversity in a no-till systems experiment increases predators diversity, which can limit damage by plant-feeding insects, particularly slugs and caterpillars. In this experiment, we compared a high-diversity, low-input, IPM-based six-year rotation to a low-diversity, high-input, two-year rotation that used preventative pest control tactics (e.g., Bt seed, neonicotinoid seed treatment, and broadcast application of pyrethroids).While the high-diversity rotation had lower corn population establishment compared to the low-diversity location, predatory insects better protected plants in the high-diversity rotation, and corn yields were equivalent in both rotations. These results indicate that growers willing to incorporate diversity and IPM into their rotations can decrease their use of preventative pest management tactics and still produce competitive corn yields. Similarly, a meta-analysis on the the influence of tillage on herbivore and natural enemy populations in field crop production revealed that high-tillage and no-till systems have equivalent abundance of pest species, but no-till fields have greater predator populations that can contribute to pest control.These results indicate that no-till farming provides a good conservation base, and if farmers are willing to use IPM to direct their insecticide use, they should gain significant control of pest species by conserving populations of natural enemies.

Publications

  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Vegetable insect pest in-season update. Twilight Vegetable Meeting. Logantown, PA. July 16
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Pests and pollinators in vegetables. Central Susquehanna Summer Vegetable Meeting. Penns Creek. July 17
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Barbercheck, M. 2018. Boyd Station Serves Growing Market for Processed Organic Soybeans. Field Crop News 20 September 2018. https://extension.psu.edu/boyd-station-serves-growing-market-for-processed-organic-soybeans
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Barbercheck, M. 2018. Successful Transition to Organic at Banner Farm. Field Crop News. 6 Sept. 2018. https://extension.psu.edu/successful-transition-to-organic-at-banner-farm
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Barbercheck, M. New fact sheet on stored grain pest management. Field Crop News. May 2, 2018
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Barbercheck, M. 2018. Management of Stored Grain Pests in Organic Systems. PSU Extension Fact Sheet https://extension.psu.edu/management-of-stored-grain-pests-in-organic-systems
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Schmidt, E., K. Regan, and M. Barbercheck. 2017. Seedcorn Maggot as a Pest of Corn and Other Large-Seeded Crops. Updated Fact Sheet. http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/seedcorn-maggot-as-a-pest-of-corn-and-other-large-seeded-crops
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Barbercheck, M. 2018. Thinking about planting? Try avoiding seedcorn maggot. Field Crop News. April 4, 2018. https://extension.psu.edu/thinking-about-planting-try-avoiding-seedcorn-maggot
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. 2018. Managing slugs in no-till fields. Penn State Diagnostic Clinic, Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center, Penn State University, Rock Springs, PA, 18 July 2018 (65 attendees)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. 2018. Managing slugs in no-till fields. Penn State Diagnostic Clinic, Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center, Penn State University, Rock Springs, PA, 19 July 2018. (45 attendees)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. and M. Skvarla. 2018. Penn State Extension Pesticide Applicators School. What is that? Identifying insects you find while scouting crop fields. Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center, Penn State University, Rock Springs, PA, 29 August 2018. (75 attendees)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. 2018. Whats the Scoop On Slugs? Soil and Water Quality Field Day, USDA Agricultural Research Service Lab, Klingerstown, PA, 29 August 2018. (50 attendees)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. 2018. IPM and soil health, Pennsylvania No-Till Alliance Soil Health Day, Elizabethtown, PA, 12 March 2018. (100 attendees)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. 2018. IPM and soil health, NRCS Soil Health Day, Muncy, PA 13 March 2018. (100 attendees)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. 2018. IPM and soil health, NRCS Soil Health Day, Danville, PA, 15 March 2018. (200 attendees)
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. 2018. To conquer your slugs, you have to think like a slug, Ausable Bayfield Conservation Authority No-Till and Cover Crop meeting, Exeter, Ontario, 13 June 2018 (Delivered online). (18 attendees)
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. (2018). "Potato leafhopper is abundant in alfalfa." Field Crop News. University Park, PA: Penn State Extension
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. (2018). "Soybean sentinel plot report-26 June 2018." Field Crop News. University Park, PA: Penn State Extension
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. (2018). "Soybean sentinel plot report-19 June 2018." Field Crop News. University Park, PA: Penn State Extension
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. (2018). "Soybean sentinel plot report-12 June 2018." Field Crop News. University Park, PA: Penn State Extension
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. (2018). "Insect pest active the first week of June." Field Crop News. University Park, PA: Penn State Extension
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. (2018). "Black cutworm moths arriving, and seedcorn maggots making themselves known." Field Crop News. University Park, PA: Penn State Extension
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. (2018). "Alfalfa insect management." Field Crop News. University Park, PA: Penn State Extension
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. (2018). "Black cutworm moths and slugs are becoming active." Field Crop News. University Park, PA: Penn State Extension
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. (2018). "Pests to keep in mind: Cereal leaf beetle and timothy mite." Field Crop News. University Park, PA: Penn State Extension
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. (2018). "Watch out for alfalfa weevil." Field Crop News. University Park, PA: Penn State Extension
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Tooker, J. F. (2018). "Penn State's Black cutworm monitoring network." Field Crop News. University Park, PA: Penn State Extension
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Roberts, D., S. J. Fleischer, J. Sakamoto, J. Rasgon. 2018. Potential biological control of Erwinia tracheiphila by internal alimentary canal interactions in Acalymma vittatum with Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Applied Microbiology doi: 10.1.1111/jam.13950
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Barringer, L. E., S. J. Fleischer, D. Roberts, S. E. Spichiger, T. Elkner. 2018. The first North American record of the allium leafminer. J. Integrated Pest Management doi: 10.1093/jipm/pmx034
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nagoshi, R. N., S. Fleischer, R. L. Meagher. 2017. Demonstration and quantification of restricted mating between fall armyworm host strains in field collections by SNP comparisons. J. Econ. Entomol. 110(6) 25682575
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Randhawa, P. K., Mullen, C., Barbercheck, M. 2018. Plant identity, but not diversity, and agroecosystem characteristics affect the occurrence of M. robertsii in an organic cropping system. Biological Control 124:18-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2018.06.001
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Finney, D. M., E. G. Murrell, C. M. White, B. Baraibar, M. E. Barbercheck, B. A. Bradley, S. Cornelisse, M. C. Hunter, J. P. Kaye, D.A. Mortensen, C. A. Mullen, and M. E. Schipanski. 2017. Ecosystem services and disservices are bundled in simple and diverse cover cropping systems. 2017. Agricultural & Environmental Letters 2:170033. doi:10.2134/ael2017.09.0033
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Rivers, A., Mullen, C., Barbercheck, M. 2018. Cover crop species and management influence predatory arthropods and predation in an organically-managed, reduced-tillage cropping system. Environmental Entomology 47: 340-355. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvx149
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Deans AR (2018) A review of adhesives for entomotaxy. PeerJ Preprints 6: e27184v1 DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27184v1
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Russo, L, A. Miller, J. F. Tooker, O. Bjornstad, and K. Shea. 2017. Quantitative evolutionary patterns in mutualistic networks: Vicariance, phylogenetic tracking, or coevolution? Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9: 761772
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Tooker, J. F., M. R. Douglas, and C. Krupke. 2017. Neonicotinoid seed treatments: limitations and compatibility with Integrated Pest Management. Agricultural & Environmental Letters 2:170026. doi:10.2134/ael2017.08.0026
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Abbot, P., J. F. Tooker, and S. Lawson. 2018. Chemical ecology and sociality in aphids: opportunities and directions. Journal of Chemical Ecology
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Vaudo, A. D., L. M. Farrell, H. M. Patch, C. M. Grozinger, and J. F. Tooker. 2018. Consistent pollen nutritional intake drives bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) colony growth and reproduction across different habitats. Ecology and Evolution Ecol Evol. 00:112 doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4115
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Walter, J., A. Ives, J. F. Tooker, D, M. Johnson. 2018. Life history and habitat explain variation among insect pest populations subject to global change. Ecosphere, in press; doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2274
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Harth, J. E., A. M. Helms, M. E. Ferrari, J. F. Tooker, A. G. Stephenson. 2018. Viral infection limits establishment and severity of a powdery mildew in wild populations of Cucurbita pepo. Frontiers in Plant Science 9: 792. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00792
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Allium leafminer: life cycle, location, and management. Proc., Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. January 30  February 1
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Managing cucumber beetles while conserving pollinators. Proc., Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. January 30  February 1
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Supporting bee populations in cucurbit crops. Proc., Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. January 30  February 1
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Nault, B., S. J. Fleischer, E. Grundberg, T. Rusinek, D. Roberts & T. Elkner. 2018. Biology and management of Phytomyza gymnostoma: a new invasive pest of Allium crops in the eastern US. Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America. Annapolis, MD. Mar. 17-19
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J., S. Crawford, G. von Kuster, S. Chen & A. Nielsen. 2018. PestWatch, iPIPE, and agent-based models: Tools for tracking migration and phenology. Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America. Annapolis, MD. Mar. 17-19
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Cucurbits: juggling IPM and pollinator conservation. Center for Pollinator Research Symposium. University Park, PA. April 14
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: McGrady, C., J. Strange & S. Fleischer. 2018. Ecosystem function, population abundance and genetic structure of Bombus impatiens. Center for Pollinator Research Symposium. University Park, PA. April 14
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: McGrady, C., J. Strange & S. Fleischer. 2018. Pollination services and colony abundance of Bombus impatiens. Life Science Symposium. University Park, PA. May 18
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Barbercheck, M.E., P. Randhawa, C. Mullen. 2018. Cover Crop Identity, not Diversity, & Agroecosystem Characteristics Affect the Occurrence of a Beneficial Soil Fungus. Northeast Cover Crops Council Annual Conference, State College, P. 15 November 2018 (Invited)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Ahmad, I., B. Flonc, M.E. Barbercheck, C. Mullen, D. S. Luthe,? M. D. Jimenez-Gasco. 2018. Going underground: The ecology of a multifunctional fungus in an organic cropping system. OFRF Poster Session, PASA Farming for the Future Conference, UP, PA (Poster presentation). Feb. 8  10, 2018
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Ahmad, I., Flonc, B., Barbercheck, M., Mullen, C., Jimenez-Gasco, M., Luthe, D. 2018. Going underground: The role of a beneficial fungus in organic cropping systems. Wild and Tamed Phytobiomes:21st Penn State Plant Biology Symposium, June 19-22, 2018. University Park, PA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Barbercheck, M. 2018. Restructuring plant-associated arthropod composition. Workshop on "Manipulating phytobiomes: challenges and opportunities," Wild and Tamed Phytobiomes:21st Penn State Plant Biology Symposium, June 19-22, 2018. University Park, PA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Barbercheck, M. 2018. Effects of cover crops on invertebrate pests and their natural enemies in conservation tillage systems. 2018 North Central Branch ESA Meeting, March 18-21, 2018, Madison, WI. Invited Symposium (Influence of Cover Crops on Crop Insect Management)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Barbercheck, M. 2018. Farming and fungi: Agroecosystem impacts on a multifunctional fungus in an organic cropping system. Wild and Tamed Phytobiomes:21st Penn State Plant Biology Symposium, June 19-22, 2018. University Park, PA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Barbercheck, M., T. Gareau, R. Smith, D. Mortensen. 2018. Using spider plots to understand multifunctionality of agroecosystems. Workshop on teaching organic agriculture. June 10  12, 2018. Ames, Iowa
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Brasier, K., Neiner, P., Barbercheck, M. Sexsmith, K., Sachs, C., Whitley, H., Hoffelmeyer, M., 2018. Connecting Diverse Women Farmers Across the Rural-Urban Divide. USDA BFRDP PD Meeting, Washington, DC, Sept. 25, 2018, NIFA Award Number: 2017-70017-26848
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Flonc, B., Ahmad, I., Mullen, C., Barbercheck M.E. 2018. Can fungi make caterpillars picky eaters? Effects of endophytic Metarhizium on corn (Zea mays) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). 2018 Eastern Branch ESA Meeting, March 17-19, 2018, Annapolis, MD
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Flonc, B., Ahmad, I., Mullen, C., Barbercheck M.E. 2018. Can fungi make caterpillars picky eaters? Effects of endophytic Metarhizium on corn (Zea mays) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Wild and Tamed Phytobiomes:21st Penn State Plant Biology Symposium, June 19-22, 2018. University Park, PA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Regan, K., C. Mullen, and M. Barbercheck. 2018. Insect Response to Organic Cover Crop-Based Reduced Tillage Cropping Systems. OFRF research symposium at the Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture Annual Conference, State College, PA, Feb. 10, 2018
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Regan, K., C. Mullen, M. Barbercheck. 2018. Effects of Organic Reduced-Tillage Cropping Systems on Epigeal Predators. 2018 Eastern Branch ESA Meeting, March 17-19, 2018, Annapolis, MD
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Regan, K., C. Mullen, M. Barbercheck. 2018. Effects of organic reduced-tillage cropping systems on epigeal predators. 2018 Eastern Branch ESA Meeting, March 17-19, 2018, Annapolis, MD
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Mysteries of Megaspilidae: Conostigmus spp. (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae) of the Nearctic. Carolyn Trietsch, Istv�n Mik�, and Andrew R. Deans. Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO USA; November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Potential native egg parasitoid community of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys St�l) in organic and conventionally managed fruit orchards in southern Pennsylvania. Hillary Morin, Andrew R. Deans, Greg Krawczyk. Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO USA; November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Burrowed in natural history: Analysis of life stage collection in Gomphidae. Emily Sandall, Andrew R. Deans. Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO USA; November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Aphanogmus male genitalia and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Istv�n Mik�, Jonah Ulmer, Joyce Sakamoto, Andrew R. Deans. Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO USA; November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Querying semantic phenotypes with transcribed specimen data. Matthew J. Yoder, Istv�n Mik�, Andrew R. Deans, James Balhoff, Sergey Tarasov. Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO USA; November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: The Insect Collectors Code. Andrew R. Deans, Carolyn Trietsch. Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO USA; November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Pests in the collection: What is normal? Andrew R. Deans, Emily L. Sandall, Michael Skvarla. Entomological Collections Network, Denver, CO USA; November 2017. DOI: 10.6084/m9.figshare.5566732.v3
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: McTish, S. T., and J. F. Tooker. Quantifying neonicotinoid runoff from agricultural elds into nearby aquatic systems. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO, November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Coco, A. M., I. Kaplan, and J. F. Tooker. Does phylogenetic relatedness affect associational resistance? A test with vegetable crops. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO, November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Pearsons, K. A., and J. F. Tooker. Influence of prophylactic insecticide use on decomposer communities in maize and soybean fields. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO, November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Rowen, E. K., and J. F. Tooker. Do soil health practices mitigate or magnify pest outbreaks? Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO, November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Baniszewski, J., and J. F. Tooker. The benefits of succotash: Mixing forage crops to manage arthropod pest populations and abiotic stress. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO, November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Sakamoto, J., H. Tsujimoto, A. M. Helms, E. Yip, J. F. Tooker and J. Ali. An old-fashioned approach: Using observation to identify unusual behaviors. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO, November 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Yip E., C. M. De Moraes, M. C. Mescher, and J. F. Tooker. Defense priming interacts with insecticide to influence growth and clonal reproduction in a field population of goldenrod Solidago altissima. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Denver, CO, November 2017
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Allium Leafminer. Centre County Master Gardeners. University Park. January 15.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Allium Leafminer. Sweet corn updates, and Wild Bees. Northeast Vegetable Meeting. Clark Summit, PA. January 25
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Allium leafminer: life cycle, location, and management. MidAtlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. January 30  February 1
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Managing cucumber beetles while conserving pollinators. MidAtlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. January 30  February 1
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Supporting bee populations in cucurbit crops. MidAtlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. January 30  February 1
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2018. Allium leafminer meets ramps. Northeastern/MidAtlantic Agroforestry Webinar: Ramping Up the Forest Farming Industry Around Wild Leek: Phytochemistry, Trade and An Exotic Pest. April 6


Progress 10/01/16 to 09/30/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Undergraduate and Graduate students; Scientists in the fields of entomology, biology, ecology, or agriculture; Agricultural Producers, Extension Educators, and other Agriculture professionals. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?During this project, graduate students, technicians, and faculty gained advanced training through intensive 1- or 2-week workshops, and hands-on learning in hosting laboratories. Topics included chemical ecology, application of population genetics for ecological studies with bees and aphids, immunological techniques for tracking insect movement, native bee identification, techniques in molecular biology, and geographic information systems. Fleischer graduate student mentoring: Miller, Rebecca Carley M.S. Treanore, ErinM.S. Tooker graduate student mentoring: Rowen, Elizabeth Ph.D. Expected 2019 Pearsons, Kirsten Ph.D. Expected 2019 Baniszewski, Julie Ph.D., TBD McTish, SarahMS, TBD Coco, AngelaMS, TBD Barbercheck graduate student mentoring: Jermaine Hinds Ph.D. 2017 Brianna FloncM.S. 2019 Puneet RandhawaM.S. 2017 Karly Regan Ph.D. 2019 Deans graduate student mentoring: Trietsch, CarolynPh.D. 2018 Sandall, Emily Ph.D. 2020 How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Research results and updated best practices have been published in peer-reviewed journals, published as extension resources (also available online), and delivered to stakeholders at regional meeting, workshops, and extension events. Results from this project reach farmers and land managers through direct involvement with Extension at county, state, and national meetings. We also disseminate this information to this audience and the public through websites hosted by Extension, and websites that produce interactive web-mapping of insect activity. We participate in additional meetings with Master Gardiners and organizations focused on producers and distributors of certified organic food. We have reached wider audiences through participation in summer camps targeting youth (middle school grades), and the Great Insect Fair, a one-day program with an attendance of ~3,000 to 6,000 each year, Wings in the Park (a celebration of pollinators, which reaches about 1,000 attendees), WPSU's Eventapalooza (~1,500 people). We also have reached audiences focused on conservation through participation in programs hosted by NGOs. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? To help Pennsylvania farmers reduce their reliance on chemical inputs for insect and slug control, our current research efforts are trying to understand the role that diversity can play in grain and silage cropping systems. During the reporting period, we had four large-scale experiments in place to understand the value of integrated pest management when complemented by 1) rotational diversity, 2) interspecific diversity, 3) intraspecific diversity, and 4) phylogenetic diversity. In these experiments, we used factorial designs to explore the influence of pest management strategy (preventative insecticide and fungicide applications vs. IPM) and diversity (presence or absence) and their interactions. Our response variables included insect and slug pest populations, natural-enemy populations, amounts of predation, various measures of soil biological activity, and many measures of crop productivity and yield. Each of these experiments is contributing to ongoing, independent, multi-year projects. We are still in the process of processing arthropod samples and collecting data before performing statistical analyses. Our expectation is that diversity in space and time will foster improved natural-enemy populations and decrease the incidence of problematic pest populations, and the need for interventions with pesticides. In other experiments we explored the effects of cover crop diversity and reduced tillage on arthropods and soil characteristics inorganic feed grain crop rotations of small grains (corn, soybeans). We sampled post-small grain cover crops and corn to determine seedling emergence, pre- and early post- cover crop termination insect and natural enemy communities, and late-season caterpillar pest damage in corn. We periodically measured several soil characteristics, including soil pH, electrical conductivity, labile organic matter, gravimetric soil water content, and matric potential. We are currently processing arthropod samples from the last two growing seasons. We also used genomic markers and air-flow trajectories to assess the relative risk of fall armyworm migration from the Antilles into the U.S., and horticultural studies to advance the potential of sunn hemp as a cover crop to reduce populations in southern overwintering breeding regions. We showed how landscapes influence stink bug damage to processing tomatoes, and utilized ovary development to improve phenology models of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug. Contributing to the above results, we have digitized almost the entire collection of Coleoptera at the Frost Museum (>100,000 specimens so far), which includes substantial numbers of epigeal beetles, especially predatory beneficials in the family Carabidae, and Odonata (>65,000 specimens). A substantial portion of the beetles were collected in agro-environments, and we are working with subsets of the data to understand correlations between timing and soil composition. These tests are being done with Odonata data first because this dataset is further along with respect to data parsing and georeferencing (i.e., determining latitude, longitude, and error).

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Keene, C., Curran, W., Wallace, J., Ryan, M., Mirsky, S., Van Gessel, M., Barbercheck, M. 2017. Cover crop termination timing is critical in organic rotational no-till systems. Agronomy Journal: 109:272-282. doi:10.2134/agronj2016.05.0266
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Rivers, A., Wallace, J., Mullen, C. M. Barbercheck. 2017. Cover crop-based reduced tillage affects Carabidae (Coleoptera) during transition to organic crop production. Published online 2017. First View. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742170516000466
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Schipanski, Meagan E., Mary E. Barbercheck, Ebony G. Murrell, Jayson Harper, Denise M. Finney, Jason P. Kaye, David A. Mortensen, Richard G. Smith. 2017. Balancing multiple objectives in organic feed and forage cropping systems. Agric. Ecosyst. Env. 239:219-227
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nielsen, A. L., S. Fleischer, G. C. Hamilton, T. Hancock, G. Krawczyk, J. C. Lee, E. Ogburn, J. M. Pote, A. Raudenbush, A. Rucker, M. Saunders, V. P. Skillman, J. Sullivan, J. Timer, J. Walgenbach, N. G. Wiman, T. C. Leskey. 2017. Phenology of brown marmorated stink bug described using female reproductive development. Ecology and Evolution 2017; 00:111. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3125
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2017 Citation: Meagher, R. L., R. N. Nagoshi, J. T. Brown, S. J. Fleischer, J. K. Westbrook, and C. A. Chase. 2017. Flowering of the Cover Crop Sunn Hemp, Crotalaria juncea L. HortScience.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nagoshi, R. N., S. Fleischer, R. L. Meagher, M. Hay-Roe, A. Khan, M. G. Murua, P. Silvie, C. Vergara, J. Westbrook. 2017. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations. PLoS ONE 12(2):e0171743. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0171743
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Barbercheck, M., I. Ahmed, M. Jimenez-Gasco, D. Luthe. 2017 Going underground: Conserving Insect-Pathogenic Fungi for Biological Control. 3rd Annual NEIPMC Online Conference, 23 October 2017 (5-minute flash talk).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Barbercheck, M., I. Ahmed, M. Jimenez-Gasco, D. Luthe. 2017 Going underground: Conserving Insect-Pathogenic Fungi for Biological Control. NEIPMC Annual Advisory Council Meeting, 31 October 2017 (invited 30-minute presentation)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Ahmad, I., M. E. Barbercheck, C. Mullen, D. S. Luthe, M. D. Jimenez-Gasco. 2017. Metarhizium: A multifunctional fungal bodyguard of plants. 10th Annual Postdoctoral research exhibition at Penn State. September 22nd, 2017. (Poster presentation).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Ahmad, I. , B. Flonc, M.E. Barbercheck, C. Mullen, D. S. Luthe, M. D. Jimenez-Gasco. 2017. Going underground: The ecology of a multifunctional fungus in an organic cropping system. USDA-NIFA OREI/ORG Project Director's Meeting, Washington, D.C. October 17-19, 2017. (Poster presentation).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Hinds, J., Barbercheck, M.E., Hagler, J. 2017. Impacts of cover crop diversification on attraction, dispersal, and pest suppression by generalist predators. Newport, RI. Invited Speaker for Mark Recapture Symposium, Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Eastern Branch, Newport RI, March 1721, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Hinds, J and Barbercheck, M. 2017. Impacts of cover crop diversification on attraction, dispersal, and pest suppression by generalist predators. USDA Arid Land Agricultural Research Center. Maricopa, AZ. Invited Speaker Presentation
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Regan, K., C. Mullen, and M. Barbercheck .Arthropod response to organic cover crop-based Reduced-Tillage Cropping Systems 7th Annual PSU Sustainable Cropping Systems Symposium, PSU, Penn State University, University Park, PA,31 March 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Flonc, B. M. Barbercheck, and C. Mullen. 2017. Does endophytic Metarhizium make fall armyworm picky eaters? 7th Annual PSU Sustainable Cropping Systems Symposium, Penn State University, University Park, PA, 31 March 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Karly Regan, Christina Mullen and Mary Barbercheck. 2017. Arthropod Response to Organic Cover Crop-Based Reduced-Tillage Cropping Systems. 2017 Eastern Branch Meeting. March 17-21, Newport, RI
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Karly Regan, Christina Mullen and Mary Barbercheck, 2017. Arthropod Response to Organic Cover Crop-Based Reduced-Tillage Cropping Systems. Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America. Graduate Student Oral Competition. Annual Meeting of the ESA. Denver. CO
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Fleischer, S. J., D. Roberts, S. Spichiger, L. Barringer. 2016. Allium leafminer (Phytomyza gymnostoma): a new invasive insect. National Allium Research Conference. Savannah, Georgia. Dec. 1-3.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: A. L. Neilsen, S. Chen , S. J. Fleischer & G. Von Kuster. 2017. Agent-based model of BMSB phenology, dynamics, and voltinism under current climate conditions. International Heteroptera Symposium. Monterrey, CA. April 18-20.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Grettenberger, I. M., and J. F. Tooker. 2017. Variety mixtures of wheat influence aphid populations and attract an aphid predator. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 11:133146. DOI: 10.1007/s11829-016-9477-1
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Koch, R., B. Potter, P. Glogoza, E. Hodgson, C. Krupke, J. Tooker, C. DiFonzo, A. Michel, K. Tilmon, T. Prochaska, J. Knodel, R. Wright, T. Hunt, B. Jensen, A. Varenhorst, B. McCornack, K. Estes, J. Spencer. 2016. Biology and economics of recommendations for insecticide-based management of soybean aphid. Plant Health Progress 17:265-269
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Yip, E., C. M. De Moraes, M. C. Mescher, J. F. Tooker. 2017. The volatile emission of a specialist herbivore alters patterns of plant defence, growth and flower production in a field population of goldenrod (Solidago altissima). Functional Ecology 31:10621070
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Pearsons, K., I. Mik�, J. F. Tooker. 2017. The cyanide gland of the greenhouse millipede, Oxidus gracilis (Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae). Research Ideas and Outcomes 3:e12249 https://doi.org/10.3897/rio.3.e12249
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Le Gall, M., and J. F. Tooker. 2017. Developing ecologically based pest management programs for terrestrial molluscs. Journal of Pest Science 90:825838
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Helms, A. M., C. M. De Moraes, A. Tr�ger, H. T. Alborn, W. Francke, J. F. Tooker, M. C. Mescher. Identification of an insect-produced olfactory cue that primes plant defenses. Nature Communications 8:337. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00335-8. Pearsons, K., I. and J. F. Tooker. 2017. In-field habitat management to optimize pest control of novel soil communities in agroecosystems. Insects 8(3):82. doi:10.3390/insects8030082. Invited manuscript
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2017 Citation: Castano-Duque, L., K. Loades, J. F. Tooker, K. Brown, W. P. Williams, and D. S. Luthe. A maize inbred exhibits resistance against western corn rootwoorm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. Journal of Chemical Ecology


Progress 07/01/16 to 09/30/16

Outputs
Target Audience:Undergraduate and Graduate students; Scientists in the fields of entomology, biology, ecology, or agriculture; Agricultural Producers, Extension Educators, and other Agriculture professionals. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?During this project, graduate students, technicians, and faculty gained advanced training through intensive 1- or 2-week workshops, and hands-on learning in hosting laboratories. Topics included chemical ecology, application of population genetics for ecological studies with bees and aphids, immunological techniques for tracking insect movement, native bee identification, techniques in molecular biology, and geographic information systems. Fleischer grad student committees - major advisor: Roberts, Dana M.S. 2015 "Erwinia tracheiphila pathosystem: vector-pathogen interactions" Lewis, Margaret M.S. 2015 "Advancing ecologically based management for Acalymma vittatum, a key pest of cucurbits" Miller, Rebecca Carley M.S.TBD Treanore, Erin M.S.TBD Fleischer grad student committees - committee member: Lilley, Jason M.S., Plant Science 2015 "A comparison of plasticulture and strip tillage production systems with and without row cover for organic and conventional cucurbit production" Cloonan, Kevin Ph.D. Entomology In progressTBD Tooker grad committees: Busch, Anna M.S. Aug. 2016 "Life history of Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and its importance for biological control in field crops" Douglas, Margaret PhD Aug. 2016 "Ecological trade-offs associated with insecticide use from Pennsylvania to Bangladesh" Vaudo, Anthony PhD Expected Fall 2016 TBD Rowen, Elizabeth PhD TBD Pearsons, Kirsten PhD TBD Tooker grad student committees - committee member: Heidi Myer PhD, Plant Science In progress TBA Saundra Wheeler PhD, Entomology In progress TBA Arash Maleki PhD, Entomology In progress TBA Anne Jones PhD, Entomology In progress TBA Laura del Sol Bautista PhD, Plant Pathology In progress TBA Rachel Milliron MS, Plant Science Graduated Summer 2016 Conserving nitrogen from fall dairy manure applications when coupled with winter annuals before corn silage Chad Nihranz PhD, Ecology In progress "TBA Flor Acevedo PhD, Entomology Graduated Summer 2016 The wear and tear of feeding: Induced plant defenses by fall armyworm herbivory and counter insect adaptation mechanisms Jerminae Hinds PhD, Entomology In progress TBA How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results from this project reach farmers and land managers through direct involvement with Extension at county, state, and national meetings. We also disseminate this information to this audience and the public through websites hosted by Extension, and websites that produce interactive web-mapping of insect activity. We participate in additional meetings with Master Gardiners and organizations focused on producers and distributors of certified organic food. We have reached wider audiences through participation in summer camps targeting youth (middle school grades), and the Great Insect Fair, a one-day program with an attendance of ~3,000 to 6,000 each year. We also have reached audiences focused on conservation through participation in programs hosted by NGOs. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? The web-mapping portal we developed to track migration of pest moths has been utilized by growers for management decisions in sweet corn and other vegetable crops. The field and genetic measures we made for wild populations of pollinators have been utilized by growers to reduce rental costs of managed pollinators, and for connecting cover cropping management to pollinator conservation. The advances we made for modeling phenology are being advanced for risk assessment tools for invasive species and for estimating the influence of climate change on insect populations. The methods and tools for digitizing museum collections are opening new avenues of understanding evolution of arthropods.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: A. L. Nielsen, S. Chen, S. J. Fleischer. 2016. Deciphering an invaders population ecology: Halyomorpha halys. Invited Symposia: The brown marmorated stink bug: an invasive insect of global importance. XXV International Congress of Entomology. Orlando, FL. September 25  30
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: N. M. Williams, K. Ward, R. Isaacs, O. Lundin, J. Gibbs, J. Wilson, C. Stanley-Stahr, S. J. Fleischer, J. Brokaw. Habitat enhancements to support pollinator diversity and pollination service in agriculture. Invited Symposia: Integrated crop pollination in theory and practice. XXV International Congress of Entomology. Orlando, FL. September 25  30
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Douglas, M. R., J. F. Tooker. Unexpected consequences of neonicotinoid seed treatments reveal opportunities for IPM. Third International Conference on Pollinator Biology, Health and Policy, Center for Pollinator Research, University Park, PA, 19 July 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Fleischer, S. J., A. L. Nielsen, S. Chen. 2016. Phenology and dynamics of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, as revealed in an agent-based model. XXV International Congress of Entomology. Orlando, FL. September 25  30
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: R. C. Miller, J. Strange, S. J. Fleischer, A. D. Tripoli, D. Roberts. 2016. Bombus impatiens in the pumpkin patch: a tale of population trends and pollination services featuring three years of molecular analysis and visitation rates. XXV International Congress of Entomology. Orlando, FL. September 25  30
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: E. Treanore, A. Vaudo, R. C. Miller, C. M. Grozinger, S. J. Fleischer. 2016. Integrating nutritional studies into targeted floral provisioning for Bombus impatiens. XXV International Congress of Entomology. Orlando, FL. September 25  30
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Douglas, M. R., and J. F. Tooker. Cascading effects of neonicotinoids on biological control in a soil food chain. International Congress of Entomology/Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Orlando, FL, September 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Tooker, J. F. Insight on evolution of gall induction from species of Lepidoptera and Diptera that appear to evade host-plant defenses similarly by altering phytohormone levels. International Congress of Entomology/Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Orlando, FL, September 2016.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2016 Citation: Rice, K. B., R. Troyer, K. M. Watrous, J. F. Tooker, and S. J. Fleischer. 2016. Landscape factors influencing stink bug injury in mid-Atlantic tomato fields. J. Econ. Entomol. (in press)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Nielsen, A. L., S. Chen, and S. J. Fleischer. 2016. Coupling developmental physiology, photoperiod, and temperature to model phenology and dynamics of an invasive Heteropteran, Halyomorpha halys. Frontiers in Physiology 7:165. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00165
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Seymour, M., O. P. Perera, H. W. Fescemyer, R. E. Jackson, S. J. Fleischer, and C. A. Abel. 2016. Peripheral genetic structure of Helicoverpa zea indicates asynchronous panmixia. Ecology and Evolution. doi: 10.1002/ece3.2016
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Joshi, N. K, M. Otieno, E. G. Rajotte, S. J. Fleischer, and D. J. Biddinger. 2016. Proximity to woodland and landscape structure drives pollinator visitation in apple orchard ecosystem. Front. Ecol. Evol. 4:38. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2016.00038
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Lewis, M. T., D. C. Roberts, S. J. Fleischer. 2016. Horticultural production systems influence ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) distribution and diversity in cucurbits. Environ. Entomol. doi:10.1093/ee/nvw013
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Westbrook, J. K., R. N. Nagoshi, R. L. Meagher, S. J. Fleischer, S. Jairam. 2016. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths. International Journal of Biometeorology. 60:255-267
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Bohnenblust, E. W., A. D. Vaudo, J. F. Egan, D. A. Mortensen, and J. F. Tooker. 2016. Effects of the herbicide dicamba on non-target plants and pollinator visitation. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 35:144151
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Vaudo, A. D., H. M. Patch, D. A. Mortensen, J. F. Tooker, C. M. Grozinger. Macronutrient ratios in pollen shape bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) foraging strategies and floral preferences. Proceedings of National Academy of Science USA. 113:E4035-42
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2016 Citation: Mik� I, Trietsch C, Sandall EL, Yoder MJ, Hines HM, Deans AR (2016) Malagasy Conostigmus (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea) and the secret of the scutes. PeerJ 89 pp.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2016. New options for cucumber beetle management. Proc., Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Nielsen, A. L., S. Chen, and S. J. Fleischer. 2016. Individual-based modeling of Halyomorpha halys phenology and population dynamics. The Northeastern Plant, Pest, and Soils Conference. Philadelphia, PA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Treanore, E. D., S. J. Fleischer, and R. C. Miller. 2016. Cover cropping to support pollinators. The Northeastern Plant, Pest, and Soils Conference. Philadelphia, PA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Roberts, D. C., S. J. Fleischer, J. Sakamoto, and J. Rasgon. 2016. Over the soil, and through the gut, to cucurbit health we go: Potential biological control of Erwinia tracheiphila by Pseudomonas fluorescens via cucumber beetle gut interactions. The Northeastern Plant, Pest, and Soils Conference. Philadelphia, PA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Roberts, D., S. J. Fleischer, J. Sakamoto, and J. Rasgon. 2016. Potential biological control of bacterial wilt of cucurbits by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Grettenberger, I. M. and J. F. Tooker. 2016. Inter-varietal interactions among plants in genotypically diverse mixtures tend to decrease herbivore performance. Oecologia. 182:189-202
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Campbell C., L. Russo, A. Marins, O. DeSouza, K. Sch�nrogge, D. Mortensen, J. F. Tooker, R. Albert, and K. Shea. 2016. Top-down network analysis characterizes hidden termitetermite interactions. Ecology and Evolution. doi:10.1002/ece3.2313
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Walls, J. T, P. Caciagli, J. F. Tooker, J. M. Russo, E. G. Rajotte, C. Rosa. 2016. Modeling the decision process for barley yellow dwarf management. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 127:775786
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Meagher, R, R Nagoshi, S. Fleischer & J Westbrook�2016.� Fall armyworm migration  implications for the Mid-Atlantic. Mid-Atlantic Fruit & Vegetable Conv., PA Vegetable Growers Assoc., Hershey, PA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Gugino, B. and S. J. Fleischer. 2016. Managing pests and diseases for vegetable crops in a changing climate. Farming for the Future Conference. Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture. State College, PA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Fleischer, S. J. 2016. Addressing the When in IPM: Timing of Beetles, Bugs, and Moths in your Agroecosystem. Invited seminar, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Meagher, R. L., R. Nagoshi, S. Fleischer, J. Westbrook. 2016. Management of fall armyworm: does migration affect Bt resistance? Bayer Crop Science, Morrisville, NC.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Fleischer, S. J., R. C. Miller, E. Treanore, D. C. Roberts, J. Strange. 2016. Conservation ecology for pumpkin pollination and pollinators. 3rd International Conference on Pollinator biology, health & policy. Penn State University.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Meagher, R. L., R. N. Nagoshi, S. J. Fleischer, J. Westbrook. 2016. From worms in the field to moth DNA  a history of Spodoptera frugiperda migration in North America. Invited Symposia: The physiological ecology of insect flight: from millisecond escape to long-distance migration. XXV International Congress of Entomology. Orlando, FL. September 25  30.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Nagoshi, R. N, J. Westbrook, R. L. Meagher, S. J. Fleischer. 2016. Modeling the effects of climate change on the infestation patterns of a migratory crop pest insect. Invited Symposia: Climate Change: Preventing the spread of invasive species in agriculture. XXV International Congress of Entomology. Orlando, FL. September 25  30.