Source: NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV submitted to
AMENDING SOILS FOR SUCCESSFUL REMEDIATION OF BRINE SPILLS ON RANGE AND CROP LAND
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1009245
Grant No.
2016-69008-25092
Project No.
ND05480
Proposal No.
2015-09123
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
A1701
Project Start Date
Apr 1, 2016
Project End Date
Mar 31, 2020
Grant Year
2016
Project Director
Meehan, M.
Recipient Organization
NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV
(N/A)
FARGO,ND 58105
Performing Department
Animal Sciences
Non Technical Summary
This Critical Agricultural Research and Extension (CARE) project addresses research and extension issues surrounding the impacts of unregulated spills of oil-production water, locally known as "brine" to crop and rangelands in the Bakken and Three Forks regions of North Dakota. Stakeholder involvement has included on-farm visits, workshops, and face-to-face meetings.The primary objective of this project is to establish a research project to identify soil amendments and cover crops that are successful in remediating the ecological impacts of brine spills on range and crop land. Specifically, the ability to 1) decrease the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity of soils, 2) improve biomass production, 3) increase the biodiversity of rangeland plant communities, and 4) improve soil health. A co-objective is to develop an Extension Program that focuses on the education of stakeholders and the public through Area Extension Specialists and County Extension Agents, field days, workshops, "café talks," videos, extension bulletins, popular press news articles, presentations for teaching and collaborating with private and public entities, peer-reviewed articles, and best management practices for dealing with these spills. Hands-on demonstrations at field days and workshops will enhance information retention through visual, auditory, and tactile learning styles.This project improves 1) the education and awareness of these spills to the public, 2) improves workforce and science literacy, 3) public awareness of agriculture, and 4) increase sustainability of agriculture. In addition, best management practices will be developed that will be used by landowners, regulatory agencies, and private consultants.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
13301991070100%
Knowledge Area
133 - Pollution Prevention and Mitigation;

Subject Of Investigation
0199 - Soil and land, general;

Field Of Science
1070 - Ecology;
Goals / Objectives
The goal of this project is to 1) establish a research project to evaluate the ability of soil amendments and cover crops to successfully improve the ecological function of soil that has been impacted by oil-production water (brine) spills on range and crop land in the Bakken and Three Forks oil-producing regions of North Dakota, and 2) establish an Extension program that will educate farmers and ranchers about these spills, strategies for improved production, and awareness about their consequences if left untreated.The primary objective of this project is to establish a research project to identify soil amendments and cover crops that are successful in remediating the ecological impacts of brine spills on range- and cropland. Specifically, the ability to 1) decrease the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity of soils; 2) increase plant biomass production; 3) enhance biodiversity of rangeland plant communities; and 4) improve overall soil health. The project will provide educational outreach opportunities to producers, including but not limited to Extension "café talks", workshops, field tours of the demonstrations. Knowledge gained from these extension events and the research study will be utilized in the development of educational materials including extension bulletins, popular press news articles, presentations for teaching, soil health videos, and also improve collaboration between private and public entities. Results of the research project will be disseminated to other professionals in peer-reviewed articles and at professional meetings, and provide best management practices for spill sites. An extension curriculum will be developed for area specialists and county agents to disseminate information on the impacts of brine and management options available to producers.
Project Methods
The research project will utilize a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement with 12 treatments and 3 replicates per treatment. Plot size will be dependent on spill site geometry but the target size is 2.5m x 5m. The project will be conducted on both cropland and rangeland. At each location two vegetation treatments and five soil amendments will tested. The vegetation treatments will vary between the two locations. The vegetation treatments on cropland will include barley and a cover crop mixture comprised of barley, safflower, sugar beet, and sunflower. The vegetation treatments on the rangeland include establishing a salt-tolerant seed mixture comprised of western wheatgrass, slender wheatgrass, green wheatgrass, beardless wildrye, and strawberry clover and the establishment of the same salt-tolerant seed mixture using barley as a nurse crop. The five soil amendments being assessed are gypsum, leonardite, cattle manure from a local cattle producer, and a chemical agent developed at NDSU. Application rates of the five soil amendments will be based on the impacted site characteristics but we predict that gypsum and lime will be applied up to 30 tons/acre, manure at 5 to 10 tons per acre, and leonardite at 0.25 to 2 tons/acre. All amendments will be hand-applied. A minimum 1m buffer will be maintained between treatments to prevent interactions between different treatments and to allow access to plots during data collection and field tours.Soils will be evaluated using standard methods outlined in Handbook 60 (USDA, 1954) and 1:5 soil to solution methods. All cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) will be analyzed using atomic absorption, EC using a conductivity meter, and Cl using an ion-specific electrode. Samples will be taken to a depth of 90 cm (3 ft) and dissected into 0-15, 15-30, 30-45, 45-60, and 60-90 cm depths. Deeper samples will help characterize the site and assess the downward movement of Na and Cl from treatment effects. Sites will each be characterized using profile descriptions to determine the target remediation potential. The WebSoilSurvey will also be used to determine the Productivity Index of the soil series in the impacted areas. Additionally, comparisons of infiltration rates using a Cornell Infiltrometer, aggregate stabilities using a modified method of Yoder (1936), and CO2 surface efflux (SRC-1, PPSystems, Amesbury, MA) and CO2 profile measurements using gas wells and an infrared gas analyzer (DeSutter et al., 2008) will also be done.Vegetation attributes will be assessed using standardized methods as described in the National Range and Pasture Handbook (USDA-NRCS 2003) and Bureau of Land Management Technical Reference 1734-4 (DOI-BLM 1999). Foliar, basal and ground cover for both crop and range land will be evaluated utilizing line-point intercept (Herrick et al. 2009). Quadrats will be utilized to determine frequency in range land treatments. Composition or species richness will be evaluated utilizing line-point intercept and quadrat data. Vegetation biomass or production will be evaluated on both crop and range lands. Annual standing biomass production will be ascertained using the harvest method prior to harvest of crop treatments and at peak production of range treatments, which will occur in late July for the cool-season species that comprise the salt-tolerant seed mixture (Sedivec et al. 2007). Crop treatments will be harvested in the fall utilizing a plot combine to determine yield.The species utilized for the vegetation treatments were selected based on their salinity index, water requirements and suitability for the study location. Varieties selected for both the crop and range treatments have been tested locally at either the NDSU Research Extension Centers or the USDA-NRCS Plant Material Center in Bismarck, ND and will come from a local seed source that is certified weed free. Species and varieties for the rangeland treatment were evaluated for their potential to invade native plant communities.Greenhouse-incubation studies will be done on brine-impacted soils to determine how the amendments impact chemistry, biology, and physical soil metrics. These metrics will include SAR, EC, pH, CO2 efflux, leaching and saturated hydraulic conductivity characteristics, and soil swelling and dispersion. Currently, no known thresholds for EC and Na have been established for brine-impacted soils and this will also be addressed in a laboratory study following He et al. (2013) and He et al. (2015a).Data will be analyzed with the SAS statistical software. Data will be analyzed utilizing the PROC MIXED using least square means within SAS to assess changes in soil cations, EC, Cl, infiltration, CO2 dynamics, aggregate stability, and greenhouse and laboratory studies (Ver. 9.2, SAS 2002). Vegetation data will be analyzed with Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PMANOVA) with a Bray-Curtis distance measure in SAS.The results of this research will be utilized to develop recommendations and best management practices and for brine spill remediation on both crop- and rangelands that will enhance environmental sustainability and food security. Research findings will be presented at professional meetings and published in a graduate thesis and peer-reviewed journals. In addition, the results of this research will be used to dictate the focus of future research assessing brine-impacted soils and salinity tolerant plant species. The results of the research study will be utilized to develop future extension programs and curriculum on best management practices to enhance the soil health, biomass production, and diversity of brine impacted agricultural lands.In 2016 an extension program will be initiated. In the first year of the extension program four café talks and one workshop will be held to assess producer's knowledge of the impacts of brine and educate them of these impacts. These events will be utilized to complete a needs assessment, the information gained from these assessments will be used to develop the extension program and determine the types of educational material needed by county extension personnel and producers. One extension fact sheet and one video will be published in year one to increase knowledge of the impacts of brine on soils and vegetation production. In 2017 project collaborators will attend four workshops to educate producers on the impacts of brine and one extension fact sheet will be published. In the spring of 2017 an in-service will be held for area and county personnel to educate them on the impacts of brine on soils and vegetation. This in-service would include a tour of the field locations and discussion of the research project. Extension personnel would be encouraged to take an active role in the research project, assisting with data collection and presenting preliminary data at local events. In both 2017 and 2018 extension field tours will be held at each project location to demonstrate the impacts of brine on soils and vegetation, and exhibit different methods of remediation being assessed by the research study. Upon the completion of the research project an extension fact sheet and video will be developed on best management practices for brine spill remediation. This project will result in the development of an extension curriculum, utilizing educational materials produced, for area specialists and county agents to disseminate information on the impacts of brine and management options available to producers. The success of the extension programing will be evaluated using level 1, 2 and 3 of Kirkpatrick's model measuring satisfaction, learning and behavior change, respectively. Levels 1 and 2 will be assessed immediately following each event. Level 3 will be assessed with a follow-up survey of program participants to determine implementation of program curriculum.

Progress 04/01/18 to 03/31/19

Outputs
Target Audience:Targeted audience reached included: Landowners that have been impacted by oil and gas exploration and development. Landowner groups that advocate for the rights of private landowners in areas impacted by oil and gas exploration and development. Extension personnel working in counties that have been impacted by oil and gas exploration and development. State agencies that regulate activities associated with oil and gas development in North Dakota including, the North Dakota Department of Health and the North Dakota Department of Mineral Resources Oil and Gas Division. Changes/Problems: We were unable to analyze the results of the brine remediation field research or use it as a demonstration site due to field conditions at the site. Added a greenhouse study testing the effectiveness of various wicking materials applied to the soil surface in capturing and removing NaCl from brine contaminated soil. Added a germination study evaluating germination of different crop and grass species at different brine levels. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? 2017 North Dakota Reclamation Conference 2018 North Dakota Reclamation Conference 2019 North Dakota Reclamation Conference Presentation at 2018 Fall Extension Conference; Brine Spill Remediation Efforts in North Dakota, 20 participants How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Brine spill discussions, 6 Reclamation Conference, 3 Extension Publications, 1 Peer reviewed publication, 3 News releases, 4 and interviews, 11 Present materials at meetings, workshops and tours, 13 What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Publish extension educational materials, including two fact sheets. Conduct discussion to meet with landowners that have been impacted by a brine release and have an open discussion about their experiences. Attend and participate in workshops to educate landowners on impacts of brine. Field tour of brine research being conducted in ND. Submit peer review publications on greenhouse and germination studies. Collaborate with materials engineer to evaluate potential materials for wicking at a field scale and test method at the field scale. Hire undergraduate research to aid with this competent of the project.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? - 2019 Brine Spill Discussions. Two discussions have been scheduled in Dickinson (April 2) and Minot (April 11). - Project team members participated in 2019 North Dakota Reclamation Conference on Feb. 25 and 26, 2019. Dr. Meehan was a member of the planning committee and organized a session focused on brine spills for the event. She also prepared a press release about the event. NDSU Extension had a booth at the event to distribute resources related to reclamation and connect with stakeholders that have been impacted by brine releases. Dr. Meehan, Dr. Daigh and Dr. DeSutter presented at the event. 270 people attended this event. - Dr. Meehan held a planning committee meeting of the North Dakota Reclamation Conference on Feb. 20 and 21, 2018. NDSU Extension had a booth at the event to distribute resources related to reclamation and connect with stakeholders that have been impacted by brine releases. 250 people attended this event. - Project team members participated in 2017 North Dakota Reclamation Conference on Feb. 20 and 21, 2017. Dr. Meehan was a member of the planning committee and organized a session focused on brine spills for the event. She also prepared a press release about the event. NDSU Extension had a booth at the event to distribute resources related to reclamation and connect with stakeholders that have been impacted by brine releases. Dr. Daigh presented at the event and was a co-author for another presentation. 281 people attended this event. - Hosted 2017 Brine Spill Discussions. Three discussions were held in Crosby, ND (April 13), Killdeer, ND (April, 18) and Stanley, ND (April 27). These events were attended by 54 people. Participants included landowners, state and federal agencies and industry representatives. - 2018 Brine Spill Discussions. Three discussions were held in Williston (Feb. 27), Killdeer (Mar. 20) and Minot (Mar. 27). These events were attended by 82 people. Participants included landowners, state and federal agencies and industry representatives. - Conducted greenhouse experiments on the post-application effects of iron hexacyanoferrate (i.e., soil amendment) on soybean and wheat plants and soil microbial populations. - Conducted laboratory experiments on leonardite's potential as a salt barrier to limit desalinization of ex-situ brine spill remediation sites. - Conducted Greenhouse trials testing the effectiveness of seed treated with Pseudomonas Corrugate in brine contaminated soil. - Created field plots in a randomized complete block design on brine contaminated site near Powers Lake, ND. o Obtained soil samples from field plots at a depth of 15cm and analyzed samples for electrical conductivity, cation concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), and pH. o Applied Manure, flue-gas desulfurization gypsum, spent lime, and leonardite to field to plots in July 2017. o Seeded field plots with barley, a cover crop mix (barley, black oil sunflower, sugar beet, and safflower), and perennial grass mix (Pryor slender wheatgrass, AC saltlander wheatgrass, Rosana western wheatgrass, and Shoshone breardless wildrye) in September 2017. o Determined establishment, cover, and frequency of plant species in October 2017. - Conducted experiments in greenhouse conditions testing the effectiveness of various wicking materials applied to the soil surface in capturing and removing NaCl from brine contaminated soil. - Conducted a germination study evaluating germination of different species at different NaCl and brine levels.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Green, A.W., T.M. DeSutter, M.A. Meehan, and A.L.M. Daigh. 2019. Wicking Salts from Brine-Contaminated Soils: A Potential Method for In-Situ Remediation. Agricultural & Environmental Letters. doi: 10.2134/ael2018.12.0069
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Green, A., T. DeSutter, A. Daigh and M. Meehan. 2018. Wicking salts from brine contaminated soils: Potential method for in-situ remediation. NDSU GSC Second Annual Research Symposium, Fargo, ND.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Green, A., M. Meehan, T. DeSutter. 2019. Germination Thresholds of Grass and Crop Species in Response to NaCl and Brine Induced Salinity. 2019 Annual Society for Range Management Meeting. Minneapolis, MN.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Meehan, M., Sedivec, K., A. Green, A. Daigh, T. DeSutter, R. Limb. 2019. Establishing Vegetation in Brine Affected Soils. North Dakota Reclamation Conference, Dickinson, ND. Feb. 26, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Daigh, A.L.M., N. Derby, T. DeSutter, U. Ghosh, A. Green, K. Horsager, A. Klaustermeier, H. Klopp, R. Limb, M. Meehan, K. Sedivec, and H. Tomlinson. 2019. Soil remediation research at NDSU: Past, present, and the future. North Dakota Reclamation Conference, Dickinson, ND. Feb. 26, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Daigh, A.L.M., N. Derby, T. DeSutter, U. Ghosh, A. Green, K. Horsager, A. Klaustermeier, H. Klopp, R. Limb, M. Meehan, K. Sedivec, and H. Tomlinson. 2019. Brine/Fracking Water Spills and Remediation Efforts in the Bakken Oil Patch of North Dakota. Soil Science Society of America Conference. San Diego, CA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Green, A., T. DeSutter, A. Daigh and M. Meehan. 2019. Wicking salts from brine contaminated soils: Potential method for in-situ remediation. Soil Science Society of America Conference. San Diego, CA.


Progress 04/01/17 to 03/31/18

Outputs
Target Audience:Targeted audience reached in 2017 included: Landowners that have been impacted by oil and gas exploration and development. Landowner groups that advocate for the rights of private landowners in areas impacted by oil and gas exploration and development. Extension personnel working in counties that have been impacted by oil and gas exploration and development. State agencies that regulate activities associated with oil and gas development in North Dakota including, the North Dakota Department of Health and the North Dakota Department of Mineral Resources Oil and Gas Division. Industry representatives that are responsible for environmental compliance. Changes/Problems: The project timeline has been adjusted due to difficulty accessing the site in the spring of 2017, as the site was flooded. This delayed application of amendments and planting. Added a greenhouse study testing the effectiveness of various wicking materials applied to the soil surface in capturing and removing NaCl from brine contaminated soil. Added a germination study evaluating germination of different species at different brine levels. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? 2017 North Dakota Reclamation Conference 2018 North Dakota Reclamation Conference How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Nothing Reported What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Complete germination study evaluating germination of different species at different brine levels. Publish extension educational materials, including two fact sheets. Conduct café talks to meet with landowners that have been impacted by a brine release and have an open discussion about their experiences. Attend and participate in workshops to educate landowners on impacts of brine. Provide in-service training to Extension personnel to educate them on impacts of brine and empower them to address landowner questions. Field tour of demonstration site.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Project team members participated in 2017 North Dakota Reclamation Conference on Feb. 20 and 21, 2017. Dr. Meehan was a member of the planning committee and organized a session focused on brine spills for the event. She also prepared a press release about the event. NDSU Extension had a booth at the event to distribute resources related to reclamation and connect with stakeholders that have been impacted by brine releases. Dr. Daigh presented at the event and was a co-author for another presentation. 281 people attended this event. Dr. Meehan planning committee 2018 North Dakota Reclamation Conference on Feb. 20 and 21, 2018. NDSU Extension had a booth at the event to distribute resources related to reclamation and connect with stakeholders that have been impacted by brine releases. 188 people attended this event. Hosted 2017 Brine Spill Discussions. Three discussions were held in Crosby, ND (April 13), Killdeer, ND (April, 18) and Stanley, ND (April 27). These events were attended by 54 people. Participants included landowners, state and federal agencies and industry representatives. 2018 Brine Spill Discussions. Three discussions have been scheduled in Williston (Feb. 27), Killdeer (Mar. 20) and Minot (Mar. 27). The discussion held in Williston had 26 participants. The Killdeer and Minot discussions have not yet been conducted. Conducted greenhouse experiments on the post-application effects ofiron hexacyanoferrate (i.e.,soil amendment)on soybean and wheat plants and soil microbial populations. Conducted laboratory experiments on leonardite's potential as a salt barrier to limit desalinization of ex-situ brine spill remediation sites. Conducted Greenhouse trials testing the effectiveness of seed treated withPseudomonasCorrugate in brine contaminated soil. Created fieldplots in a randomizedcomplete block design on brine contaminated site near Powers Lake, ND. Obtained soil samples from fieldplots at a depth of 15cm and analyzed samples for electrical conductivity, cation concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), and pH. Applied Manure, flue-gas desulfurization gypsum, spent lime, and leonardite to field to plots in July 2017. Seeded field plots with barley, a cover crop mix (barley, black oil sunflower, sugar beet, and safflower), and perennial grass mix (Pryor slender wheatgrass, AC saltlanderwheatgrass, Rosana western wheatgrass, and Shoshone breardless wildrye) in September 2017. Determined establishment, cover, and frequency of plant species in October 2017. Conducted experiment in greenhouse conditions testing the effectiveness of various wicking materials applied to the soil surface in capturing and removing NaCl from brine contaminated soil.

Publications

  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Meehan, M. A., Sedivec, K. K., DeSutter, T., Augustin, C., Daigh, A. 2017. Environmental Impacts of Brine (Produced Water). NDSU R1850. Available at: https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/publications/environment-natural-resources/environmental-impacts-of-brine-produced-water
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Klaustermeier, A., A.L.M. Daigh, R. Limb, and K. Sedivec. 2017. Crystallization inhibitors and their remediation potential of brine-contaminated soils. Vadose Zone Journal 16(4) doi:10.2136/vzj2016.10.0095.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Harmon, J.P., and A.L.M. Daigh. 2017. Attempting to predict the plant-mediated trophic effects of soil salinity: A mechanistic approach to supplementing insufficient information. Food Webs 13:67-79.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Green, A., T. DeSutter, A. Daigh, M. Meehan. 2018. Wicking salts from brine contaminated soils: Potential method for in-situ remediation. Soil Remediation and Soil Resources General Session. 61st Annual Manitoba Soil Science Society Meeting, Winnipeg, MB. Feb. 2, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Daigh, A.L.M., N.E. Derby, and D.D. Davis. 2017. Heat and water flows through sand and hydrophobic, raw leonardite columns. Soil Physics and Hydrology General Session. Soil Physics and Hydrology Division. In Annual Meeting Abstracts. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Daigh, A.L.M., U. Ghosh, and T. DeSutter. 2017. Ferric hexacyanoferrate effects on soil microbial community and soybean and wheat growth. Environmental Quality General Session. American Society of Agronomy Environmental Quality Division. In Annual Meeting Abstracts. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Daigh, A.L.M., A.W. Klaustermeier, R.F. Limb, T.M. DeSutter, and K. Sedivec. 2017. Approaching brine spills from the surface: A research update on using crystallization inhibitors. North Dakota Reclamation Conference, Dickinson, ND. Feb. 21st, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Sedivec, K., R. Limb, A. Daigh, T. DeSutter, A. Klaustermeier, and H. Thomlinson. 2017. Effects of remediation techniques on selected grass species seedlings associated with legacy brine waste pits in north-central North Dakota. North Dakota Reclamation Conference, Dickinson, ND. Feb. 21st, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Sedivec, K., R. Limb, J. Norland, A.L.M. Daigh, A. Klaustermeier, T. DeSutter, and P. Comeau. 2017. Evaluation of reclamation and remediation techniques associated with oil and gas production in the Northern Plains. In Annual Meeting Abstracts. Society for Range Management. St. George, UT. Feb. 1st, 2017.


Progress 04/01/16 to 03/31/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Targeted audience reached in 2016 included: Landowners that have been impacted by oil and gas exploration and development. Landowner groups that advocate for the rights of private landowners in areas impacted by oil and gas exploration and development. Extension personnel working in counties that have been impacted by oil and gas exploration and development. State agencies that regulate activities associated with oil and gas development in North Dakota including, the North Dakota Department of Health and the North Dakota Department of Mineral Resources Oil and Gas Division. Industry representatives that are responsible for environmental compliance. Changes/Problems: The project timeline has been adjusted due to the difficulty of finding study sites of adequate size to conduct the project. Due to the difficulty of finding study locations that have had the same spill response or pre-treatments, the project has been reduced to one study location that will test both crop and rangeland remediation techniques. The greenhouse study has been expanded to include the assessment of seed treatments, if these treatments are successful in the greenhouse they will be added as a field treatment. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? 2016 North Dakota Reclamation Conference A reclamation session was held during the 2016 NDSU Extension Fall Conference to provide Extension personnel with new resources and information related to reclamation. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Fall Extension Conference (12 county agents, 17 REC technical staff and researchers, 4 state specialists) ND Reclamation Conference discussions What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Complete greenhouse evaluating seedling establishment at different brine levels and the ability of seed treatments to improve seedling establishment. Establish field demonstration sites. Publish extension educational materials, including two fact sheets. Conduct café talks to meet with landowners that have been impacted by a brine release and have an open discussion about their experiences. Attend and participate in workshops to educate landowners on impacts of brine. Provide in-service training to Extension personnel to educate them on impacts of brine and empower them to address landowner questions. Field tour of demonstration site.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Meetings with various stakeholder groups to discuss the project, stakeholder concerns regarding brine spills and locate potential demonstration sites. Demonstrations sites were identified and a land use agreement has been executed with the landowner for duration of project. A Masters level graduate student was hired on January 9, 2017 Soil has been collected and is being prepared for Spring 2017 greenhouse study. Project team members participated in 2016 North Dakota Reclamation Conference. Dr. Meehan was a member of the planning committee, organized the land owner panel and acted as moderator for the event. She also prepared a press release and conducted one TV and 2 newspaper interviews about the event. NDSU Extension had a booth at the event to distribute resources related to reclamation and connect with stakeholders that have been impacted by brine releases. A reclamation session was held during the 2016 NDSU Extension Fall Conference to provide Extension personnel with new resources and information related to reclamation. Draft version of two Extension publications have been completed for the project focused on spill response protocol and the impacts of brine on soil and plant resources. Final versions of these publication are expected to be completed by summer of 2017. Dr. Meehan has organized a session focused on brine spills for the 2017 North Dakota Reclamation Conference on February 20 and 21. Planning café talks for Spring 2017 to meet with landowners that have been impacted by a brine release and have an open discussion about their experiences.

Publications