Source: RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY submitted to
UNDERSTANDING THE ECOLOGY OF SHELLFISH AND THEIR PATHOGENS TO IMPROVE SHELLFISH MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1009201
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
NJ32114
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Mar 1, 2016
Project End Date
Jan 31, 2021
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Bushek, D, .
Recipient Organization
RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY
3 RUTGERS PLZA
NEW BRUNSWICK,NJ 08901-8559
Performing Department
Marine and Coastal Sciences
Non Technical Summary
Shellfish are important components of estuarine and coastal ecosystems that play significant roles in maintaining healthy ecosystems. Many species provide a renewable resource to local and regional economies through fisheries and aquaculture. A variety of molluscan shellfish such as oysters, hard clams, surf clams, ocean quahogs and scallops are fished and farmed in New Jersey and the surrounding region. Shellfisheries and shellfish aquaculture are dependent upon good water quality and healthy ecosystems. Nationally, molluscan shellfish aquaculture is a 328+ million dollar industry supporting thousands of small farms and sustainable green jobs in rural areas (USDA 2014). Molluscan shellfish production increased 69% from 2005 to 2013. Farm-raised oyster production is increasing rapidly in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic regions (Hudson 2014, Calvo and Flimlin 2015) and other species are soon to follow. In comparison, NOAA reports molluscan fisheries landed $904,518 worth of shellfish in 2014 indicating that shellfisheries is likely worth several billion dollars to the US economy annually. In every case, fished or farmed shellfish are exposed to a plethora of ecological interactions, including parasitism, which can dramatically reduce production or affect human health. Shellfish can filter vast amounts of water which is magnified by the extensive assemblages that they can form in either natural or culture situations. As a result, shellfish contribute to ecosystem functioning by filtering water and providing habitat via the structures/assemblages formed by their shells. As filter feeders, shellfish can accumulate contaminants that are harmful to humans (e.g., Vibrio bacteria). Therefore, understanding shellfish ecology and pathology is of critical importance to the sustainable management of shellfish aquaculture and fisheries while protecting human health.The ability to detect pathogens, predict their presence, and control their impact is of paramount importance to the management of shellfish populations (wild or farmed) in New Jersey and elsewhere. It follows that by enhancing our understanding of host-pathogen-environment interactions we can identify potential control points and develop new or improve existing strategies to lessen the negative impacts of these pathogens. Successful strategies will lead to increases in aquaculture and fisheries production as well as improvements in the protection of human health. The overall goal of this project is to enhance our understanding of shellfish ecology and pathology so that better management strategies can be devised to minimize disease problems associated with production or consumption of harvestable shellfish and enhance the ecological services provided by shellfish. This goal directly addresses the NJAES mission "to enhance the viability, health, sustainability and overall quality of life in New Jersey by developing and delivering practical, effective solutions to current and future challenges to agriculture; fisheries; food; natural resources; environments; public health; and economic, community and youth development." Achieving this goal also addresses the USDA NIFA national research priorities as follows.Global Food Security and Hunger - this research directly addresses food production limitations in shellfish aquaculture and is directed specifically at limitations in production resulting from parasitism and disease.Climate Change - climate change has been directly linked to warming of the waters and ocean acidification, both of which affect host-parasite interactions by increasing physiological stress and altering species distributions. Maintaining high production capacities in the face of climate change will require an understanding of how changes in temperature, pH and alkalinity and other climate change related variables affects host and pathogen populations. In some systems, shellfish culture and restoration may offer a mitigation strategy for ocean acidification through assimilation of carbon and buffering of acidification with their shells.Sustainable Energy - a byproduct of shellfish aquaculture research is the mass production of phytoplankton that may be useful for the production of biofuels and or neutraceuticals.Childhood Obesity - this research will help ensure that nutritious shellfish are affordable and available to individuals and families in their pursuit of a healthier diet.Food Safety - specific components of this research directly address the ecology of human pathogens that accumulate in shellfish (e.g., Vibrio bacteria).Several broad objectives will be pursued to address the overall project goal using USDA support to leverage additional funding where possible. The broad objectives are:Study the life history, population dynamics and ecology of shellfish and their pathogens including spatial and temporal relationships with environmental correlates.Identify and examine the ecological processes that control human pathogen accumulation in shellfish.Develop and implement monitoring and surveillance programs for shellfish.Develop and evaluate shellfish restoration and enhancement programsWorking towards these objectives will ensure sustainable and safe harvest and production of shellfish with room to grow. Because these activities often occur in rural, economically depressed regions and communities, ensuring their viabilty and fostering growth represents an important priority.
Animal Health Component
80%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
25%
Applied
50%
Developmental
25%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3110811116030%
1360811107020%
3070811108120%
3080811110030%
Goals / Objectives
The overarching goal is to improve production, management and regulation of the shellfish to support the shellfish industry and protect the environment. Several broad objectives are listed below. Specific objectives are or will be tailored to meet the goals of funding agencies where USDA support will be leveraged to address specific problems. The broad objectives are:Study the life history, population dynamics and ecology of shellfish and their pathogens including spatial and temporal relationships with environmental correlates.Identify and examine the ecological processes that control human pathogen accumulation in shellfish.Develop and implement monitoring and surveillance programs for shellfish.Develop and evaluate shellfish restoration and enhancement programs
Project Methods
Because this is an umbrella project, the methods provided below are brief. Detailed protocols are provided in funded or anticipated external grants that pertain to selected aspects of one or more objectives.Objective 1. Data on oyster disease and oyster pathogens in New Jersey dates back to 1950 or earlier, but continuous data have only been collected since 1989. Data will continue to be collected from the NJ seedbeds in collaboration with the New Jersey Shellfisheries Council and NJDEP. As funding permits, additional data will be collected from other areas in Delaware Bay as well as other parts of New Jersey. To further assist the management of the oyster industry, we will monitor transplant operations to determine the time period before a bed receiving transplants returns to a pre-transplant state. Surprisingly, this has not been done systematically in the past despite heavy reliance on transplanting oysters as a management tool. Growth, mortality and dermo will also be monitored. Monitoring protocols and recommendations to management will be made annually at the stock assessment workshop usually held in February each year.Objective 2. Recently, farmers and state and federal regulators have become increasingly concerned about vibriosis, a human illness that can be associated with consumption of raw and undercooked seafood. Vibrio bacteria, the etiological agent of vibriosis are naturally occurring and among the most abundant bacteria in the marine environment (Thompson et al. 2006). Although only a small fraction of environmental strains cause illness in humans, their widespread distribution in marine and estuarine environments raises concerns for seafood safety. Therefore, developing effective grow-out, harvesting and handling methods that minimize levels of harmful Vibrios in oysters is of paramount importance to the industry. Specific concern about Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is increasing as a result of unexplained and unexpected outbreaks during the past decade. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of ten Vibrio species implicated in human foodborne disease, and is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide associated with the consumption of seafood. Results from a recent FDA risk analysis study indicated that the most important risk factor is the level of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at the time of harvest. To address this problem we will quantify total and pathogenic Vp (Vibrio parahaemolyticus), and total Vv (Vibro vulnificus), in oysters grown in subtidal and intertidal grow-out conditions over the course of the Vibrio high-risk season (May-September) in oyster farms located across the salinity gradient of the Chesapeake and Delaware Bay regions. Additionally, for intertidal grow-out systems, we will evaluate the time required for levels of pathogenic and total Vibrios to return to levels found in subtidal grow-out systems following resubmergence.Objective 3. The HSRL pathology lab routinely conducts health assessments for various labs and aquaculture operations. This work has led to the discovery and description of novel parasites such as the protozoan Minchinia mercenariae in hard clams (Ford et al. 2009). A recent masters student was able to document an unusually high occurrence of a ciliate parasite in oysters from Great Bay, NH and will soon be publishing that work. Follow up studies are planned for molecular characterization. Continued surveillance work will provide similar opportunities. In the course of conducting health evaluations for shellfish seed being transferred within and among water bodies across multiple jurisdictions it has become apparent that there is a lack of uniformity and appreciation for the biology and ecology that control host-pathogen interactions such that policies based on political boundaries make much of the regulatory framework ineffective and inefficient. To resolve this, funding from USDA APHIS VS was obtained for a preliminary visioning workshop that was then leveraged to obtain funding from NOAA Sea Grant to begin developing a shellfish health management system. We have already convened a workshop of more than 50 stakeholders representing industry, resource managers, extension agents and academia that proposed the creation of a shellfish advisory panel (Bushek and Carnegie 2014). We will assemble that panel and task them with developing working groups and subcommittees to address developing a hatchery certification protocol, developing a database management system, articulating a zoning strategy and developing a shellfish health surveillance program. Key assays will also be evaluated and standardized, including novel molecular assays, for diagnostic suitability in surveillance of shellfish health and interstate transfer or transfer among water bodies or zones.Objective 4. The Delaware Bay Oyster Restoration program of the mid 2000s was highly successful producing potential economic returns reportedly as high as 75:1 from some specific efforts (Ashton-Alcox 2010). Averaged across the entire Delaware Bay, the program was able to sustain the oyster population and the oyster fishery through a record period of consecutive recruitment failures. Recovery was well on its way until floods in 2011 killed about 35% or the oysters in the upper portion of the Bay equivalent to about 25% of the total abundance in the fishery (Munroe et al. 2013). Along the shores of the Delaware Bay, sea level rise and storms have been rapidly eroding beach and marsh shorelines. Funds are being sought to restore oyster, marsh and beach habitats and innovative technologies such as spat-on-shell and living shorelines are being developed and evaluated to address these issues. A portion of this work is determining the habitat value of the restored areas for benthic and nektonic fauna.

Progress 10/01/19 to 09/30/20

Outputs
Target Audience:This HATCH project targets shellfish researchers, producers (farmers) and harvesters (fishermen) as well as the regulatoryagencies and the non-profit shellfish restoration community involved with and interested in shellfish resources in coastal and marine habitats. In many rural areas, shellfish producers and harvesters are members of economically depressed communities that are often educationally disadvantaged as a result. During this reporting period, the project targeted the Delaware Bay oyster fishery and aquaculture communities, the federal and state regulatory agencies overseeing shellfishproduction and resources in New Jersey, the bird conservation community over the potential impact between oysteraquaculture and protection of the federally threatened red knot, and the East Coast shellfish aquaculturists and regulatorsworking on shellfish importation issues. A specific target has been the community of shellfish hatcheries and regulatory agencies overseeing their activities and this was expanded to include the Gulf of Mexico during this reporting period. Changes/Problems:COVID-19 has been a serious disruption but we have been able to find ways to make progress by invoking protective measures that assure social distancing and safe practices. Several events were cancelled or postponed and this required an adaptation to online work rather than in person work, particularly with respect to workshops. This has necessitated some no-cost extensions of some separately funded projects, but progress continues. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?PI Bushek served as mentor on a USDA SARE Farmer Grant to Elizabeth Haskin, owner of Betsy's Cape Shore Salt Oyster Farm. Ms Haskin desired to test the effects of overwintering her oysters in a refrigerated cooler away from the weather hazards of intertidal or subtidal storage in Delaware Bay. A graduate student advised by Dr. Bushek, Heidi Yeh, took advantage of the study to collect samples of the oyster microbiome. Those samples await genetic and genomic analysis. A high school student was also recruited to participate in the project and learn the scientific method and its application to resolve real problems. Several workshops, already described, provided opportunities for training and professional development. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results have been presented at professsional scientific meetings, in peer-reveiwed and non-peer-reviewed literature, at stakeholder workshops and in one-on-one communications as indicated elsewhere in this report. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?During the next reporting period the following is planned: continue montioring the Delaware Bay oyster stock as well as farmed oysters in the Bay and along the Atlantic Coast continue monitoring the living shoreline projects and initiate others as a appropriate and as funding permits continue participation in the Delaware Bay Intertidal Oyster Red Knot stakeholder group to address conflicts and fill information gaps. complete genetic and genomic analyses of microbiome samples

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Prior to the onset of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic sampling for the 2019 Delaware Bay monthly dermo monitoring program and the 2019 Fall stock Assessment were completed, analyzed and presented at the 22nd Delaware Bay, NJ Oyster Stock Assessment Workshop (SAW). This resulted in establishing a quota for the 2020 season of about 115,000 bushels depending on the outcome of management activities. The Stock Assessment Review Committee found that the overall management of the fishery continues to be sustainable. Preliminary evaluation of the long term dermo monitoring dataset with USGS measurements of stream flow indicate linkages that have depressed dermo disease across the Bay. These patterns and the potential for management activities were identified as a topic to examine further. The onset of the pandemic curtailed management, monitoring and research activities through June. Modifications were made to enable a reduced field crew to complete sampling efforts from July through September and then continue to the end of the year to support the 2021 SAW and continued management of the oyster fishery. Although objective 2 had been completed, Rutgers graduate student Heidi Yeh has identified the oyster microbiome as a dissertation project with relevance to this objective. Funds were secured from several sources including NJWRRI, NJSG, NRAC and USDA SARE as well as a Hudson River Fellowship to explore various aspects of the microbiome. Initial work found several potential denitrifying bacteria were present. A preliminary lab experiment to knock out the microbiome and examine impacts on dermo disease found no effect and will be repeated for confirmation. Results from an overwintering study to examine the potential use of extended refrigeration demonstrate success but the microbiome impacts have yet to be determined awaiting genetic analyses. Work has continued on developing a shellfish health database and certification program to improve monitoring, surveillance and the biosecurity of interstate shellfish seed transfers for aquaculture and restoration. The program is being branded as the Regional Shellfish Seed Biosecurity Program. Multiple presentations were made during the reporting period to garner feedback and support from throughout the East Coast and now into the Gulf of Mexico. Presentations are reported elsewhere. The 13 member Shellfish Health Advisory Panel was recomposed as some individuals needed to step down and this allowed the addition of Gulf of Mexico representation. A subcommittee of the panel, with support from USDA and NOAA, developed a set of shellfish hatchery best management practices along with a compliance program that will be piloted in the next reporting period. Work on living shorelines as a shellfish restoration and enhancement program continued with collaborators from the Partnership for the Delaware Estuary and The Nature Conservancy. This included monitoring of the Gandy's Beach and Money Island living shoreline projects that are part of coast-wide evaluation of living shoreline projects extending into the Gulf of Mexico. During July, PDE partners designed two new shoreline configurations using Oyster CastlesTM or shellbags to reduce erosion and these were deployed in the Maurice River in July 2020. Monitoring of these installations will continue.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Acquafredda*, M.P., M. Whiteside*, D.M. Munroe, L.M. Ragone Calvo, D. Bushek, N. Deck**, M. De Luca, X. Guo. Diversification of bivalve aquaculture in New Jersey: new species and seed lines for high-salinity back bay habitats. 40th Milford Aquaculture Seminar, Shelton, CT, Jan 13-15, 2020
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Deck**, N., M.P. Acquafredda*, M. Whiteside, D. Munroe, L.M. Ragone Calvo, D. Bushek, M. De Luca and X. Guo. Diversification of bivalve aquaculture in New Jersey: Testing survival and growth of Bay Scallops in New Jersey. 40th Milford Aquaculture Seminar, Shelton, CT, Jan 13-15, 2020
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Rheault, R., L.M. Ragone Calvo, K. Hudson, L. Gustafson, R. Carnegie and D. Bushek. Hatchery certification to simplify interstate transfers of seed. 40th Milford Aquaculture Seminar, Shelton, CT, Jan 13-15, 2020
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Yeh*, H. and D. Bushek. The Oyster Microbiome in Sickness and in Health. Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society Mid-Atlantic Chapter, Lewes, DE, Nov 21, 2019.
  • Type: Websites Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: https://terrene.njaes.rutgers.edu/shellfish-map/
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Behringer, D.C., Wood, C.L., Krkosek, M., and D. Bushek. 2020. Chapter 10: Disease in fisheries and aquaculture. In: Behringer, D.C., Silliman, B.R., and K.D. Lafferty (eds), Marine Disease Ecology. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK. DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198821632.003.0010
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Maslo, B., J. C. Burkhalter, D. Bushek, T. Yuhas**, B. Schumm**, J. Burger and J.L. Lockwood. 2020 Assessing conservation conflict: Does intertidal oyster aquaculture inhibit foraging behavior of migratory shorebirds? Ecosphere11(5):e03097.10.1002/ecs2.3097
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Yeh*, H., S.A. Skubel*, H. Patel*, D.C. Shi*, D. Bushek and M.L. Chikindas. From farm to fingers: An exploration of probiotics for oysters, from production to human consumption. 2020. Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12602-019-09629-3
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Morson, J., D. Bushek, and J. Gius. 2020. Stock Assessment Workshop: New Jersey Delaware Bay Oyster Beds (21st SAW) February 12-13, 2020. Final Report. 75 pp. https://hsrl.rutgers.edu/SAWreports/SAW2020.pdf
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Bushek, D. 2020. Inaugural Recipient of the Paul Galtsoff Industry Award: Daniel Myer Cohen. Quarterly Newsletter of the National Shellfisheries Association, 2020(1):4. https://shellfish.memberclicks.net/assets/docs/Current_Newsletters/qnl_2020_1.pdf
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Bushek, D., L. Calvo, R. Carnegie, L. Gustafson, B. Jones, K. Hudson, L. Marxen, B. Rheault. 2020. Regional Shellfish Seed Biosecurity Program. Program Factsheet. 2 pg.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Rheault, R., L.M. Ragone Calvo, K. Hudson, L. Gustafson, R. Carnegie and D. Bushek. Hatchery Certification Pilot Program. NELHAs Aquatic Species Health Management Program: Bivalve Breakout Session, Kailua-Kona, HI, Feb 14, 2020
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Bushek, D., L. Marxen and L. Calvo. A Regional Hatchery Certification Program to Minimize Risks Associated with Interstate Seed Transfers. Shellfish Growers' Forum, Tuckerton, NJ, Dec. 4, 2019


Progress 10/01/18 to 09/30/19

Outputs
Target Audience:This HATCH project targets shellfish researchers, producers (farmers) and harvesters (fishermen) as well as the regulatory agencies and the non-profit shellfish restoration community involved with and interested in shellfish resources in coastal and marine habitats. In many rural areas, shellfish producers and harvesters are members of economically depressed communities that are often educationally disadvantaged as a result. During this reporting period, the project targeted the Delaware Bay oyster fishery and aquaculture communities, the federal and state regulatory agencies overseeing shellfish production and resources in New Jersey, the bird conservation community over the potential impact between oyster aquaculture and protection of the federally threated red knot, and the East Coast shellfish aquaculturists and regulators working on shellfish importation issues. A specific target has been the community of shellfish hatcheries and regulatory agencies overseeing their activities. An additional target audience has been the regulators and practitioners fo Living Shorelines. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?We hosted the 2019 Delaware Bay Oyster Stock Assessment Workshop in February 2019 which presented our analysis of the Delaware Bay Oyster Stock and related research to local regulators and oystermen. This included three external reviewers that attended to provide outside expertise and evaluation. Workshops on creating and developing a Shellfish Health Database for the East Coast and a shellfish Hatchery Certification program that included regulators, industry memembers, shellfish pathologists and scientists, and extension agents were held in Cape May New Jersey and Gloucester Point, Virginia. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Most directly through workshops as described above, but additionally through attendence and presentations at professional meetings as listed in the list of products. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We have planned presentations and workshops at the upcoming Milford Aquaculture Seminar on our Hatchery Certification program and subsequently at the National Shellfisheries Association annual meeting. We have recieved funding to expand these programs into the Gulf of Mexico and will work with collaborators from the region to build relationships and contacts there - possibly using the successful and organically developed Oysters South meeting. We are working with local shellfish farmers to explore methods to improve overwintering of oysters and will be exploring impacts of such methods on important factors such as changes to the normal healthy flora of bacteria residing in oysters. Our surveillance efforts will continue with funding obtained externally.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Risks associated with disease spread from fish and shellfish farming have plagued the growth and public perception of aquaculture worldwide. However, by processing nutrients and organic material from the water column, the culture of many suspension-feeding bivalves has been proposed as novel solution toward mitigating problems facing coastal water quality, including the removal of disease-causing parasites. Maintianing the long-term monitoring of oyster disease in Delaware Bay continues to provide key information and advice to sustainably manage the Delaware Bay oyster fishery as one of the only sustainable oyster fisheries in the US and an example for all oyster fisheries. Oysters can be sustainably harvested while maintaining the population and consequent ecosystem services provided by the oysters. Work on human pathogens has been completed and is being prepared for publication. Interest in adding human pathogens to our developing shellfish health database is growing and may be explored in the future once the database is completed, tested and fully operational. As part of the Hatchery Certification program and Shellfish Health Database we are working with USDA APHIS, NOAA Aquaulture and state agencies to improve surveillance reporting and access to surveillance data. This work is identifying data gaps in our understanding of shellfish pathogen distributions and highlighting areas in need of additional surveillance. We continue working collaboratively with the Partnership for the Delaware Estuary on their living shoreline initiatives and have begun participating in a coast-wide evaluation of living shoreline efforts stimulated by interest from Australian researchers. We have continued to monitor, evaluate and recommend shellplanting strategies to the New Jersey DEP and the Delaware Bay Shellfisheries Councils.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Ben-Horin, T., C. Burge, D. Bushek, M. Groner, D. Proestou, L. Huey, G. Bidegain, R. Carnegie. 2018 Intensive oyster aquaculture can reduce disease impacts to sympatric wild oysters. Aquacult. Environ. Interact., 10:557567. https://doi.org/10.3354/aei00290
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Morris, R, D.M. Bilkovic, M. Boswell, D. Bushek, J. Cebrian, J. Goff, K. Kibler, M.K. La Peyre, G. McClenachan, J. Moody, P. Sacks, J. Shinn, E. Sparks, N. Temple, L. Walters, B. Webb, and S. Swearer. 2019. Oyster reefs in shoreline protection: are we over-engineering for an ecosystem engineer? J. Applied Ecology, 56(7):1703-1711. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13390
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Morson, J., D. Bushek, and J. .Gius. 2019. Stock Assessment Workshop: New Jersey Delaware Bay Oyster Beds (21st SAW) February 12-13, 2019. Final Report. 80 pp. https://hsrl.rutgers.edu/SAWreports/SAW2019.pdf
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Bushek, D. Managing Oysters in Delaware Bay. Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, University of Southern Mississippi, Division of Coastal Science Spring Seminar Series. Ocean Springs, MS, Mar. 7, 2019. Invited seminar
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Rudders, D., S. Roman, R.A. Fisher, D. Bushek, D. Munroe, E. Bochenek, E. McGurk and B. Galuardi. Observations on the impact of the nematode Sulcascaris sulcate on the sea scallop fishery. 22nd International Pectinid Workshop, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain. April 24-29, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Bushek, D., D. Munroe, E. Bochenek, E. McGurk, S. Borsetti, D. Rudders and S. Roman. Scallop parasite outbreak on the mid-Atlantic shelf: transmission, temporal variation, and consequences to marketability. 22nd International Pectinid Workshop, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain. April 24-29, 2019. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Munroe, D., K. Ashton-Alcox, J. Morson, and D. Bushek. The role of fishery enhancement in the sustainable oyster fishery in Delaware Bay. Aquaculture 2019. March 7 - 11, 2019, New Orleans, Louisiana USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Bushek, D., R. Carnegie, L. Gustafson, R. Rheault, L. Calvo, K. Hudson and L. Marxen. The East Coast Molluscan Health Initiative  Part 1: Overview. Aquaculture 2019. March 7 - 11, 2019, New Orleans, Louisiana USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Rheault, R., L. Calvo, K. Hudson, D. Bushek, R. Carnegie, L. Gustafson and L. Marxen. The East Coast Molluscan Health Initiative  Part 2: Hatchery Certification. Aquaculture 2019. March 7 - 11, 2019, New Orleans, Louisiana USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Marxen, L., D. Bushek, L. Calvo, R. Carnegie, K. Hudson, R Rheault, and L. Gustafson The East Coast Molluscan Health Initiative  Part 3: Interactive Database Demo. Aquaculture 2019. March 7 - 11, 2019, New Orleans, Louisiana USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Munroe, D., D. Bushek and L. Calvo. Ecological interactions of horseshoe crabs and shellfish aquaculture: a case study from the Delaware Bay. Aquaculture 2019. March 7 - 11, 2019, New Orleans, Louisiana USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Bushek, D., L. Calvo, E. Bochenek, K. Sullivan, B. Harman and B. Hollinger. Evaluating subtidal oyster cage culture systems to solve unique aquaculture issues hampering development of oyster aquaculture in Delaware Bay. Aquaculture 2019. March 7 - 11, 2019, New Orleans, Louisiana USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Bushek, D., P. Woodruff, R. Loveland and M. Botton. Horseshoe crabs on beaches near active oyster aquaculture farms on the New Jersey Delaware Bayshore. Aquaculture 2019. March 7 - 11, 2019, New Orleans, Louisiana USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Bushek, D., L. Calvo, E. Bochenek, K. Sullivan, B. Harman, B. Hollinger. Trials and tribulations of moving oyster aquaculture to subtidal leases in Delaware Bay. Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2019, Cape May, NJ, January 27-30, 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Shinn, J., D. Bushek, L. Calvo, M. Katkowski, and A. Zito-Livingston. Investigating the community of fishes and invertebrates inhabiting two living shoreline projects. Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2019, Cape May, NJ, January 27-30, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Woodruff, P., D. Bushek, R. Loveland and M. Botton. Horseshoe crabs on beaches near active oyster aquaculture farms on the New Jersey Delaware Bayshore. Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2019, Cape May, NJ, January 27-30, 2019. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Cleary, N., D. Bushek, J. Daw and D. Munroe. Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyhemus) movement within oyster farms on the Delaware Bay shoreline. Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2019, Cape May, NJ, January 27-30, 2019. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Jones, C. and D. Bushek. Horseshoe crabs, red knots, and coastal inundation. Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2019, Cape May, NJ, January 27-30, 2019. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Bushek, D., L. Calvo, L. Marxen, R. Carnegie, K. Hudson, R. Rheault and L. Gustafson. East Coast Molluscan Health Initiative Part 1: The database. Northeast Aquaculture Conference & Exposition, Boston, MA, Jan. 9-11, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Calvo, L., K. Hudson, R. Rheault, D. Bushek, R. Carnegie, L. Gustafson and L. Marxen. East Coast Molluscan Health Initiative Part 2: Hatchery certification. Northeast Aquaculture Conference & Exposition, Boston, MA, Jan. 9-11, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Marxen, L., D. Bushek, L. Calvo, R. Carnegie, K. Hudson, R. Rheault and L. Gustafson. East Coast Molluscan Health Initiative Part 3: Interactive database demo. Northeast Aquaculture Conference & Exposition, Boston, MA, Jan. 9-11, 2019
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Woodruff, P., D. Bushek, R. Loveland and M. Botton. Horseshoe crabs on beaches near active oyster aquaculture farms on the New Jersey Delaware Bayshore. Northeast Aquaculture Conference & Exposition, Boston, MA, Jan. 9-11, 2019. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Munroe, D., D. Bushek and L. Calvo. Ecological interactions of horseshoe crabs and oyster aquaculture in the Delaware Bay. Northeast Aquaculture Conference & Exposition, Boston, MA, Jan. 9-11, 2019.


Progress 10/01/17 to 09/30/18

Outputs
Target Audience:This HATCH project targets shellfish researchers, producers (farmers) and harvesters (fishermen) as well as the regulatory agencies and the non-profit shellfish restoration community involved with and interested in shellfish resources in coastal and marine habitats. In many rural areas, shellfish producers and harvesters are members of economically depressed communities that are often educationally disadvantaged as a result. A specific target during this period was the community of oyster farmers, aquaculture regulators (federal and state) and the bird conservation community over the potential impact between oyster aquaculture and protection of the federally threated red knot, a migratory shore bird using habitats near intertidal oyster aquaculture farms. The project also specifically targeted the offshore ocean scallop fishery, the broader Delaware Bay oyster industry, the east coast shellfish industry (including regulators and pathologists), and the marsh shoreline restoration and protection community. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Back-to-back workshops have been scheduled for October 9-11 to support the development of strategies and tools for the regional promotion of molluscan health and commerce along the eastern coast of the U.S. as follows: Database Development Workshop. The overall project objective is to build the infrastructure necessary to sustain a functional, web-accessible, East Coast regional database on molluscan shellfish health that can be used to inform regulatory decisions on the movement of shellfish seed and broodstock. Workshop participants including regulators, industry members, researchers, extension personnel and database programmers will review needs (essential inputs and outputs), structure and performance to complete a prototype. After refinement and post-workshop review, the database will be launched using case studies to solicit additional feedback. Training sessions and modules will be offered to promote broader use. This workshop is supported by the NOAA Saltonstall-Kennedy Program. Hatchery Certification Workshop. The goal of this workshop is to finalize and test the hatchery certification process developed by the hatchery certification workgroup (HCW). Participants will: (a) review efforts to date, (b) identify any parameters that may have been overlooked via hatchery visits, (c) resolve disagreements over any information that may or may not need to be collected, (d) resolve who will conduct inspections within or among participating states, and (e) determine how inspection data will be collected, shared and stored. Existing guidelines for disease freedom substantiation in compartments and zones will also be considered, such as those available through the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Commercial Aquaculture Health Program Standards (CAHPS). Ultimately, constraints and requirements may vary by state, but the goal is to have some uniformity and understanding of the basis for various requirements. This workshop is supported via a grant from NOAA Sea Grant. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results have been disseminated via workshops, symposia, presentations at scientific conferences, publication of scientific papers and technical reports, via video productions posted on the web and through interviews with the media. One unique dissemination tool was developed with the USDA Climate Hubs and features a 360 degree web viewer: https://www.climatehubs.oce.usda.gov/hubs/northeast/project/living-shorelines What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Continue with the work described above. The workshops are scheduled for October with invitations and confirmations already completed. We plan to submit coordinated abstracts to the Northeast Aquaculture Convention and Exposition in January 2019 and the Aquaculture 2019 triennial in March 2019.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? 1. Monitoring of oyster disease for the Delaware Bay oyster industry was completed for 2017 in November 2017 and the 2018 program initiated in April 2018. Results were at monthly Shellfisheries Council meetings and incorporated into the annual stock assessment to help inform management of the fishery. Analyses of field samples and experiments on a nematode parasitic on sea scallops were completed and reported to the industry directly and via conference presentations. Key findings included Nematode distribution in the MidAtlantic has neither expanded northward nor contracted southward in the years since initial outbreak in 2015. On average, approximately 29% of observed meat lesions contain a nematode. Larger scallops were more likely to have more lesions and more nematodes. Scallop-to-scallop transmission of the parasite did not occur. Parasite transmission from shucked meats (mimicking discards at sea) to live scallops did not occur. Nematodes die quickly at high temperatures: 37 seconds at 56oC, 17 seconds at 75oC, and 6 seconds at 95oC. At human body temperature (37 oC) nematodes died within 3 to 7 hours. A preliminary experiment to determine survival rates of infected scallops found that mortality in the laboratory was ~10% higher for infected scallops with highest mortality in heavily infected scallops 2. Work was completed on a NOAA Sea Grant Aquaculture Program funded project to evaluate the effects of intertidal production of oysters in New Jersey and Virginia on vibrio bacteria levels and the perceived risks this poses to human health. Best management recommendations for harvesting intertidal oysters were communicated via conference presentations and recommend harvesting oysters as close as possible to first exposure to air. Importantly, bacterial levels that increase during air exposure, returned to background levels by the following tide indicating no additional increased risk. 3. Building upon prior efforts to identify problems and needs for shellfish aquaculture, two projects were initiated in September 2017. The first is funded by the NOAA Saltonstall-Kennedy Program to create an interactive database for use by regulators, industry, pathologists and academics to understand the distribution of shellfish pathogens and how that relates to disease risk via shellfish transfers. A prototype database was created for evaluation at a workshop in October 201. It is being populated with data from various sources along the East Coast. The second, funded by NOAA Sea Grant Aquaculture program, is developing a hatchery certification program to improve biosecurity while reducing economic impacts and practical limitations on shellfish hatcheries. 4. The Delaware Bay oyster shell planting program was monitored and is being evaluated to determine its overall success to demonstrate how fishing industry enhancement programs can sustain both fisheries and habitats when managed adaptively for long-term sustainability. Monitoring efforts to evaluate living shoreline projects involving the creations of near shore oyster habitat was completed and additional funding secured by the The Nature Conservancy to continue monitoring of shellfish productivity and habitat use by motile fauna as the structures become ecologically mature. Funding was also obtained to evaluate the performance of a novel subtidal cage culture system to grow oysters on dormant leased oyster grounds in Delaware Bay using hatchery reared lines of oysters selected for disease resistance. Disease and predation have virtually shut down production on these expansive historic leased grounds and developing economically viable aquaculture systems for these grounds is likely to help revitalize the Delaware Bay oyster program.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Morson, J.M., D. M. Munroe, K. A. Ashton-Alcox, E.N. Powell, D. Bushek, and J. Gius. 2018. Density-dependent capture efficiency of a survey dredge and its influence on the stock assessment of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in Delaware Bay. Fisheries Res., 205:115-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2018.04.012
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Ashton-Alcox, K., D. Bushek, J Gius, and J. Morson. 2018. Stock Assessment Workshop: New Jersey Delaware Bay Oyster Beds (20th SAW) February 6-7, 2018. Final Report. 115 pp. https://hsrl.rutgers.edu/SAWreports/SAW2018.pdf
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Bushek, D. Ecological Considerations of Utilizing Oyster Reefs for Restoration. Building with Nature: A workshop to explore oyster reef and marsh sill living shoreline techniques. JCNERR, Tuckerton, NJ, Oct 18, 2018
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Woodruff P. and D. Bushek. Horseshoe Crabs on Beaches Near Active Oyster Aquaculture on the New Jersey Delaware Bayshore. Red Knot  Aquaculture Stakeholder Committee special meeting with the Agency Working Group to hear new science updates. Tuckerton, NJ, Oct. 15, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Maslo, B., D. Bushek, B. Schumm, T. Yuhas2, C. Burkhalter, J. Burger1 and J.L. Lockwood. Abundance and Foraging Rates of Migratory Shorebirds in Response to Oysterculture in Delaware Bay. Red Knot  Aquaculture Stakeholder Committee special meeting with the Agency Working Group to hear new science updates. Tuckerton, NJ, Oct. 15, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Calvo, L., D. Bushek, R. Carnegie, K. Hudson, L. Gustafson and R. Rheault, Regional Strategies for Biosecure Molluscan Shellfish Transfers. 70th Annual Mid-Atlantic Interstate Seafood Seminar, Rehoboth Beach, DE, Mar. 27-29, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Gustafson, L., R. Carnegie, L. Marxen, K. Hudson, L. Calvo, R. Rheault and D. Bushek. A birds-eye view of shellfish health: advances in regional management in the eastern USA. 8th International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health. Charlottetown, PEI, Canada. Sep. 2-6, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Audemard, C., T. Ben-Horin, L. Calvo, K. Reece, and D. Bushek. Influence of aerial exposure at low tide on concentrations of human-pathogenic vibrios in oysters cultured in the intertidal zone. AQUA 2018, Montpellier, France. Aug. 25-29, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Bushek, D., K. Ashton-Alcox, J. Morson, D. Munroe and E.N. Powell. Collaborative Stock Assessment and Adaptive Management to Sustain the Delaware Bay Oyster Fishery Under High and Variable Natural Mortality. 148th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society - Communicating the Science of Fisheries Conservation to Diverse Audiences. Atlantic City, New Jersey, Aug. 19-23, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Calvo, L., D. Bushek, E. Bochenek, K Sullivan, B. Harman and B. Hollinger. Evaluating a new oyster cage culture System to solve unique aquaculture issues hampering development of oyster aquaculture in Delaware Bay. 148th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society  Communicating the Science of Fisheries Conservation to Diverse Audiences. Atlantic City, New Jersey, Aug. 19-23, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Morson, J., K. Ashton-Alcox, D. Bushek, E.N. Powell, J. Gius and D. Munroe. Overview of a fishery-independent survey used to estimate abundance and natural mortality of oysters in Delaware Bay. 148th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society  Communicating the Science of Fisheries Conservation to Diverse Audiences. Atlantic City, New Jersey, Aug. 19-23, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Munroe, D., N. Cleary, L. Calvo and D. Bushek. Horseshoe crabs and shellfish aquaculture: a case study from the Delaware Bay. 148th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society  Communicating the Science of Fisheries Conservation to Diverse Audiences. Atlantic City, New Jersey, Aug. 19-23, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Rudders, D., S. Roman, R.A. Fisher, D. Bushek, D. Munroe, E. Bochenek, E. McGurk and B. Galuardi. Investigating the impact of the nematode Sulcascaris sulcata: spatial distribution and effect on the sea scallop fishery. 148th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society  Communicating the Science of Fisheries Conservation to Diverse Audiences. Atlantic City, New Jersey, Aug. 19-23, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Ben-Horin, T., G. Bidegain, C.A. Burge, D. Bushek, R. Carnegie, M.L. Groner, E. Hofmann, D. Munroe, E. Powell, D. A. Proestou, and W. Schroer. Does restoring oyster reefs restore oyster health? CERF 2017, Providence, RI, November 5-9, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Morris, R. L., D. M. Bilkovic, D. Bushek, J. Cebrian, K. M. Kibler, M. K. La Peyre, G. McClenachan, J. P. Shinn, E. Sparks, N. Temple, L. J. Walters, B. M. Webb, S. E. Swearer. Oysters on the front line: nature-based solutions for coastal defence. ECSA 57: Changing estuaries, coasts and shelf systems - Diverse threats and opportunities. Pan Pacific Perth, Perth, WA, Australia, Sep. 3-6, 2018
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Shinn, J., L. Calvo, D. Bushek and M. Katkowski. Whats living on living shorelines? Monitoring the fish and shellfish communities utilizing a hybrid living shoreline. 148th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society  Communicating the Science of Fisheries Conservation to Diverse Audiences. Atlantic City, New Jersey, Aug. 19-23, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Woodruff, P. and D. Bushek Horseshoe crabs on beaches near active oyster aquaculture farms on the New Jersey Delaware Bayshore (poster). 148th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society  Communicating the Science of Fisheries Conservation to Diverse Audiences. Atlantic City, New Jersey, Aug. 19-23, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Bushek, D., L. Calvo, L. Marxen, R. Carnegie, R. Rheault, and L. Gustafson. Interactive talk: Building a shellfish health database to facilitate shellfish transfers. 110th Annual Meeting of the National Shellfisheries Association, Seattle, WA, March 18  22, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Rheault, R., D. Bushek, L. Calvo, R. Carnegie, K. Hudson, and L. Gustafson, Interactive talk: Developing a shellfish hatchery biosecurity certification program. 110th Annual Meeting of the National Shellfisheries Association, Seattle, WA, March 18  22, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Morson, Munroe, Ashton-Alcox, Powell, Bushek, Gius. Density-dependent capture efficiency of a survey dredge and its influence on the stock assessment of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in Delaware Bay. 110th Annual Meeting of the National Shellfisheries Association, Seattle, WA, March 18  22, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Rheault, R., D. Bushek, L. Calvo, L. Marxen, R. Carnegie, K. Hudson and L. Gustafson. Rationalizing interstate seed transfers with hatchery certification and documenting regional disease prevalence. 38th Milford Aquaculture Seminar, Shelton, CT, Jan. 8-10, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Rudders, Roman, Fisher, Bushek, Munroe, Bochenek, McGurk. Investigation of the scallop nematode, sulcascaris sulcata: distribution, seasonality, shedding, transmission, thermal tolerance, and host impact. 110th Annual Meeting of the National Shellfisheries Association, Seattle, WA, March 18  22, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Ben-Horin, Audemard, Bushek, Calvo, Reece. The effects of aerial exposure at low tide on vibrio concentrations in harvested oysters cultured in the intertidal. 110th Annual Meeting of the National Shellfisheries Association, Seattle, WA, March 18  22, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2018 Citation: Munroe, Bushek, P, Woodruff, Calvo. Horseshoe crab passage through rack-and-bag oyster farms. 110th Annual Meeting of the National Shellfisheries Association, Seattle, WA, March 18  22, 2018.


Progress 10/01/16 to 09/30/17

Outputs
Target Audience:This HATCH project targets shellfish researchers, producers (farmers) and harvesters (fishermen) as well as the regulatory agencies and the non-profit shellfish restoration community involved with and interested in shellfish resources in coastal and marine habitats. In many rural areas, shellfish producers and harvesters are members of economically depressed communities that are often educationally disadvantaged as a result. A specific target during this period was the community of oyster farmers, aquauclture regulators (federal and state) and the bird conservation community over the potential impact between oyster aquaculture and protection of the federally threated red knot, a migratory shore bird using habitats near intertidal oyster aquaculture farms. The project also specifically targeted the offshore ocean scallop fishery, the broader Delaware Bay oyster industry, the east coast shellfish industry (including regulators and pathologists), and the marsh shoreline restoration and protection community. Changes/Problems:A lack of trust from conservationists in scientists working on shellfish issues was unanticipated and required a fair bit of effort to overcome. This problem created difficulties in getting them to participate in discussions regarding the perceived conflict between intertidal shellfish aquaclture and conservation measures necessary to protect red knots and ensure opportunities for its recovery were not impeded by aquaculture activities. As a result, key conservation groups refused to attend a workshop to plan the symposium on red knots and intertidal oyster aquaculture. Without their participation, the pertinent regulators followed suit for fear that they would be veiwed as taking a biased stance and potentially sued. The solution for the symposium was to incorporate bird conservation scientists that were trusted by the conservation community on the symposium planning committee. The symposium was successful, but progress remains slow and difficult, although it is moving forward cooperatively. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?A workshop and a symposium were held to provide shellfish producers, regulators and conservationists the opportunity to learn about the science behind intertidal oyster aquaculture, the migration of red knots to feed on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay, the management of horseshoe crabs, and the interaction of all three as conservation of the red knot imposes restrictions on the development of intertidal oyster aquaculture in Delware Bay. To date, science appears to indicate that current aquaculture activities have no detectable impact on horseshoe crabs or red knots, but strict precautionary measures are in place as additional research is conducted. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results have been dissemenated via workshops, symposia, presentations at scientific conferences, publication of scientific papers and technical reports, via video productions posted on the web and through interviews with the media. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Continue the work described above.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? 1. A stock assessment of the Delaware Bay oyster population was completed that included monthly surveillance of disease and mortality of the natural population in the fishery. This assessment, funded in part by the state of New Jersey, provided recomendations on the annual quota for 2017. Research funded by the industry supported Scallop Fishery Research Set Aside (RSA) program was completed to investigate the infestation and spread of a nematode parasitic worm in the mid-Atlantic sea scallop fishery. 2. Work continued to evaluate the effects of intertidal production of oysters in New Jersey and Virginia on vibrio bacteria levels and the perceived risks this poses to human health. Best management recommendations for harvesting intertidal oysters will be provided following completion of data analysis and should guide producers and regulators alike. Funding for this is provided by NOAA Sea Grant Aquaculture Program. 3. Two projects were funded to begin in September 2017. The first is funded by the NOAA Saltonstall-Kennedy Program and will create an interactive database for use by regulators, industry, pathologists and academics to understand the distribution of shellfish pathogens and how that relates to disease risk via shellfish transfers. The second, funded by NOAA Sea Grant Aquaculture program will facilitate the creation of a hatchery certification program to improve biosecurity while reducing economic impacts and practical limitations on shellfish hatcheries. Both build upon prior efforts to identify problems and needs. 4. Working in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy and the Partnership for the Delwaware Estuary, living shoreline projects at two locations in Delaware Bay were sampled to evaluate the potential to create oyster reef communities and determine how nekton and other organisms utilize living shorelines.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Paterno J., L. Calvo, R. Jordan, and D. 2017. Activity: One Fish, Two Fish-Assessing the Habitat Value of Restored Oyster Reefs: Using Scientific Research in the Classroom. Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 31(1):2-10.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Munroe D, Bushek D, Woodruff P, Calvo L. 2017. Intertidal rack-and-bag oyster farms have limited interaction with horseshoe crab activity in New Jersey, USA. Aquacult Environ Interact 9:205-211. https://doi.org/10.3354/aei00227
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Munroe. D., S Borsetti, K. Ashton-Alcox, D. Bushek. 2017. Early Post-Settlement Growth in Wild Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gemlin 1791) Populations. Estuaries and Coasts, 40(3):880-888. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12237-016-0185-y
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Bidegain, G., E.N. Powell, J.M. Klinck, E.E. Hofmann, T. Ben-Horin, D. Bushek, S.E. Ford, D.M. Munroe, and X. Guo. 2017. Modeling the transmission of Perkinsus marinus in the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Fisheries Research, 186(1): 8293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2016.08.006
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Luckenbach, M.W., J.N. Kraeuter and D. Bushek. 2016. Assessing the effects of clam aquaculture on nektonic and benthic assemblages in two shallow water estuaries. J. Shellfish Research, 35(4):757-775. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2983/035.035.0405
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Ashton-Alcox, K., D. Bushek, J Gius, J. Morson and D. Munroe. 2017. Stock Assessment Workshop: New Jersey Delaware Bay Oyster Beds (19th SAW) February 14-15, 2016. Final Report. 127 pp.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Bushek, D. Shellfish Diseases, Transport Concerns / Regulatory Needs, and Current Research from the Haskin Shellfish Reseach, Rutgers University. 2017 Northeast Fish Culture Chief / Fish Health Committee Annual Meeting, Galloway, NJ, July 18-20, 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Rudders, D.B., S. Roman, R. Fisher, J. McDowell, D. Bushek, D. Munroe, E. Bochenek, E. McGurk. An Investigation into the Scallop Parasite Outbreak on the Mid-Atlantic Shelf: Transmission Pathways, Spatio-Temporal Variation of Infection, and Consequences to Marketability. Sea Scallop PDT/AP Meeting, May 4, 2017, Boston, MA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Burge, C.A., T. Ben-Horin, M.L. Groner, R. Carnegie, D. Bushek and E. Hofmann. 2017. Pathogen Source or Sink: The Potential Role of Bivalve Aquaculture in Mitigating Disease Risk. 109th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association, March 26  30, 2017, Knoxville, TN, USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Bushek, D. I. Burt and S. Ford. 2017. Interannual Seasonal Patterns of Perkinsus Marinus Infections and Oyster Mortality in Delaware Bay. 109th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association, March 26  30, 2017, Knoxville, TN, USA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Calvo, L.M., M.P. De Luca and D. Bushek. 2017. Threatened Birds Endanger Oyster Farms. 109th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association, March 26  30, 2017, Knoxville, TN, USA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Carnegie, R.B. and D. Bushek. 2017. Progress Toward Streamlining Shellfish Health Management. 109th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association, March 26  30, 2017, Knoxville, TN, USA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Maslo, B. J.L. Lockwood, D. Bushek and J. Burger. Interactions between a threatened shorebird and oyster aquaculture in new jersey: do farms impact red knot habitat use and foraging? 109th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association, March 26  30, 2017, Knoxville, TN, USA
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Bushek, D. Sustaining oyster fishery habitat and oyster fishery harvests in Delaware Bay. A symposium for Marylands oyster industry: Innovative ideas from around the country. Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St Michaels, MD, October 23, 2016.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Bushek, D., L. Calvo and J. Paterno, Past, Present and Future of the Oyster Fishery in Delaware Bay. Lecture to Billion Oyster Projects NSF-funded teacher training curriculum. Pace University, New York, NY, October 18, 2016.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Paterno, J., L. Calvo and D. Bushek. One Fish, Two Fish: An Educational Pilot Study. Lecture and exercise demo to Billion Oyster Projects NSF-funded teacher training curriculum. Pace University, New York, NY, October 18, 2016.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Bushek, D. Oysters in NJ and research at the Rutgers Haskin Shellfish Research Lab. Barnegat Bay Shellfish Restoration Program Guest Lecture. Rutgers Cooperative Extension, NJAES. Toms River, NJ, September 20, 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Reece, K., C. Audemard, T. Ben-Horin, L. Calvo and D. Bushek. Strategies to minimize risks associated with human pathogenic Vibrio spp.in farm-raised oysters grown in the US Mid-Atlantic region. Annual Shellfish Conference of the Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association. September 19-21, 2017. Welches, OR.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Bushek, D., R. B. Carnegie and L. Gustafson. Building a New Model for Regional Management of Shellfish Health on the US East Coast. ICES World Caf� Theme Session R: Addressing social and ecological challenges to advance marine aquaculture in a rapidly changing environment. ICES Annual Science Conference 2017, Sep 18-21, 2017, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Calvo, L.M., M P. De Luca and D. Bushek. Threatened Birds Endanger Oyster Farms (Poster). ICES World Caf� Theme Session R: Addressing social and ecological challenges to advance marine aquaculture in a rapidly changing environment. ICES Annual Science Conference 2017, Sep 18-21, 2017, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Audemard, C., T. Ben-Horin, D. Bushek, L. Calvo, K. Reece. Influence of Grow-Out Conditions on Levels of Human-Pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Oysters from the Mid-Atlantic Region. American Association for Microbiology (ASM) 2017, New Orleans, LA, June 1-5, 2017. Poster.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Ben-Horin, T., C. Audemard, D. Bushek, L.M. Calvo, K.S. Reece. 2017. A Hierarchical Bayesian Model Estimating Microbial Concentrations from Most Probable Number Data. 109th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association, March 26  30, 2017, Knoxville, TN, USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Munroe, D., K. Ashton-Alcox, J. Morson and D. Bushek. 2017. The Role of Fishery Enhancement in the Sustainable Oyster Fishery in Delaware Bay. 109th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association, March 26  30, 2017, Knoxville, TN, USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Munroe, D., D. Bushek and L. Calvo. 2017. Horseshoe Crab Activity and Interactions on Rack-and-Bag Oyster Farms. 109th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association, March 26  30, 2017, Knoxville, TN, USA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Borsetti, S., D. Munroe, K. Alcox and D. Bushek. Early Post Settlement Growth in Wild Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gemlin 1791) Populations. Poster, Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2017, Cape May, NJ, January 22-25, 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Kreeger, D., J. Moody, K. Cheng and D. Bushek. Blue Collar Bivalves, Water Quality and Project ROI, Oh My. Oral Presentation, Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2017, Cape May, NJ, January 22-25, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Moody, J., D. Kreeger, D. Bushek and A. Padeletti. The Delaware Estuary Living Shoreline Initiative (DELSI): Results and Lessons Learned Regarding Three Treatments in the Maurice River, NJ. Oral presentation, Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2017, Cape May, NJ, January 22-25, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Moody, J., D. Kreeger, A. Padeletti and D. Bushek. Application of a Goal-Based Monitoring Framework for Assessing Performance of Living Shoreline Projects. Oral presentation, Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2017, Cape May, NJ, January 22-25, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Munroe, D., Bushek, D., Calvo, L. 2017. Horseshoe Crab Activity and Interactions on Rack-and-Bag Oyster Farms. Oral presentation, Northeast Aquaculture Conference & Exposition, Providence, RI, Jan. 11-13, 2017. Poster presentation, Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2017, Cape May, NJ, January 22-25, 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Paterno, J., L. Calvo, D. Bushek and M. Katkowski. Whats Living On Living Shorelines? Monitoring A Hybrid Living Shoreline Project In Delaware Bay. Oral presentation, Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2017, Cape May, NJ, January 22-25, 2017
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Woodruff, P. and D. Bushek. Horseshoe Crabs on Beaches Near Active Oyster Aquaculture Farms on the New Jersey Delaware Bayshore. Poster presentation, Delaware Estuary Science and Environmental Summit 2017, Cape May, NJ, January 22-25, 2017.


Progress 03/01/16 to 09/30/16

Outputs
Target Audience:Target Audiences: This HATCH project targets shellfish researchers, producers (farmers) and harvesters (fishermen) as well as the regulatory agencies and the non-profit shellfish restoration community involved with and intersted in shellfish resources in coastal and marine habitats. In many rural areas, shellfish producers and harvesters are members of economically depressed communities that are often educationally disadvantaged as a result. Efforts: Several profession publications, presentations, workshops and lectures were made that reached these audiences. Working with the Delaware Bay NJ Shellfisheries Council, the NJ Bureau of Shellfisheries and Industry parterns we completed collections and processing of monthly samples from several set stations and several actively managed sites (shell plant and transplant sites) across the Delaware Bay oyster beds. Data were reported as analyzed at monthly shellfish council meetings and a report is being prepared for the Feb 2017 Annual Stock Assessment Workshop. The 2016 Delaware Bay Stock Assessment workshop has been distributed via the Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory website (http://hsrl.rutgers.edu/SAWreports/index.htm). Infomation from an ongoing Vibrio study comparing harvest practices for intertidal and subtidal oyster cultivation was presented at the 68th Interstate Seafood Seminar & North East Shellfish Sanitation Association Conference. Lectures were provided to the Banegat Bay Shellfish Restoration Program as part of their continuing education program. A USDA APHIS Vision Project supported a workshop in Annapolis, MD during July 2016 to identify the needs for developing a participant-driven shellfish disease database and survelliance program. CNN interview for National Oyster Day aired across many outlets on August 6, 2016. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Several interns were provided the opportunity to gain hands-on experiences and training in a variety of procedures and protocals including data entry and analysis. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Findings have been communicated via oral and written reports at council meetings, teacher training workshops, and invited seminars. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Continue the work plan with efforts as described above.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Oyster farms in New Jersey are concentrated on the extensive intertidal sand flats of the lower Delaware Bay where they are exposed twice daily during low tide. Previous studies from the Pacific Northwest indicate that intertidal exposure accelerates the proliferation of Vibrios, increasing the risk to human health. We conducted a preliminary study to test whether this result applies to mid-Atlantic intertidal environments. Oysters were collected from subtidal and intertidal rack and bag grow-out systems monthly from June through August 2014. Samples were collected at the initial exposure of intertidal oysters on the receding tide, and then at three and 24 hours following this initial exposure. Total and pathogenic Vp levels were enumerated using a most-probable number quantitative PCR assay with probes targeting the thermolabile direct hemolysin (tlh) and thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) genes associated with pathogenicity. Observed Vp densities (± 95%CI) ranged from 19 (5 - 68) to 1,100 (260 - 4,700)CFU/g for total Vp, 0 to 11 (3 - 43) CFU/g for trh, and 0 to 459 (100 - 2,100) CFU/g for tdh. A significant difference between levels of total and pathogenic Vp between subtidal and intertidal oysters was not seen, nor was there a significant increase in Vibrio burdens over the time course of low-tide exposure. This initial result suggests that the relationship between grow-out conditions and vibrio levels in oysters is not as straightforward as previously thought, and highlights the need for locally relevant aquaculture practices to minimize the risk of Vibrio illness. Regarding outputs, our group published several papers on work listed under products and are continuing most of these studies. Funding has been obtained to continue work on oyster diseases in Delaware Bay and initiate new investigations into a nematode infecting Ocean Scallops. Work continued on a study to examine how harvest practices affect Vibrio concentrations in oysters. Summaries were presented at key conferences. A second year of sampling was completed and is being worked up and analyzed. Funding was obtained from USDA APHIS to hold a scoping meeting on the requirements to develop a coast-wide shellfish health database that can be used to facilitate and control movement of seed to minimize the risk of spreading disease without compromising commerce. This included participation by industry, regulators, extension personnel and researchers/pathologists. Results led to the acceptence of a preliminary proposal to NOAA's S-K program and a full proposal has been submitted. Finally, we began evaluating several years of transplant and shellplant enhancement projects in the Delaware Bay in a statisitically robust fashion to determine the longevity of positive impacts. We are also working with two non-profits to evaluate oyster restoration components of living shoreline projects to assess oyster recruitment, survival and growth, as wel as nekton (fish, shimp and crabs) utililization of the structures.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: McGurk, E.S., S. Ford, and D. Bushek. 2016. Unusually abundant and large ciliate xenomas in oysters, Crassostrea virginica, from Great Bay, New Hampshire. J. Invert. Path., 137:23-32. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2016.04.001
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Powell, E.N., R. Mann, K.A. Ashton-Alcox, Y. Kim and D. Bushek. 2016. The allometry of oysters: spatial and temporal variation in the lengthbiomass relationships for Crassostrea virginica. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, 96(5):1127-1144.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Bushek, D. and S.E. Ford. 2016. Anthropogenic impacts on an oyster metapopulation: Pathogen introduction, climate change and responses to natural selection. Elem Sci Anth 4: 000119. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12952/journal.elementa.000119
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Bushek, D. and L. Calvo. Closing Plenary: Collaborative management and research  managing oysters in Delaware Bay. NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office Oyster Summit. University of Mary Washington  Stafford Campus, Fredericksburg, VA, February 18-19, 2016
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Audemard Carnegie, C, K. Reece, T. Ben-Horin, L. Calvo and D. Bushek. Vibrio spp. in oysters cultured under subtidal and intertidal conditions: Virginia 2015 results. 68th Interstate Seafood Seminar & North East Shellfish Sanitation Association Conference, Galloway, NJ, April 5-7, 2016
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Ben-Horin, T., , L. Calvo, D. Bushek, C. Audemard Carnegie and K. Reece. Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Farmed Oysters at Subtidal and Intertidal Sites in New Jersey. 68th Interstate Seafood Seminar & North East Shellfish Sanitation Association Conference, Galloway, NJ, April 5-7, 2016