Source: AUBURN UNIVERSITY submitted to
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ALTERNATIVE PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR EMERGING CROP PESTS IN ALABAMA
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1009321
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ALA015-1-16005
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Mar 1, 2016
Project End Date
Feb 28, 2021
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Fadamiro, HE, Y..
Recipient Organization
AUBURN UNIVERSITY
108 M. WHITE SMITH HALL
AUBURN,AL 36849
Performing Department
Entomology
Non Technical Summary
This project focuses on the management of key emerging pests of crops in Alabama, specifically pests of fruit and vegetable crops and soybean. Fruit and vegetable crops constitute an important group of horticultural crops in the U.S. with an annual market value of approximately $23 billion. Soybean is also an important crop in the U.S with an annual market value of about $42 billion. Several arthropod pests attack these crops in Alabama with the potential to cause significant economic losses to producers. The goal of this project is to develop and implement ecologically based and cost-effective integrated pest management (IPM) practices for major and emerging pests of peaches, cucurbits, crucifers and soybean. Specific objectives are to: 1) Evaluate and implement IPM tactics for key insect pests of peaches with special focus on plum curculio, plant bugs and scale insects, 2) Develop management strategies for key insect pests of cucurbits with special focus on squash bug, 3) Develop and implement organically-acceptable IPM program for key pests of crucifer crops with special focus on yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma, and 4) Develop alternative strategies for managing kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria in soybeans. This project addresses the goals of the USDA-NIFA and the National IPM Roadmap, and will identify low-input IPM tactics that will reduce pesticide use in crop production, reduce human health risks, and minimize adverse environmental effects of use of toxic conventional insecticides.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
30%
Applied
50%
Developmental
20%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
21131101130100%
Goals / Objectives
In Alabama, as in most other parts of the US, fruit and vegetable crops are attacked by numerous species of insect and mite pests. Intense pressure from pests can severely reduce yield and profitability. Fruits and vegetables are high value crops which must meet high quality production standards, including being free from insect damage. Traditionally, conventional growers have achieved pest control in their farms through applications of broadspectrum pesticides. In many cases, repeated use of pesticides has resulted in development of pest resistance, as well as concerns over food safety, human health, and the environment. The passage of the Food Quality Protection Act in 1996 (FQPA, 1996), which has resulted in cancellations or restrictions (by the US Environmental Protection Agency) of many major pesticides, has had a negative impact onfruit production and pest management. The removal or restrictionof key conventional insecticides, which historically have been used by specialty crop growers to control their major pests, has created a dire need for alternative management tactics for the major pests. In addition, removal of key conventional insecticides has also created serious concerns regarding emergence of new pests and increasing status of some minor pests inspecialty cropproduction. These issues heighten the need to develop effective and ecologically based integrated pest management strategies (IPM) for crop pests. The goal of this Hatch project is to develop and implementalternative pest management strategies for emerging crop pests in Alabama. This Hatch project will specifically focus on fruit (peaches), vegetable (cucurbits and crucifers), and field crops (soybeans). These crops have been selected based on various reasons including local needs and opportunities, and economic importance in Alabama. The project addresses the goals of USDA-NIFA-AFRI and is also relevant to the goals of the National IPM Roadmap by improving cost benefit analyses of adopting IPM practices incrop production. Furthermore, the research will identify low-input IPM tactics that will reduce pesticide use in crop production, reduce human health risks, and minimize adverse environmental effects of use of toxic conventional insecticides. The specific objectives of this Hatch project are to: 1) Evaluate and implement IPM tactics for key insect pests of peaches with special focus on plum curculio, plant bugs and scale insects, 2) Develop management strategies for key insect pests of cucurbits with special focus on squash bug, 3) Develop and implement organically-acceptable IPM program for key pests of crucifer crops with special focus on yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma, and 4) Develop alternative strategies for managing kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria in soybeans.
Project Methods
The proposed project will involve laboratory, greenhouse and field studies. Laboratory experiments will be conducted at the Department of Entomology & Plant Pathology, Auburn University (AU). Greenhouse studies will be conducted at the AU Plant Science greenhouse, while field experiments will primarily be conducted at AAES research stations and select commercial farms in Alabama. The PI's lab is equipped with the necessary facility for this research including analytical tools such as gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography coupled electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD), and gas chromatography-coupled mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), behavioral and electroantennogram (EAG) systems. The project has four objectives.Objective 1. Develop, evaluate and implement IPM tactics for managing key insect pests of peaches with focus on plum curculio, plant bugs and scale insects. Several studies will be conducted under this objective including: 1) Evaluation of targeted insecticide spray program for San Jose scales in peaches; and 2) Develop electronic sensor technology which is compatible with grading/packing lines to detect internal fruit damage caused by plum curculio in real time.Objective 2. Develop management strategies for key insect pests of cucurbits with special focus on squash bug. We propose to develop effective low-input pest management tactics such as trap crops for managing squash bug in cucurbit production including evaluation of host plant preference for squash bug.Objective 3. Develop and implement organically-acceptable IPM program for key pests of crucifer crops with special focus on yellowmargined leaf beetle, M. ochroloma. The aim of this objective is to integrate some of the effective tactics identified in our previous research to develop organic/low-input IPM programs for crucifer crops.Objective 4. Develop alternative strategies for managing kudzu bug (Megacopta cribraria) in soybeans. This objective will focus on the chemical ecology and development of IPM tactics for kudzu bug. We propose to evaluate host preference of kudzu bug and identify chemical basis for the observed preference.

Progress 10/01/19 to 09/30/20

Outputs
Target Audience:The target audiences include conventional and organic fruit and vegetable producers, and limited resource farmers in Alabama. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Specialty crop producers were trained through workshops, on-farm demonstrations, and direct consultation services. The work also provided opportunities for training of four graduate students and two undergraduate researchers who worked directly on the project. Training events for growers: Training events were conducted for growers in collaboration with Extension Specialists. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?The results have been disseminated to specialty crop producers and other stakeholders in the form of on-farm demonstrations, handbooks/slide charts, extension publications, hands-on workshops, and social media. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?In the next reporting period, we will be repeating the mating disruption study in commercial peach orchards. In collaboration with Extension Specialists, we will continue to focus on training Regional Extension Agents (REAs) and key producers on IPM tactics.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1. Evaluate and implement IPM tactics for key insect pests of peaches Evaluation of mating disruption strategy to manage peachtree borers. The peachtree borer (PTB) and lesser peachtree borer (LPTB) are destructive insect pests of peach in Alabama. Larvae of both species feed on the cambium tissue of the trunk causing damage; control is difficult due to concealment in the bark. In Alabama, peach growers utilize a calendar spray program involving 5-16 insecticide sprays per season to manage the pest, which is economically and environmentally unsustainable. A long-term goal of this objective is to foster the adoption of IPM practices by peach growers to reduce the number of sprays applied while minimizing peachtree loss. Specifically, we evaluated an inexpensive mating disruption solution as an alternative method of control that uses synthetic sex pheromones to disrupt male mate-searching behavior, thereby preventing mating. A large-scale field study was conducted in over 70 acres of commercial peach orchards in Chilton County, AL, to compare mating disruption versus grower's standard management practice (control). Our results showed a significant reduction in trap catches of both PTB and LPTB in mating disruption plots compared to control plots (growers' standard) for the entire season. Therefore, it may be concluded that the mating disruption strategy can manage PTB and LPTB pests in Alabama peaches. This study will be repeated in the 2021 field season. Objective 2. Develop management strategies for key insect pests of cucurbits with a special focus on squash bugs Evaluate protective barrier as a mechanical tool to manage cucurbit insect pests. The cucurbits, in particular squash, cucumbers and pumpkins, are produced as high-value crops in Alabama and other parts of the southern U.S. However, outbreaks of seasonal insect pests, specifically squash bugs have become chronic and persistent threats to the profitability of cucurbit production in the state. Field trials were conducted at a commercial vegetable farm during spring 2020 to assess the efficacy of row cover as an alternate control method to manage squash bugs. Treatments tested were (i) Season-long row cover with the introduction of bumblebee hives at start of flowering; (ii) Season-long row cover with the ends opened at the beginning of flowering to enable pollinators access and closed 10 days later; (iii) Complete removal of row cover at the start of flowering; and (iv) No row covers (control). Season-long covered plots with beehives provided a significant level of protection from insect pests and recorded significantly higher yields than other treatments. Uncovered plots (control) recorded severe insect damage and complete plant loss within three weeks after transplantation. This study showed the potential of using row cover as an alternative management strategy against squash bugs. Objective 3. Develop and implement an organically acceptable IPM program for key pests of crucifer crops with a special focus on yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma This objective was completed in 2017. Objective 4. Develop alternative strategies for managing kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria in soybeans. Field survey of egg mortality and egg parasitoids of M. cribraria in soybean crop in Alabama. A multi-year field survey, reported in 2019, was repeated in 2020 to evaluate parasitism and predation of M. cribraria egg masses by naturally occurring parasitoids and predators in soybean fields. We sampled naturally laid M. cribraria egg masses for mortality and parasitism rates at weekly intervals throughout the cropping season in 2019. We found two hymenopteran egg parasitoid species attacking M. cribraria eggs, with Ooencyrtus nezarae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) being the dominant species comprising about 90% of all parasitoids that emerged from kudzu bug egg masses in 2020.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Tillman, T. G., T. Cottrell, R. R Balusu, D. Buntin, A. Sial, E. Vinson, M. Toews, and D. Patel. 2020. Optimization of exposure time of sentinel eggs of Halyomorpha halys (St�l) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to parasitoids and predators in various habitats. Florida Entomologist.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Cottrell, T., R. R. Balusu, E. Vinson, B. Wilkins, H.Y. Fadamiro, and P.G. Tillman. 2020. Effect of Trap Color and Residual Attraction of a Pheromone Lure for Monitoring Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Entomological Science. https://doi.org/10.18474/0749-8004-55.4.437.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Majumdar, A., A. Chambliss, R. R. Balusu, and H. Y. Fadamiro. 2020. Practical evaluation tool and logic model framework for extension educators and grant writers. Journal of the National Association of County Agricultural Agents. https://www.nacaa.com/journal/index.php?jid=1096
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Tillman, T. G., B. Blaauw, A. Sial, M. Toews, T. Cottrell, E. Talamas, D. Buntin, S. Joseph, R. R. Balusu, H.Y. Fadamiro, and S. Lahiri. 2020. Parasitism and predation of eggs of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the Southeast US. Biological Control. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2020.104247
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2020 Citation: Mertoglu, G., R.R. Balusu, and H. Y. Fadamiro. 2020. Laboratory evaluation of susceptibility of two-spotted spider mite (acari: tetranychidae) to biorational acaricides on tomato. Journal of Applied Entomology.


Progress 10/01/18 to 09/30/19

Outputs
Target Audience:The target audiences include conventional and organic fruit and vegetable producers, and limited resource farmers in Alabama. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Specialty crop producers were trained through workshops, on-farm demonstrations, and direct consultation services. The work also provided opportunities for training of four graduate students and two undergraduate researchers who worked directly on the project. Training events for growers: Training events were conducted for growers, in collaboration with Extension Specialists. These include: Advanced IPM training through small group training = 5 events (188 direct participants). Hands-on IPM workshops (2 hour per event) = 8 events statewide (158 direct participants). IPM Field Days/Scout School (3 hour per event) = 2 events (20 participants). Large exhibitions at grower events = 4 regional and in-state events (550 direct contacts; 2640 indirect contacts). How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?The results have been disseminated to specialty crop producers and other stakeholders in the form of on-farm demonstrations, handbooks/slide charts, extension publications, hands-on workshops and social network media. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?In the next reporting period, we will be conducting on-farm field trials in commercial vegetable grower farms. In collaboration with Extension Specialists, we will continue to focus on training of Regional Extension Agents (REAs) and key producers on IPM tactics.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? The results of this project have identified ecologically sound and sustainable pest management tactics for key insect pests of specialty crops in Alabama. Implementation of the identified tactics should result in reduced pest pressure, reduced pesticide use in fruit and vegetable production, and ultimately reduced human health risks. Objective 1. Evaluate and implement IPM tactics for key insect pests of peaches with special focus on plum curculio, plant bugs, and scale insects. Studies were conducted to develop and evaluate management strategies against several key insect pests of peaches. Evaluation of trap color for monitoring stink bugs in peaches. The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is increasingly becoming a major pest of peaches in Alabama. Yellow pyramid traps are predominantly used for monitoring native stink bugs species in the southeastern U.S. However, research studies involving H. halys in the northern U.S. use black pyramid traps, not yellow. As H. halys moves across the southeastern U.S., the use of a single trap, yellow or black, for monitoring stink bug complex would be beneficial to peach growers. A field study was conducted to compare black and yellow pyramid traps baited with a lure to determine if one was superior for trapping stink bugs. Our results showed no significant difference between the yellow versus black pyramid traps on the capture of the exotic H. halys and the most abundant native species Euschistus servus. Thus, continuing to use pheromone-baited, yellow pyramid traps for monitoring different species of stink bugs is justified. Biological control of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and other native stink bugs in Alabama. A multi-year and multi-state (Alabama, Georgia) field trial, reported in 2018, was repeated in 2019 to evaluate parasitism and predation of sentinel egg masses of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys by native parasitoids and predators in woodlands, orchards, row and vegetable crops. After deploying on plants for 48-72 h, egg masses were examined for predation and held for the emergence of parasitoids. In the Alabama trials, ten primary parasitoid species, including two new records and one hyperparasitoid, emerged from the eggs. Ooencyrtus sp. was the prevalent parasitoid species in vegetables, while Telenomus podisi was the predominant species in row crops. Anastatus reduvii, An. mirabilis, Tr. brochymenae, and Tr. euschisti were the prevalent species in woodland and orchard habitats. Trissolcus edessae Fouts occurred primarily in orchards. Trissolcus basalis and Gyron obesum were observed in vegetable habitats. Development to adults, sex ratio, and percentage of parasitism per egg mass were highest for Tr. edessae. Predation damage included complete and incomplete chewing, stylet sucking, puncture sucking, and removal of whole eggs from egg masses. Hole damage and non-stylet sunken damage were observed. Chewing and piercing-sucking predation constituted the majority of predation in woodlands, plum, blueberry, tomato, pecan, peach, and okra. Generally, predation was higher than parasitism, and chewing predation was the prevalent predation type. In conclusion, native natural enemies are serving as biological control agents of H. halys in the southeastern USA. Objective 2. Develop management strategies for key insect pests of cucurbits with special focus on squash bugs The cucurbit cultivars that were identified as attractive host plants in our previous experiments in 2018 were further evaluated as trap crops in 2019 at the E.V. Smith Research Station in Shorter, AL. Each test plot was ~ 30 ft long × 36 ft wide (6 rows, ~ 20 plants per row). Two treatments were evaluated: i) perimeter planting of blue hubbard (an attractive cucurbit cultivar to squash bug) as trap crop along the four borders of the plot, two weeks before planting the squash cash crop (var. Sunshine), and ii) squash cash crop without perimeter planting of trap crop (control). Plots were evaluated weekly by sampling ten randomly selected plants within the cash crop for squash bug densities. Average numbers of eggs, nymphs, and adults per plant were compared using repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer HSD test (P < 0.05). The results showed no significant difference in squash bug (adults, nymphs, or egg masses) population densities in squash plots bordered by the trap crop versus squash plots without the trap crop (control). This study will be repeated again in the spring of 2020. Objective 3. Develop and implement organically-acceptable IPM program for key pests of crucifer crops with special focus on yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma This objective was completed in 2017. Objective 4. Develop alternative strategies for managing kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria in soybeans. Rapid spread of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), across Alabama, its ability to cause significant yield losses in soybeans (Glycine max [L.], and the potential of kudzu bug sprays to flare lepidopterous pests have complicated soybean pest management decision making. Naturally occurring parasitic wasps are the key natural control agents to suppress the pest. A multi-year field trial, reported in 2018, was repeated in 2019 to evaluate parasitism and predation of egg masses of M. cribraria by natural enemies in soybean. We sampled naturally laid M. cribraria egg masses for mortality and parasitism rates at weekly intervals throughout the cropping season in 2019. We found two species of hymenopteran egg parasitoids attacking M. cribraria eggs, with Ooencyrtus nezarae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), being the dominant species comprising about 85% of all parasitoids that emerged from kudzu bug egg masses in 2019.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Balusu, R. R., T. Cottrell, E. Talamas, M. Toews, B. Blaauw, A. Sial, D. Buntin, H. Y. Fadamiro, and T. G. Tillman. 2019. First record of Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) parasitizing Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the United States. Biodiversity Data Journal. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.7.e39247
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Balusu, R. R., T. Cottrell, E. Talamas, M. Toews, B. Blaauw, A. Sial, D. Buntin, E. Vinson, H. Y. Fadamiro, and T. G. Tillman. 2019. A new record of Trissolcus solocis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) parasitizing Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the United States of America. Biodiversity Data Journal. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.7.e30124.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2019 Citation: Cottrell, T., R. R. Balusu, E. Vinson, B. Wilkins, H.Y. Fadamiro, and P.G. Tillman. 2019. Effect of Trap Color and Residual Attraction of a Pheromone Lure for Monitoring Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Entomological Science
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Peverieri, G.S., M. Mitroiu, M. Bon, R.R. Balusu, L. Benvenuto, I. Bernardinelli, H.Y. Fadamiro, M. Falagiarda, L. Fusu, E. Grove, T. Haye, K. Hoelmer, E. Lemke, G. Malossini, L. Marianelli, M.R. Moore, A. Pozzebon, P. Rovers, D. Scaccini, P. Shrewsbury, G.P. Tillman, Paola Tirello, R. Waterworth, E.J. Talamas. 2019. Surveys of stink bug egg parasitism in Asia, Europe and North America, morphological taxonomy, and molecular analysis reveal the Holarctic distribution of Acroclisoides sinicus (Huang & Liao) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 74:123-151. doi: 10.3897/jhr.74.46701
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2019 Citation: Tillman, T. G., B. Blaauw, A. Sial, M. Toews, T. Cottrell, E. Talamas, D. Buntin, S. Joseph, R. R. Balusu, H.Y. Fadamiro, S. Lahiri. 2019. Parasitism and predation of eggs of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the Southeast US. Biological Control.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Alabama Cooperative Extension System fruits and nuts blog article: Dry, Hot Weather Boosts Two-Spotted Spider Mites on Peaches


Progress 10/01/17 to 09/30/18

Outputs
Target Audience:The target audiences include conventional and organic fruit and vegetable producers, and limited resource farmers in Alabama. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Specialty crop producers were trained through workshops, on-farm demonstrations, and direct consultation services. The work also provided opportunities for training three graduate students and two undergraduate researchers who worked directly on the project. For growers: Nine (9) regional educational events benefitting 488 participants were completed - these provided hands-on training to producers in a workshop setting. In addition, four (4) field events and smaller group meetings were organized at the IPM demonstration locations statewide. Stakeholders were informed about IPM resources through large grower conferences with 250 direct participants and 2,600 indirect participants. In addition, about 16 beginning farmers were directly provided IPM consultation, leading to 90 percent or more in IPM adoption rate. For professional development of REAs: During summer 2018, two field days were organized for professional development of commercial horticulturists and home ground regional extension agents (REAs). REAs also assisted producers and provided IPM consultation. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?The results have been disseminated to specialty crop producers and other stakeholders in the form of on-farm demonstrations, handbooks/slide charts, extension publications, hands-on workshops and social network media. Information was also disseminated via webpages and publications listed below. http://www.aces.edu/anr/ipm/ http://www.aces.edu/anr/ipm/Vegetable/squashtrapcrop.php Webpages containing IPM videos and blog links: Communication projects (listing also shown in later section): TV shows = 2; Extension bulletins = 2; Online course module on squash IPM = 1; IPM slide charts = 2 (one new and one revised with wide circulation for both); YouTube videos = 2; IPM newsletter blogs = 11; Farm magazine articles = 15 What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? The results of this project have identified ecologically sound and sustainable pest management tactics for key insect pests of specialty crops in Alabama. Implementation of the identified tactics should result in reduced pest pressure, reduced pesticide use in fruit and vegetable production, and ultimately reduced human health risks. Objective 1. Evaluate and implement IPM tactics for key insect pests of peaches with special focus on plum curculio, plant bugs, and scale insects. Studies were conducted to develop and evaluate management strategies against several key insect pests of peaches including: Evaluation of insecticides for control of San Jose scale in Alabama. San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) is increasingly becoming a major insect pest of peaches in Alabama. A multi-year field trial, reported in 2017, was repeated in 2018 in a peach orchard at the Chilton Research and Extension Center, Clanton. The aim of the trial was to compare the cost and efficacy of different insecticides commonly used to manage San Jose scale in peach production in the Southeastern US. Results showed Centaur® and Ultra Pure® (dormant oil) performed consistently well in suppressing San Jose scale crawlers on most sampling dates. Biological control of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and other native stink bugs in Alabama. Brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) has been classified as the top invasive insect species by USDA due to its unprecedented potential to damage a wide variety of crops including peaches, apples, tomatoes, etc. In 2017 and 2018, a survey was conducted to examine parasitism, predation, and species composition of native parasitoids attacking egg masses of BMSB in Alabama and Georgia. Overall, ten native hymenopteran species in three families, Scelionidae (Telenomus podisiI, Gyron obesum, Trissolcus eushisti, T. Brochymenae, T. edessae, T. basalis, and T. solocis), Eupelmidae (Anastatus reduvii and A. mirabilis), and Encyrtidae (Ooencyrtus spp), were found to attack and suppress H. halys populations with rates of parasitism ranging from 30 to 42%. A new parasitoid species, Trissolcus solocis (Johnson), was recovered from sentinel egg masses, providing the first known occurrence of this species attacking H. halys in North America. Telenomus podisi (Ashmead) was the most common parasitoid parasitizing H. halys egg masses in Alabama. The use of these native parasitoids in augmentative or conservation biological control may be a viable strategy to manage H. halys in the southern United States. Objective 2. Develop management strategies for key insect pests of cucurbits with special focus on squash bugs Hubbard and yellow straight-neck squash cultivars identified as the attractive host plants in our previous studies were evaluated in field trials as potential trap crops for managing squash bugs in cucurbit production. Results showed that perimeter (border rows) planting of hubbard squash attracted squash bugs away from the zucchini cash crop, and also resulted in significantly lower feeding damage on the cash crop compared to control plot without hubbard trap crop. Objective 4. Develop alternative strategies for managing kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria in soybeans. The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive insect pest introduced to the United States from Asia in 2009. This insect poses serious threat to production of soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. [Fabales: Fabaceae]), and other legume crops in the United States. Here, we investigated the potential impacts of indigenous natural enemies on M. cribraria populations in soybean fields in Alabama. We sampled naturally laid M. cribraria egg masses for mortality and parasitism rates at weekly intervals throughout the cropping season in 2018. We found two species of hymenopteran egg parasitoids attacking M. cribraria eggs, with Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), being the dominant species comprising about 80% of all parasitoids that emerged from kudzu bug egg masses in 2018.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Morawo, T., and H. Fadamiro. 2018. Chemical-mediated counter defense: attraction of two parasitoid species to the defensive secretion of host larvae. Chemoecology 28: 153-162. DOI: 10.1007/s00049-018-0268-2.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Balusu, R, T. Cottrell, E. Talamas, M. Toews, B. Blaauw, A. Sial, D. Buntin, E. Vinson, H. Fadamiro, and G. Tillman. 2018. New record of Trissolcus solocis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) parasitizing Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the United States of America. Biodiversity Data Journal.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Majumdar, A., R. Balusu, G. Gray, and W. East. 2018. Innovations in large-scale trap cropping for reducing insect pests. Southern SARE Bulletin[Online] https://www.southernsare.org/SARE-in-Your-State/Alabama/State-News/Innovations-in-Large-Scale-Trap-Cropping-for-Reducing-Insect-Pests
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Majumdar, A., A. Chambliss, H. Fadamiro, R. Balusu, A. Randle, and H. Willis. 2014 revised 2018. Alternative Vegetable IPM Recommendation Slide Chart (Renamed Organic Vegetable IPM Slide Chart in 2018). ANR-2190. Designed and published by Datalizer Inc., Addison, IL. Information Copyright by ACES. Circulation: 3,500 (2018 version); 11,500 copies (2014 version); [Online] https://store.aces.edu/ItemDetail.aspx?ProductID=18412.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Ademokoya, B., R. Balusu, C. Ray, J. Mottern and H. Fadamiro. 2018. The first record of Ooencyrtus nezarae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on Kudzu bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in North America. Journal of Insect Science 18: 8; 1-7.


Progress 10/01/16 to 09/30/17

Outputs
Target Audience:The target audiences include conventional and organic fruit and vegetable producers, and limited resource farmers in Alabama. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Specialty crop producers were trained through workshops, on-farm demonstrations, and direct consultation services. The work also provided opportunities for training two graduate students and one undergraduate researcher who worked directly on the project. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?The results have been disseminated to specialty crop producers and other stakeholders in the form of on-farm demonstrations, handbooks/slide charts, extension publications, hands-on workshops and social network media. The researchers worked with extension personnel to organize several extension events including field days, demonstrations and presentations. Such presentations were also made at professional and producer meetings including: Cottrell, T., P.G. Tillman, R. R. Balusu, B. Wilkins, E. Vinson, and H. Y. Fadamiro. 2017. The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: A New Pest of Southeast Pecans. Southeastern Pecan Growers Association Convention, Biloxi, MS, February 25, 2017. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? The results of this project have identified ecologically sound and sustainable pest management tactics for key insect pests of specialty crops in Alabama. Implementation of the identified tactics should result in reduced pesticide use in fruit and vegetable production and ultimately reduced human health risks. Objective 1. Evaluate and implement IPM tactics for key insect pests of peaches with special focus on plum curculio, plant bugs and scale insects. Studies were conducted to develop and evaluate management strategies against several key insect pests of peaches including: Evaluation of insecticides for control of San Jose scale in Alabama. San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) is increasingly becoming a major insect pest of peaches in Alabama. A field trial was conducted in a peach orchard at the Chilton Research and Extension Center, Clanton. The aim of the trial was to compare the cost and efficacy of different insecticides commonly used to manage San Jose scale in peach production in the Southeastern US. Results showed Centaur® and Ultra Pure® (dormant oil) performed well in suppressing San Jose scale crawlers on most sampling dates. Monitoring and management of brown marmorated stink bug and other native stink bugs in Alabama. Brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) has been classified as the top invasive insect species by USDA due to its unprecedented potential to damage a wide variety of crops including peaches, apples, tomatoes, etc. A study was conducted to determine the presence, abundance, and seasonal activity of brown marmorated stink bug and to compare the effectiveness of yellow and black pyramid pheromone traps at three locations in Alabama. These include North Central region at the Chilton Research and Extension Center (CREC) in Clanton, East Central region at the Old Rotation (OR) research plot on the campus of Auburn University, and Southwestern region at the Gulf Coast Research and Extension Center (GCREC) in Fairhope. Results indicated increasing populations of brown marmorated stink bug in North Central and East Central regions with an average of 12 insects per trap per week. However, no activity of brown marmorated stink bugs was recorded in the Southwestern region. Furthermore, black pyramid traps captured more brown marmorated stink bugs than yellow pyramid traps. Objective 2. Develop management strategies for key insect pests of cucurbits with special focus on squash bugs We tested the attractiveness of the squash bug (Anasa tristis) to selected squash cultivars (acorn, spaghetti, hubbard, yellow straight-neck, crooked-neck, zucchini and butternut squash), with the aim of identifying an effective trap crop. Results showed hubbard and yellow straight-neck squash cultivars are significantly more attractive to squash bugs compared to other cultivars tested. The attractive host plants identified in this study are currently being evaluated in field trials as potential trap crops for managing squash bugs in cucurbit production. Objective 3. Develop and implement organically-acceptable IPM program for key insect pests of crucifer crops with special focus on yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma. The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma, is a key pest of organic crucifer production in the southern United States. We evaluated the susceptibility of larvae and adults of M. ochroloma to some botanical and microbial insecticide formulations such as Entrust® (organic formulation of Spinosad), PyGanic® (Pyrethrum), Grandevo® (bacterial formulation), Mycotrol O® (entamopathogenic fungi), and Moxlt-X (Azairachtin), as stand-alone and in combination (alternation or rotation design) with Entrust®. The major goal was to limit the potential of the pest to develop resistance to season long sprays of Entrust®. Results indicated that rotation of Entrust® with other biorational insecticides such as PyGanic® was as effective as season long application of Entrust® in suppressing M. ochroloma populations. In addition, Mycotrol O® (a microbial formulation) was as effective as season long application of Entrust®.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: "Akotsen-mensah, C., R. Balusu, J. Anikwe, and H. Fadamiro. 2017. Evaluating potential trap crops for managing leaffooted (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) species in peaches. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 19: 332-340.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: "Balusu, R.R., E.M. Rhodes, A. Majumdar, R.D. Cave, O.E. Liburd, and H. Y. Fadamiro. 2017. Biology, ecology, and management of Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in organic crucifer production. Journal of Integrated Pest Management 8: 14.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: "Balusu, R.R., K.R. Palmer, T. Cofer, J.A. Pitts, D.L. Horton, and H. Y. Fadamiro. 2017. Evaluation of insecticides for control of San Jose scale in Alabama Peaches, 2015. Arthropod Management Tests 42: tsx027.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: "Ademokoya, B., R. Balusu, T. Morawo, and H. Fadamiro. 2017. Attraction of Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), an egg parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) to host-associated olfactory cues. Journal of Entomological Science 52: 323-331.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: "Disi, J. O., J. W. Kloepper, and H. Y. Fadamiro. 2017. Seed treatment of maize with Bacillus pumilus strain INR-7 affects host location and feeding by Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. Journal of Pest Science. DOI: 10.1007/s10340-017-0927-z.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: "Disi, J. O., S. Zebelo, J. W. Kloepper, and H. Fadamiro. 2017. Seed inoculation with beneficial rhizobacteria affects European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) oviposition on maize plants. Entomological Science. DOI: 10.1111/ens.12280.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: "Disi, J. O., S. Zebelo, E. Ngumbi, and H. Fadamiro. 2017. cis-Jasmone primes defense pathways in tomato via emission of volatile organic compounds and regulation of genes with consequences for Spodoptera exigua oviposition. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 11: 591-602.


Progress 03/01/16 to 09/30/16

Outputs
Target Audience:Conventional and organic producers of fruit and vegetable crops, and soybean producers. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Specialty crop growers were trained through workshops and on-farm demonstrations. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?The results have been disseminated to stakeholders in the form of on-farm demonstrations, handbooks/slide charts, extension publications, hands-on workshops and social network media. The PI and his team worked with extension personnel to organize several extension events including field days, demonstrations and presentations. A few presentations were also made at professional and producer meetings including: Ademokoya, B., R.R. Balusu, and H.Y. Fadamiro. 2016. Field evaluation of potential trap crops for managing kudzu bugs, Megacopta cribraria in soybean production. International Congress of Entomology, Orlando, FL, September 25-30. Ademokoya, B., R.R. Balusu, and H.Y. Fadamiro. 2015. Attractiveness of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria, to different legume varieties: in the quest for better management options. 63rd Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America, Minneapolis, MN, November 15-18. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We plan to repeat the following studies: 1) Evaluation of insecticides for control of San Jose scale, 2) Monitoring and management of brown marmorated stink bug and other native stink bugs, 3) Development of management strategies for key insect pests of cucurbits with special focus on squash bug, and 4) Development of alternative strategies for managing kudzu bug in soybean.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1. Evaluate and implement IPM tactics for key insect pests of peaches with special focus on plum curculio, plant bugs and scale insects. Studies were conducted to develop and evaluate management strategies against several key insect pests of peaches including: a) Evaluation of insecticides for control of San Jose scale in Alabama. San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus is increasingly becoming a major insect pest of peaches in Alabama. A field trial was conducted in a peach orchard at the Chilton Research and Extension Center, Clanton. The aim of the trial was to compare the cost and efficacy of different insecticides commonly used to manage San Jose scale in peach production in the Southeastern U.S. The following insecticides were evaluated at field recommended rates: spirotetramat (Movento®), pyriproxyfen (Esteem® 35 WP), and buprofezin (Centuar® 30 WDG). Results showed no significant difference in the number of crawlers (nymphs) on peaches treated with the different insecticides. This study will be repeated in 2017. b) Monitoring and management of brown marmorated stink bug and other native stink bugs in Alabama. Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys has been classified as the top invasive insect species by USDA due to its unprecedented potential to damage a wide variety of crops including peaches, apples, and tomatoes. A study was conducted to determine the presence, abundance, and seasonal activity of H. halys, and compare the effectiveness of yellow and black pyramid pheromone traps at three locations in Alabama. Chilton Research and Extension Center in Clanton (North Central region), Auburn University campus (East Central region), and Gulf Coast Research and Extension Center in Fairhope (Southwestern region). Results indicated low abundance of BMSB in the North Central and East Central regions with an average of 4 insects per trap per week, whileno activity of H. halys was recorded in the Southwestern region. Black pyramid traps captured more H. halys than yellow pyramid traps. The study will be repeated in spring 2017. Objective 2. Develop management strategies for key insect pests of cucurbits with special focus on squash bugs A field trial was conducted to evaluate host preference of the squash bug, Anasa tristisfor different cucurbit varieties, with the aim of identifying an effective trap crop for the pest. The results were inconclusive due to very low pest pressure in research plots in spring 2016. This study will be repeated in spring 2017. Objective 3. Develop and implement organically-acceptable IPM program for key insect pests of crucifer crops with special focus on yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma. On-farm trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of integrating effective management tactics previously developed by our group for M. ochroloma. The IPM programs evaluated in this study included: 1) Integration of trap crop and biopesticides, 2) Integration of attractant and biopesticides, 3) Grower's standard pest management practices, and 4) No pest management practice (control). The results showed that the integrated trap crop-biopesticides program was the most effective and provided maximum protection from beetle damage with a minimum number of insecticide sprays on the main crop. The integrated attractant-biopesticides program was also promising but not as effective. Cost-benefit analyses revealed that the integrated trap crop-biopesticides program had the highest returns and lowest cost; thus a higher net benefit. On average, farmers that adopt the integrated trap crop-biopesticide program will likely make $232/acre more than those using the grower's standard practice. Objective 4. Develop alternative strategies for managing kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria in soybean. Multiple-choice screen house experiments were conducted to investigate host preference of M. cribraria among four legume cultivars at different phenological stages, and to identify potential trap crops for the pest. The legume cultivars include speckled bean, lima bean, jackson wonder bean and soybean. Megacopta cribraria showed significant attraction to early vegetative and late reproductive growth stages of speckled and lima beans, and to the early reproductive growth stage of soybean. Jackson wonder bean was the least preferred cultivar at all growth stages. Field tests were carried out to further evaluate the preferred cultivars as potential trap crops at two planting dates: 1) planting two weeks before the main crop and 2) planting at the same time as the main crop. Results showed that planting soybean as trap crop two weeks before or at the same time as the main crop (soybean) effectively intercepted M. cribraria.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2016 Citation: Akotsen-Mensah, C., R.R. Balusu, J. Anikwe, and H.Y. Fadamiro. 2016. Evaluating potential trap crops for managing leaffooted (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) species in peaches. Agricultural and Forest Entomology.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Balusu, R.R., M. R. Elena, A. Majumdar, R.D. Cave, E. L. Oscar, and H.Y. Fadamiro. 2016. Biology, ecology, and management of yellowmargined leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in organic crucifer production. Journal of Integrated Pest Management