Source: NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV submitted to
A NOVEL MANAGEMENT APPROACH TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY, RESILIENCE, AND LONG-TERM SUSTAINABILITY IN CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE MIDWEST
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1008882
Grant No.
2016-69004-24784
Project No.
ND05065
Proposal No.
2015-08714
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
A5160
Project Start Date
Apr 1, 2016
Project End Date
Mar 31, 2020
Grant Year
2018
Project Director
Berti, M.
Recipient Organization
NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV
(N/A)
FARGO,ND 58105
Performing Department
Plant Sciences
Non Technical Summary
The use of cover crops, common in the eastern and central Corn Belt, are uncommon in corn-soybean systems in the Upper Midwest and northern Great Plains due to the short growing season and extreme fluctuations in temperature and precipitation within and across growing seasons. Lack of winter soil cover increases soil organic matter and nutrient losses, resulting in decreased crop productivity and resiliency. For these reasons, larger amounts of agricultural inputs are required to maintain or increase yields. Therefore, there is a critical need to alter current cropping systems in our region by incorporating technologies to improve long-term productivity while enhancing ecosystem services. Our objectives include: i) improving management of existing cropping systems for resilience and increased productivity by innovative seeding and nutrient management of cover crops; ii) improving land use efficiency in current cropping systems through the inclusion of winter camelina and field pennycress as cover/cash crops in double or relay-cropping, and improving corn-alfalfa productivity with intercropping; and iii) increase awareness and adoption of sustainable management practices in our region. Our central hypothesis is that maintaining or increasing long-term productivity of current cropping systems can be achieved through increased adoption of the use of cover crops, double-, relay- or intercropping systems with current corn-soybean or wheat-soybean based systems. Our project seeks to renovate current cropping systems to improve sustainability of agricultural production. If the management of current cropping systems in the northern Upper Midwest and northern Great Plains is not improved, long-term productivity will likely decrease.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
70%
Applied
30%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2051820108010%
2051510108010%
2051599108010%
2051899108010%
2051640108010%
2051631108010%
2051644108010%
2050110107010%
2051570107010%
2052140107010%
Goals / Objectives
Improve management of existing cropping systems for resilience and increased long-term productivity by innovative seeding and nutrient management of cover crops. We hypothesize that new or modified seeding equipment will enable growers to successfully establish second crops (cover crops) in standing corn or soybean. Also, by determining the nutrient credits for the next cash crop the grower will be able to reduce fertilizer costs as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions.Improve land use efficiency in corn-soybean or wheat-soybean cropping systems by temporal intensification through the inclusion of winter camelina (Camelina sativa L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvensis L.) as cover crops and/or cash oilseed crops, and determine their impact on over-all system productivity and ecosystem services. Also, improve land use efficiency by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with corn. Alfalfa in this intercropping system has dual purpose, i) hay production and ii) soil cover in the winter. We hypothesize that including camelina and pennycress as well as alfalfa-corn intercropping will reduce soil erosion; increase crop productivity and organic matter; and provide early sources of pollen and nectar for pollinators.Increase awareness and adoption of sustainable management practices for long-term increased productivity in northern Great Plains and Upper Midwestern farms. Our working hypothesis is that our on-farm replicated trials and demonstrations, economic analyses, and extension activities including field days and workshops will increase awareness of the benefits of diverse cropping systems, resulting in increased adoption of sustainable practices by growers.
Project Methods
Task 1. Obj. 1. Improving cover crops management and establishment. Modification of seeding equipment, decision tool development and estimation of N credits to optimize cover crops establishment and management. Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean at different growth stages.Seed equipment modification to plant a cover crop into standing corn on growth stage V7 at the same time as side dressing application will be designed. 2. A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean.True aerial seeding and 'aerial seeding' by hand with a spinner will be evaluated. The airplane method will have two cover crop treatments (winter camelina and rye) at two locations, one in each state (ND and IA) in corn and soybean. Aerial data with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to determine cover crop coverage will be conducted.The trials will be conducted at three locations Fargo, ND, Ames, IA, and Lamberton, MN. The replicated small-plot experiments will have four cover crops as main treatments (rye, forage radish, camelina, and a legume) and seeding at two growth stages of the main crop (R1 and R4) as sub treatments. For rainfall predictions, a web site where rainfall forecasts based on Global Forecast System (GFS) links will be used. 3. Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models.An automated weather station with paired temperature and solar radiation observations inside and outside the canopy area will be installed. The automated weather station will be similar to that utilized by the North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network . There are about 80 NDAWN stations located in North Dakota and northwest Minnesota. Climatic data will be collected continuously and archived once every 5 minutes. 4.Estimation of N credits from cover crops and increased N use efficiency by subsequent crops.Two experimental fields will be identified in North Dakota for cover crop experiments. One field will be in long-term no-till cultivation and the other in continuous conventional tillage. A spring wheat crop will be grown in each field the year previous to fall cover crop establishment (Year 1 and Year 2). Corn will be planted the following year immediately after terminating surviving cover crops. 5. Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications An economic analysis will be conducted to measure financial and non-financial impacts for each crop and system. Existing crop enterprise budget models will be adapted to estimate multi-year economic costs and benefits for alternative crop rotations and cropping systems. Models will be expanded to account for impacts on soil health, with economic measures of the costs and benefits resulting from changes in soil moisture, soil organic matter, and nutrient content. These values will be capitalized into the price of the land using a net present value framework. Emissions associated with alternative cropping practices using results of a LCA will be accounted for.Task 2. Obj. 2. Introducing relay-cropping and intercropping to existing cropping systems. 1.Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean in conjunction with relay cropping soybean.The research will be conducted at three locations.The main plot will be corn and soybean; the sub-plot will be the growth stage at relay-seeding of winter camelina and pennycress. Corn and soybean experiments will be seeded from late April and mid-May depending on the location in both 2016 and 2017. Camelina and pennycress will be planted at V6, R1, and approximately R7 in late August. Similarly, in corn, camelina will be planted at growth stages V4, R1, and approximately R5 to R6 in late August.The following spring (Year 2), soybean will be relay planted (i.e., interseeded) into the winter camelina and pennycress plots about bolting stage. The relayed soybean will then be harvested in early autumn (Year 2). This sequence will be repeated in years 3 and 4.2. Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress. Flower cover and insect visitation will be recorded every 3-5 days throughout anthesis at each of the four sites.Anthesis duration is expected to last for 2 to 3 weeks for each species. Flower cover will be estimated visually as percent ground cover of open flowers by viewing the crop from above.3. Intercropping of corn and alfalfa.The experiment will be conducted in Prosper, ND, in Ames, IA, and Lakefield, MN. Treatments will include: T1, corn at 76-cm row spacing; T2, corn +alfalfa intercropped; T3, corn +alfalfa intercropped + PHX; and T4, an alfalfa control. In Year 2, alfalfa will be seeded in T1. 4.Economic analysis of cropping systems energy balance and LCA of novel cropping systems.Crop budgets for each state and system will be developed using existing models. Emissions, economic analysis, and LCA for each treatment will be determined based on field operation inputs and outputs including: i) field operations, ii) material and services, and iii) overhead.LCA will be conducted to assess the sustainability of each system, quantitatively to compare different systems in the experiment and also existing hay production systems. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data obtained from GREET, Ecoinvent, and US LC databases, as well as the industrial literature will supplement empirical data generated for corn, soybean, and wheat. Furthermore, net carbon and nitrogen addition to the environment (output- input), and other environmental benefits (reduction in soil erosion, reduced use of herbicides, enhancing biodiversity, nutrient cycling, etc.) will also be considered for the analysis, comparing corn and soybean production with and without camelina or pennycress as a cover crop.Task 3. Objective 3. On-farm, outreach, and Extension activities1.On-farm replicated trials establishmentTwo on-farm replicated studies will be included in each state. Each of the systems above will be planted and used as demonstration and education tools for Extension programming.On-farm Trial 1:Trial 1 will consider an aerial seeding of cover crops. The experiment will consist of three treatments (winter camelina, cereal rye, and no cover crop) with three replicates in randomized strips. This will be done in soybean and corn, in mid- to late August in Years 2 and 3 of the project.On-farm Trial 2:Trial 2 will be a demonstration of alfalfa-corn intercropping. The experiment will have 4 treatments, alfalfa alone, corn alone, corn+alfalfa, and corn + alfalfa + PHX with three replicates in randomized strips. The experiment will be planted in the spring of Year 1 and evaluated Years 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the established alfalfa crop.Extension activities description Our foundation in building an outreach educational program is the development of science-based knowledge educational activities in North Dakota, Minnesota and Iowa during years 1-4 of project.Research farm demonstrations, field days, large regional workshops, county based educational events, educational material development, web based education and one-on-one consultations are all part of the Extension program. Two annual regional research-based workshops will take place at a central location to the project area.Web based learning will be included in the outreach. Webinars will be organized to disseminate results to farmers, ag-industry and government agronomists. One of the components of training sessions (workshops, county meetings, and webinar) will consist of video clips, which will be taped during the growing season. These clips will present critical aspects of the research and demonstrations. These video clips will also be posted, after the educational event, on participating institutions web-sites and on 'YouTube.' A website for the CropSys-CAP will be developed.

Progress 04/01/17 to 03/31/18

Outputs
Target Audience:Target Audience: Farmers, extension agents, consultants, seed and equipment companies personnel, researchers, graduate and undergraduate students, NRCS and USDA personnel. Extension activities included 13 field days and tours, 4 workshops, 10 Café talks about cover crops, 11 extension publications, and numerous invited presentations or interviews. On February 1, Dr. Wick and cooperating farmers conducted a farmer mentoring workshop for 20 North Dakota State College of Science students. These students are generally young farmers from the region who are enrolled in a two-year agricultural program and have a specific interest in using cover crops on their farms. The Soil and Soil Water Workshop, 2018 at the Fargodome included a presentation to 225 crop consultants, farmers, and ag-industry representatives, the Corn and Soybean Expo in Fargo February 13, included a cover crop presentation and update by Dr. Wick to over 500 farmers with considerable interaction. Dr. Wick and her colleague Jodi Dejong-Hughes from University of Minnesota also addressed 150 crop consultants at the Advanced Crop Advisors Workshop, February 14, 2018. On February 15, Dr. Wick presented to 75 MinnDak Sugar Beet Coop. growers about including cover crops in the corn, soybean, and wheat phases of their rotation. The outreach has extended beyond the borders of North Dakota, with Chris Augustine, Soil Health Area Specialist from Minot, using Dr. Wick's information in a presentation to 200 farmers at a Soil Health day in Mitchell, SD, February 15, 2018. The economic framework that incorporates environmental impacts was delivered as part of the Farm Business Management in-service in November, 2017, as part of three face-to-face local trainings in January and February 2018, and developed into an input management packaged program for county agents to deliver in February 2018. a) Evaluation of extension impacts The evaluation of the first two years of the project in conjunction with a NC-SARE Professional Development Program (2015-2017) included the surveys of attendees to 22 field days and winter workshops with more than 500 participants. Workshops and professional training During the project, we held three separate Train the Trainer workshops for cover crops; two in Fargo, ND, and one in Langdon, ND. We had 19 extension agents participating of the workshops. These agents accounted for about one-third of the workshop participants. Other university research and extension personnel accounted for nearly another third, and the rest included industry representatives, crop consultants, and various state and federal agencies. Attendees who completed cover crop "tests" before and after training averaged a 16% gain in scores from 64% pre-workshop to 80% post workshop. In addition to cover crop identification, topics covered by the experts included: cover crops grazing, soil health improvement, soil salinity control with cover crops, soybean cyst nematode reduction with cover crops, cover crops N and P uptake, nutrient cycling, soil erosion reduction, importance of mycorrhizae, and residual herbicide injury to cover crops and how to avoid it. Train the Trainer impacts - the domino effect The point of train the trainer events is that those attending the training will then take what they've learned to train others. We were very successful in this area, according to survey respondents, 81% of whom rated the workshops very or extremely useful. Key findings from the survey include: • 97% of respondents used what they learned at these three workshops to create cover crop activities in their part of the state • 91% shared what they learned with their colleagues • 89% shared what they learned with farmers Field day and tours 1. Cover crops for grazing workshop. 22 January 2017, Havana, ND (77 participants) 2. Farm tour, Brekers farm, interseeding cover crops on-farm experiments. 20 October 2017. Havana, ND. (20 participants) 3. Cover crops field day. North Dakota State University Experimental Station, 26 September 2017. Fargo, ND. (82 participants) 4. Cover crops interseeding field day. NDSU Extension. 15 August 2017. Rutland, ND. (88 participants) 5. Field day. Using Cover crops and grazing tools. NDSU Extension. 25 July 2017, Gardner, ND. (58 participants) 6. Field day North Dakota State University and Univ. of Minnesota Extension, 28 June 2017, West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris, MN. (190 participants) 7. 2nd Annual Cover Crop Field School and Learning Tour. 8 September 2017. Rushmore, MN. (64 participants) (Wells) 8. Institute for Ag Professionals Field School. 17 July 2017. St. Paul, MN. 9. Stearns County Soil and Water Conservation District Cover Crop Field Day. 16 May 2017. Richmond, MN. 10. Cover Crops Meta Analysis. UMN Extension, UMN Beef Team Cow/Calf days. Educational topics: Aspects of soil health: processes mediated by the small, functional relations of cover crop biomass, total plant N, and subsequent impacts on soil extractable N. 27 January and 28 February. LeCenter, MN. (20 participants). 11. Interseeding cover crops: What works so far. 15 February 2017. Fergus Falls, MN 12. Cover crops interseeding in V2-V10 corn. UMN Beef Team Cow/Calf Days 23-25 January 2017. Mora, Glenwood and Pipestone, MN. (30 participants at each location). 13. Cover crops interseeding in V2-V10 corn. SROC Winter Crops Days, 12 January 2017. Lake Crystal, and Hutchinson, MN. (30 participants at each location). Workshops and professional training 1. Cover Crop Interseeding: A New Pathway for Enhanced Adoption. Crop Pest Management Short Course & Minnesota Crop Production Retailers Association Trade Show. December 2017, St. Paul, MN. (80 participants ). 2. Train -the-trainer and cover crops workshop 7-8 March 2017. Fargo, ND. ( 25 participants). ) 3. Cover Crop Workshop-UMN Extension. Educational topics: Soil health, what it is, and how to improve it. Presented research on cover crop interseeding and presented outreach materials on the oilseed production system 2 March 2017. Owatonna, MN. (80 participants). 4. Farm Business Management Extension In-service. Managing Crop Inputs. 7 November 2017. Bismarck, ND. (20 participants). 5. Crop Economics Workshop-NDSU Extension. Educational topics: Managing crop inputs, the environmental cost and benefits of alternative production practices including those that accrue of time. January 24, Devils Lake (10 participants); 25 January. Minot, ND. (10 participants); 9 February 2018, Carrington, ND. (15 participants). (Ripplinger and Delaporte). 6. Managing Crop Inputs. 7 February 2018, Napoleon, ND. (30 participants). (Ripplinger and Delaporte) Café Talks Q&A session with farmers about cover crops, soil fertility, soil health. Café Talks are an informal setting for farmers to be able to talk and learn from each other about soil health, cover crops seeding, interseeding, management, no-till and other related topics. Different specialists participate in the Café Talks to aid the discussion. Dr. Abbey Wick organizes and leads the Café Talks, Dr. Franzen and Berti are among the specialists. Numbers of farmers at the Café talks varies from 10 to 30 in each session impacting over 400 farmers. 9 and 30 January, 2018, Lisbon, ND 10 January 2018, Rutland, ND 11 and 25 January 2018, Jamestown, ND 16 January and 20 February, 2018, MacVille, ND 23 January and 22 February, 2018, Lamoure, ND 29 January, 2018, Park River, ND Changes/Problems: The project objectives and activities remain unchanged. One of the co-PD of the project Dr. Adnan Akyuz, from North Dakota State University, will no longer continue to participate in the project. His absence won't affect the project's outcomes. Plans to continue with his portion are already in place. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Training: Students participating in this project We have 11 graduate students working on the project, 4 PhD and 7 MS candidates, respectively. Sergio Cabello, PhD. Nutrient credits from cover crops in no-till systems in the northern Great Plains. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti and Dr. Franzen) August 2016- May 2018 Dulan Samarappuli, Ph.D. Productivity and life cycle analysis of novel cropping systems in North Dakota. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti) April 2016- June 2017. Graduated. Nadia Delarvarpour, PhD, North Dakota State University, Improving the twin-row interseeder guidance system. (Nowatzki and S. Bajwa) January 2017-May 2018 Swetabh Patel, PhD. Interseeding cover crops and alfalfa into standing corn and soybean. Iowa State University. (Dr. Lenssen and Dr. Moore) May 2016- August 2019 Alan Peterson, MS, Interseeding camelina on standing soybean. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti) June 2016- December 2018 Melissa Geiszler, MS, Corn row spacing and hybrid maturity effects on establishment of interseeded cover crops. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Ransom) April 2016- May 2018 Bryce Andersen, MS Integrating faba bean (Vicia faba Roth.) into cropping systems as a cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage for grazing. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti). January 2017- May 2019 Kyle Aasand, MS, corn and soybean relay cropping with winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) June 2016- December 2018 Nick Steffl, MS, Interseeding winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina in standing corn and soybean. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) January 2017-May 2019 Kory Johnson, MS. Interseeding camelina into narrow row spacing soybean of different maturity groups. North Dakota State University (Dr. Kandel) January 2017-May 2019 Alex Wittenberg, MS. Morphological differences between spring and winter camelina types. North Dakota State University (Dr. Berti) May 2018-May 2020. Postdoctoral Researchers: Heather (Dose) Matthees, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in cropping systems at ARS-USDA Morris, MN (camelina and pennycress intercropping in standing corn and soybean multilocation trial) Aaron Laporte, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in economics and decision tools. North Dakota State University. Undergraduate students: Taylor Bullock- (Univ. of Minnesota, Morris) 2017 Alex Wittenberg (North Dakota State University) January-May 2018 How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Peer reviewed publications, conferences and symposium presentations, extension publications, CAP website, phone calls, field days, winter talk meetings, plot tours are detailed below (See "products" section). What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Obj. 1 a) Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean. Task completed. Fine-tuning of the new planter will continue. Improving directional system. It will be used to establish on-farm research plots in 2018 in North Dakota. Navigation Sensor for Grain Cart on Interseeder We will conduct additional tests on the grain cart guidance system, collect field maps showing path of motion., and run the test in field in different situation such as no till, cover crop, fertilizing, etc Use of UAVs to Monitor Cover Crop Growth and Impact to Existing Crop We will collect multispectral imagery of growing cover crops inter-planted in soybean fields at the NDSU Agronomy Seed Farm at Casselton, ND. Collection will be biweekly imagery during July and August over the inter-planted fields. Crop growth and development and yield on between areas of the field with and without cover crops will be compared. a) A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean. The crop model, DSSAT, will be used to estimate the frequency of conditions being favorable for the establishment of interseeded cover crops in corn in two locations in North Dakota. Field plots will be established where cover crops will be interseeded at two dates, with and without incorporation, to verify the findings from the model for at least the 2018 growing season. A second series of experiments will be established to examine the rooting patterns of cover crops that are interseeded by broadcasting or by furrow planting into corn at two dates. The objective of this research is to determine if surface seeded winter rye, winter camelina, and radish establish roots and crowns that develop similarly to these crops when seeded below the surface of the soil. c) Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models. In 2018, soil moisture, temperature, and relative humidity under corn and soybean canopy will be determined every two weeks throughout the growing seasonSoil moisture will be determined from 0-15 cm at the time of cover crop seeding and weekly after. d) Estimation of N credits from cover crops At Rutland and Gardner, ND, the plot areas following soybean and spring wheat will have six N rates imposed on cover crop and no-cover crop main plots to determine the contribution of cover crop N to 2018 corn (after spring wheat) and corn (following soybean). Moisture sensors and a downloadable internet-accessible weather station will be included at each N rate site. Cover crops will be seeded in corn experiments at about stage V6, in spring wheat after harvest, and in soybean at the beginning of senescence, stage R7. e) Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications. Economic models that consider environmental dimensions of the alternative cropping systems have been developed. Baseline data has been use to validate their performance. These economic models will be updated with field trial and other data from the literature in 2018. Obj. 2a a) Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean. All experiments established in 2016 will be continued or repeated. 1) Interseeding of camelina and field pennycress into standing corn and soybean All experiments established in 2016 and 2017 will be continued through 2018 and 2019, respectively. Surviving winter camelina, winter rye, and field pennycress from fall plantings in 2017 will be evaluated in the spring of 2018 for winter survival. For cover crop plots with winter camelina and field pennycress, soybean will be relay-seeded (interseeded) into the cover crops and adjacent to the previous crop rows of corn and soybean. The camelina and field pennycress will be harvested for grain in mid- to late June and soybean from all plots will be harvested in the fall. For the experiments established in the fall of 2016, corn will be planted in all the plots to determine the system effect on corn yields. This will be repeated in 2019 for the plots that were established in 2017. Additionally four experiments established in 2017 will continue in 2018 and one new experiment will be established including: i.) interseeding cover crops in standing soybean of different maturities, ii.) interseeding legumes and rye into standing corn and after wheat, iii.) cover crops variety and seeding date trial, iv.) winter cover crop variety trials, seeding date, and morphological differentiation of winter and spring types of camelina, and v.) (New) cover crops used to reduce soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). b) Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress Pollinator visitations to camelina and field pennycress will be evaluated for a second year in the spring of 2018 at the same locations as in 2017. Broad groups of pollinating/visiting insects will be identified and recorded within each plot as per the protocol. c) Intercropping of corn and alfalfa The experiments established in 2017 will be continued in 2018. A peer-reviewed publication is nearly ready for submission and has been reviewed once by coauthors. d) Economic analysis of cropping systems energy balance and LCA of novel cropping systems. Life cycle assessment of cropping systems developed will be started in 2018 with results incorporated into updated versions of the existing financial calculators. Obj. 3 a) On farm replicated trials Yields and biomass of cover crops will be collected along with yields of relayed soybeans and corn at Rutland and Gardner, ND, or other participating grower. There will be two cover crops; winter camelina and winter rye and a combination of the two, seeded at two different growth stages of the soybean and corn, compared with a control (no cover crop). Field observations will be regularly conducted as well as videoing of the growth stages of the main crop and the cover crops during the season. The demonstration will be used for educational events and training. b) Extension activities Our outreach plan will have a multi-faceted approach. Research farm demonstrations, field days, regional workshop, county based educational events, educational material development, web based education, Soil Health bus tour, and one-on-one consultations are all part of the extension outreach. A regional research based will take place in March of 2018 in Fargo, ND. A field tour will be organized in the summer of 2018 to the on-farm replicated plots. A fall field day on cover crops will be organized in 2018 in Fargo, ND. Information gathered during 2017 will be edited and posted on the http://www.cropsyscap.org web site. A field day will be held in Barrett, MN where strips of winter camelina and winter rye have been established in standing corn and following spring wheat. The timing of the field day will coincide with harvest of the winter camelina . A replicated demonstration of interseeded winter camelina will be planted in western Iowa in fall of 2017. A summer field day will be held at the research site near Boone, IA. An online factsheet will be prepared and made available through the ISU Extension and Outreach store. Target audience: Includes farmers, crop consultants, extension personnel, and companies interested in bioenergy feedstocks. b) Evaluation plan for impact of extension activities To evaluate each one of the outcomes in the logic model an external evaluator will be hired. Indicators used to evaluate the project's impact will include: i.) workshop/meeting/field day participant numbers consistent or increasing over time, ii.) self-reported increase in participant knowledge from select workshops/meetings/field days, iii.) increase in online resource numbers iv.) increase in cover crop articles and resources, and v.) increase in self-reported use of cover crop practices and equipment.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Obj. 1. a) Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean In 2017, the accuracy of a navigation system for the grain cart attached to the interseeder was evaluated. b) A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean This activity has been delayed to 2018. c) Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models Data were collected in corn, soybean, and corn-alfalfa cropping to characterize light conditions under the crop canopies. The results indicated that available soil water during the three weeks following interseeding is critical for the cover crop establishment and survival. Photosynthetically active radiation under both the corn and soybean leaf canopies is the main driver of interseeded cover crop growth. d) Estimation of N credits from cover crops Experiments were established near Rutland, and near Gardner, ND, in 2016 and 2017. Corn interseeded at stages V6-V8 with winter rye, radish or winter camelina emerged and established stands that did not compete adversely with corn performance. Soybean interseeded at V6-V8 with winter rye did not affect soybean yield, but the addition of radish and winter camelina reduced soybean yield in the first growing season. e) Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications The decision-tools are currently undergoing final review, as part of NDSU Extension best management practices, and will be published online at ag.ndsu.edu/farmmanagement/tools in March 2018. Obj. 2. a) Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and field pennycress into standing corn and soybean Seven different experiments were conducted in 2017 to address specific aspects of this objective. As we collect information on the original experiment proposed (Study 1 below), new research questions have arisen for which we have designed new experiments. 1. Interseeding of camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean The research was conducted at Prosper, ND, Ames, IA, and Morris and Rosemount, MN. The final results from data collected over two growing seasons from seven locations indicates that a distinct latitudinal gradient exists for optimum times to interseed winter annual cover crops into standing corn and soybean. Greater establishment success was achieved with all winter annual cover crops in this study at more northerly locations. Establishing winter annual cover crops in standing corn was more difficult, and greater success was achieved by establishment into standing soybean. 2. Interseeding of cover crops into standing soybean. The experiment consisted of six cover crops interseeded at the R4 and R6 reproductive stages of soybean. Winter pea provided the most soil cover at both environments compared with any other cover crop. Fall soil residual NO3-N was significantly higher in the check treatment compared with the plots with cover crops. 3. Relative maturities and row spacing on establishment of interseeded cover crops into soybean When cover crops were interseeded into the early maturing soybean variety at stage R6, the cover crops coverage was nearly half compared with the cover crops interseeded at R6 in the late maturing variety. Winter rye produced nearly four times the biomass as compared with that of winter camelina. 4. Interseeding camelina and rye in corn at different stages, row spacing, and hybrid maturity. Corn hybrid relative maturity did not have a significant effect on fall cover crop biomass, but significantly affected spring biomass accumulation. Corn row spacing and cover crop interseeding date did not significantly affect cover crop biomass. 5. Interseeding faba bean, forage pea, clovers and winter rye into standing corn. No difference in soil NO3-N or biomass was found between the cover crop treatments or the check treatment (no cover crop) in both studies, interseeded into corn or seeded after wheat. 6. Variety and seeding date trial Thirty one cover crops were established on two seeding dates (27 July and 23 Aug. 2017) in Fargo, ND, in 2017. Warm-season annuals had greater biomass N accumulation in the first seeding date compared with the second seeding date. Most field pennycress plants survived the winter of 2016/2017 in Fargo, ND, but winter survival of fall established camelina was poor. b) Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress. Pollinator visitation data were collected throughout the flowering period for winter camelina and field pennycress at each site in the project. The estimated average percent flowering visitation during the period of flowering was 0.5% for pennycress and 0.4% for camelina. Overall, field pennycress tended to attract more flies while camelina attracted more small (native) bees. c) Intercropping of corn and alfalfa The experiment was established at four and three locations in 2016 and 2017, respectively. In the seeding year, alfalfa seasonal forage yield was significantly greater when alfalfa did not have to compete with corn during establishment. Prohexadione (a growth regulator) did not improve alfalfa biomass or plant density in the seeding year. Seasonal forage yield of alfalfa established in 2016 was significantly greater than the 2017 spring-seeded alfalfa. d) Economic analysis of cropping systems energy balance and LCA of novel cropping systems. This activity will start in 2018. Obj. 3. a) On farm replicated trials On-farm trials were conducted with the new interseeder in Rutland and Gardner, ND, in 2017. All nutrient cycling studies in both corn and soybean were done in the on-farm replicated trials (results in Obj. 1d). In Morris, MN, 5 acres were planted with winter camelina in the fall of 2016. In May 2017, soybean was relayed planted into standing camelina and camelina grain was harvested at the end of June. Strips of cover crops were planted during the R7 and R5 stage in soybean and corn, respectively in Barrett, MN. The cover crops established well in standing corn, however cover crop establishment failed in soybean. a) Extension activities The website was completed and is available at www.cropsyscap.org. Extension activities included 13 field days and tours, 4 workshops, 10 Café talks about cover crops, 11 extension publications, and numerous invited presentations or interviews. b) Evaluation of extension impacts Train the Trainer impacts - the domino effect According to survey respondents, 81% of whom rated the workshops very or extremely useful. Key findings from the survey include: (i) 97% of respondents used what they learned at these three workshops to create cover crop activities in their part of the state, (ii) 91% shared what they learned with their colleagues, and (iii) 89% shared what they learned with farmers Farmer impacts and outcomes - changes in attitudes and behavior The greatest change in behavior among respondents was establishing a cover crop after harvest of a cash crop (50%) and using cover crops for soil erosion control (51%). The greatest potential for adoption of new practices included establishing a cover crop in a standing cash crop (51%) and interseeding at the time of side-dressing N into corn (50%). These two are a direct impact of this CAP project, since interseeding is the main topic shared at extension activities of the CAP.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Anderson, J.V., W.S. Chao, D.P. Horvath, R.W. Gesch, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Progress towards developing early maturing winter varieties of Camelina sativa as oilseed cover crops for northern climates. 29th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC), Ames, IA, 10-13 September, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Gesch R., H. Matthees, A. Alvarez, and R. Gardner 2017. Winter camelina: cultivar variation and sowing rate. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops 29th annual meeting, Ames, IA. 10-13 September 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Steffl, N.J., K.A. Aasand, B.L. Johnson, P.J. Petersen, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Relay cover crops in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cropping systems in eastern North Dakota. In Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops 29th annual meeting, Ames, IA. 10-13 September 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Aasand, K.A., N.J. Steffl, B.L. Johnson, P.J. Petersen, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Corn relay cropping with winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina. In Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops 29th annual meeting, Ames, IA. 10-13 September 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Matthees, H., M. Thom, F. Forcella, and R.W. Gesch. 2017. Industrial oilseed crop germination in response to salinity. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops 29th annual meeting, Ames, IA. 10-13 September 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Geiszler, M., J. Ransom, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Interseeding cover crops into corn: How much will they grow? In 15th Annual Nitrogen Use Efficiency Conference - Baton Rouge, LA. 7-9 August 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Acharya, K., G. Yan, A. Plaisance, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Reducing soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines populations by planting cover crops in infested soils. American Phytopathology Society.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T., and D. Samarappuli. 2017. Nutrient cycling potential of Camelina sativa as a cover crop in the northern Great Plains, USA. European Geosciences Union Conference, Vienna, Austria, 22-27 April 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2017. Nutrient uptake by cover crops. How Far North Can We Grow? 49th Parallel Cover Crop Project. Innovation Working Group Meeting, Devils Lake, ND, 5 April 2017. Invited speaker.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T. and D. Toussaint.2017. Interseeding cover crops into standing, corn, soybean, and sunflowers. Midwest Cover Crop Council Annual Conference. Grand Rapids, Michigan, 12-14 March, 2017.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: The projects website was completed and is available at www.cropsyscap.org.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T., D. Samarappuli, B.L. Johnson, and R.W. Gesch. 2017. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems. Ind. Crops. Prod. 107:595-601 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.06.014
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T., B.L. Johnson, D. Ripplinger, R.W. Gesch, and A. Aponte. 2017. Environmental impact assessment of double- and relay-cropping with winter camelina in the northern Great Plains, USA. Agricultural Sys. 156C:1-12.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Sainju, U.M., A.W. Lenssen, B.L. Allen, B. Stevens, and J.D. Jabro. 2018. Nitrogen balance in dryland agroecosystem in response to tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice. Nutrient Cycling in Agriculture: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-018-9909-7
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: 6. Appelgate, S., A.W. Lenssen, M. Wiedenhoeft, and T. Kaspar. 2017. Cover crop options and mixes for upper Midwest corn-soybean systems. Agronomy J. 109:968-984. doi:10.2134/agronj2016.08.0453
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Matthees, H.L., M.D. Thom, R.W. Gesch, and F. Forcella. 2018. Salinity tolerance of germinating alternative oilseeds. Ind. Crops Prod. 113:358-367. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.01.042
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Gesch, R.W., H.L. Matthees, A.L. Alvarez, and R.D. Gardner. 2018. Winter camelina: crop growth, seed yield and quality response to genotype and sowing rate. Crop Sci.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Peterson, A., M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, B. Andersen, S. Cabello, and S. Podder. 2018. Maximizing cover crop performance by interseeding into standing soybean. Production Agriculture Symposium Univ. of Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN. 15 Feb 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Andersen, B., M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, A. Peterson, S. Cabello, and S. Podder 2018 Integrating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage. Production Agriculture Symposium Univ. of Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN, 15 February 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Cabello, S., M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, B. Andersen, A. Peterson, and S. Podder. 2018. Cover crops decreased soil nitrogen (N-NO3) previous sugarbeet production in the northern Great Plains. Production Agriculture Symposium Univ. of Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN, 15 February 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T., 2017. Cover crops: why and what to seed. Central Dakota Ag Day Conference. Carrington Research Extension Center, Carrington, ND. Invited speaker.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T., 2017. Role of cover crops roots. North Dakota Chapter of Soil and Water Conservation Annual Conference, Bismarck, ND, 21 November 2017. Invited speaker.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Peterson, A., M.T. Berti, H.H. Kandel, and B.L. Johnson. 2017. Intersowing cover crops into standing soybean to reduce soil loss in late fall. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings. Tampa, FL, 22-25 October 2017.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Acharya, J., M.G. Bakker, T.B. Moorman, T.C. Kaspar, A.W. Lenssen, and A.E. Robertson. 2017. Time interval between cover crop termination and planting influences corn seedling disease, plant growth, and yield. Plant Disease 101:591-600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-16-0975-RE
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Sainju, U.M., A.W. Lenssen, B. Allen, W. Stevens, and J. Jabro. 2017. Soil residual nitrogen under various crop rotations and cultural practices. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 180:187-198. doi:10.1002/jpln.201600496
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Dose (Matthees), H.L., R.W. Gesch, F. Forcella, K. Aasand, B.L. Johnson, N. Steffl, M.S. Wells, S. Patel, A. Lenssen, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Intensifying production in the northern Corn Belt by incorporating cash cover crops. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings. Tampa, FL, 22-25 October.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Patel, S., A.W. Lenssen, K.J. Moore, M.T. Berti, R.W. Gesch, and H.L. Dose (Matthees). 2017. Integrating and managing oilseed cash cover crops in a corn and soybean rotation system. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings. Tampa, FL 22-25 October 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Geizsler, M. J. Ransom, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Interseeding cover crops into early season corn. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings. Tampa, FL 22-25 October 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Gesch R.W., and H. Matthees. 2017 Cultivar and planting date selection for relay-cropping soybean with winter oilseeds American Society of Agronomy, Crops Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America annual meeting, Tampa, FL. 22-25 October 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Matthees (Dose) H., M. Thom, and R.W. Gesch. 2017. Soil salinity: germination tolerance of alternative oilseed crops for soil health. American Society of Agronomy, Crops Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America annual meeting, Tampa, FL.22-25 October 2017.


Progress 04/01/16 to 03/31/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Includes farmers, crop consultants, extension personnel, and companies interested in bioenergy feedstocks. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Students participating in this project We have 11 graduate students working on the project. 3 PhD and 8 MS Sergio Cabello, PhD. Nutrient credits from cover crops in no-till systems in the northern Great Plains. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti and Dr. Franzen) August 2016- May 2018 Dulan Samarappuli, Ph.D. Productivity and life cycle analysis of novel cropping systems in North Dakota. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti) April 2016- June 2017 Swetabh Patel, PhD. Interseeding cover crops and alfalfa into standing corn and soybean. Iowa State University. (Dr. Lenssen) May 2016- May 2019 Alan Peterson, MS, Interseeding camelina on standing soybean. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti) June 2016- December 2018 Melissa Geizler, MS, Corn row spacing and hybrid maturity effects on establishment of interseeded cover crops. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Ransom) April 2016- May 2018 Bryce Andersen, MS Integrating faba bean (Vicia faba Roth.) into cropping systems as a cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage for grazing. North Dakota State University. Dr. Berti). January 2017- May 2019 Kyle Aasand, MS, corn and soybean relay cropping with winter rye, field pennycress, and winter Camelina. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) June 2016- December 2018 Nick Steff, MS, Interseeding winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina in standing corn and soybean. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) January 2017-May 2019 Kory Johnson, MS. Interseeding camelina into narrow row spacing soybean of different maturity groups. North Dakota State University (Dr. Kandel) January 2017-May 2019 Nancy Stenger, MS, North Dakota State University, Microclimate under corn and soybean canopy. (Dr. Akyuz and Dr. Berti) January 2017-May 2019 Nadia Delarvarpour, PhD, North Dakota State University, Improving the twin-row interseeder guidance system. (Nowatzki and S. Bajwa) January 2017-May 2018 Postdoctoral Researchers: Maciej Kazula, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in cropping systems June 2016-December 2016. North Dakota State University (corn-alfalfa interseeding research, multilocation trial) Heather Dose, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in cropping systems at ARS-USDA Morris, MN (camelina and pennycress intercropping in standing corn and soybean multilocation trial) Aaron Laporte, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in economics and decision tools June 2016-December 2016. North Dakota State University How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Yes, peer reviewed publications, conferences and symposium presentations, extension publications, bi- weekly CAP project seminar sessions forages website, phone calls, field days, winter talk meetings, andplot tours. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Objective 1 1. Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean at different growth stages. Task completed. Fine-tuning of the new planter will continue. Improving directional system. It will be used to establish on-farm research plots in 2017. 2. A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean. This activity is planned for 2017. 3. Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models. Research activities will continue in 2017. 4. Estimation of N credits from cover crops and increased N use efficiency by subsequent crops. Three experiment at two sites (Rutland and Gardner, ND) will be established in 2017. Experimental design will be a split plot, each experimental site rotation is stand-alone. Main plots- cover crop, no cover crop; cover crop unique to experimental site (camelina, radish rye). Subplots (to corn and to spring wheat only)-N rates- 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 lb N/acre with preplant ammonium nitrate applied broadcast. Measurements: soil moisture, weather measurements (on site), biomass, soil test nitrate-N and P, plant N, P, C, S. Yield, protein in wheat Plant nutrients include biomass, N,C,S, P of cover and main crop. 5. Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications. Not planned until 2018. Objective 2 All experiments established in 2016 will be continued or repeated 1. Interseeding of camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean. Surviving camelina, rye and pennycress plants will be evaluated in the spring of 2017 both experiments corn and soybean in 2016 will be planted with soybean in 2017 in relay cropping. Then camelina, pennycress and rye will be harvested for grain the first week of July. 2. Interseeding of cover crops in standing soybean. Surviving cover crops will be evaluated in the spring of 2017 and then the whole experiment will be planted with wheat at both locations. The same experiment conducted in 2016 will be repeated in 2017 at two locations. 3. Interseeding camelina and rye in corn at different stages, row spacing and hybrid maturity. Surviving cover crops will be evaluated in the spring of 2017. The same experiment will be repeated in 2017 at two locations. Objective 3 On farm replicated trials Replicated trials will be established in Rutland and Gardner, ND, Lamberton, MN and Ames, IA. Replicated trials will vary in size and planting method among locations according to the interseeder available in the area. The treatments at each locations will include camelina, rye or camelina/rye mixture and a check both in corn and soybean. Stage of establishment also will vary according to the equipment available and the preliminary results of Year 1. Alfalfa-corn interseeding will not be evaluated on farm, since preliminary results showed a drag in corn yield.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Obj. 1. Improving cover crops management and establishment. Modification of seeding equipment, decision tool development and estimation of N credits to optimize cover crops establishment and management. a.Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean at different growth stages. (Breker and Nowatzki) A cover crop drill was developed by Amity Technology. The interseeder plants two twin rows spaced 6" apart in the center of two corn or soybean rows at 30" apart. The planter is a high clearance planter adapted to plant in V8 stage corn at the time of side dressing. The pilot planter was completed by the end of June 2016. The pilot planter was used to interseed radish and rye mix in a total of approximately 100 acres at two locations, Morton and Rutland, ND. Cover crops established well and provided cover in the fall after corn was harvested. No corn yield drag was observed. c. Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models. Data was collected in corn and soybean at Prosper, ND to characterize microclimate conditions under the corn canopy with and without interseeded camelina and pennycress. An automated weather station was installed on May 2, 2016. Blocks were arranged so that the station would be able to sample weather conditions in 4 separate blocks in the first year of the project to collect preliminary data as follows: i) Seedling cover crops into corn, ii) control, iii) most aggressive treatment (rye). The same was conducted in soybean. Inside and outside the blocks, air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, soil moisture/temperature was measured. d. Estimation of N credits from cover crops and increased N use efficiency by subsequent crops. (Wick and Franzen) Several studies were established in the fall of 2016 to determine N credits to corn from cover crops after wheat and interseeded cover crops in corn. Gardner site- Fargo soil- Cover crops were established into wheat stubble for land going to corn in 2017. Spring wheat left to volunteers in no-cover crop treatments. Radish and rye drilled in September, 2016. Beginning soil nitrate to 2 ft averaged about 16 lb/a with little range in variability. Soybean to soybean and soybean to spring wheat experiments will begin in same section in spring 2017. Soil nitrate samples taken on 12 Aug., 28 Sep., and 24 Oct. in cover crop and no cover crop main plots resulted in a decrease of nitrate in the soil profile with a cover. Soil nitrate at the end of the season was 15 lbs N/acre with cover crop and 114 lbs/acre with no cover crop. Also, soil with cover crops had less water than soil without cover crop. Interseeding into corn stalks, going to soybean 2017. Interseeding 23 June, 40 lbs/acre rye, 5 lbs/acre radish. Crops emerged 6 July. Rye stand averaged 140,000 plants per acre, range 87,000 to 150,000. Radish stand averaged 57,000 plants per acre, range 0- 75,000. Soil nitrate on 9 Aug. no differences between treatments cover/no-cover, no soil moisture differences- all dry. Biomass of cover crop at the end of the season 10 Novemebr, 1100lbs/acre. No reduction on corn grain yield. Obj. 2. Introducing relay-cropping and intercropping to existing cropping systems. a. Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean in conjunction with relay cropping soybean. Interseeding of camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean The research was conducted at Prosper, ND, Ames, IA, Morris, MN and Waseca, MN. Experimental design was a RCBD with a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Corn and soybean were in separate experiments. Camelina and pennycress was planted at V6, R1, and approximately R7 in late August. Similarly, in corn, camelina was planted at growth stages V4, R1, and approximately R5 to R6 in late August. Results indicate interseeded cover crops did not reduce soybean or corn yield. Cover crop establishment varied among locations and interseeding dates. No cover crop showed superior performance. In general establishment of cover crops ranged between 10-20% under corn canopy and 40-60% under soybean canopy. Interseeding of cover crops in standing soybean. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seeding cover crops into soybean at two late stages of development, on soybean yield, cover crop establishment, potential negatives effects to soybean quality, and soil cover. Four cover crop treatments were seeded between the soybean rows a: Austrian winter pea forage radish cv. Daikon winter camelina cv. Joelle, winter rye cv. Rymin, a mixture of all four cover crops, and a check treatment with no cover crops. Cover crops were interseeded at the R4 and R6 reproductive stages of soybean on 25 and 26 July for R4 in Fargo and Prosper, respectively and on 16 August for R6. Results indicate soybean grain yield were not affected by interseeding cover crops at any of the cover crops seeding dates or locations. This indicates cover crops interseeded into soybean at R4 or R6 did not compete with soybean and provide cover in the fall. Winter peas had the best performance and coverage (69%). Camelina coverage was only 3.7%, rye and radish coverage was 18% and 39% respectively. Nitrogen in pea biomass was 70 lbs N /acre. Interseeding camelina and rye in corn at different stages, row spacing and hybrid maturity. Two experiments were established in Forman and Prosper, ND. Exp. 1 design was a RCBD arranged as a split-plot with three replicates. The treatments were a factorial combination of row spacing, cover crop, and date of cover crop interseeding. Row spacing was the main plot with cover crop and date of interseeding as the subplots. Row spacing treatments were narrow (56 cm) or wide (76 cm). All plots were planted with four corn rows to depth of 5.1 cm at a seeding rate of 79,000 live seeds ha-1. The hybrid used was Dekalb 'DKC 36-28' which has a relative maturity of 86 d. Cover crops were sown when the corn reached the V7 or R4 growth stage. Cover crops were camelina, rye and a mix of camelina and rye. Exp. 2 design was a RCBD with four replicates; treatments were a factorial combination of corn hybrid RM and cover crop. Dekalb 'DKC 30-19' with a RM of 80 d were used as the early maturing hybrid. Dekalb 'DKC 39-27' with a RM of 89 d was used as the later maturing hybrid. Cover crop treatments were sown when the corn reached the V7 growth stage. Cover crops did not reduced corn grain yield in any of the experiments. b. Intercropping of corn and alfalfa The experiment was established in Prosper, and Forman, ND, and Waseca, MN in 2016. The design for this experiment was a RCBD with four replicates. Treatments included: T1, corn at 76-cm row spacing; T2, corn +alfalfa intercropped; T3, corn +alfalfa intercropped + PHX; and T4, an alfalfa control. Corn plots were planted first with plot drill at 76 cm, and alfalfa was drilled over the corn plots with an 8-row plot seeder at 15-cm row spacing. Each experimental unit had either 4 rows of corn or 4 rows of corn and 16 rows of alfalfa seeded on top of the corn on the same date. The alfalfa and corn cultivars were glyphosate-resistant cultivar. PHX was applied to alfalfa at 20-cm in height at a rate of 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 over the alfalfa, but under the corn canopy. The results combined across three locations indicated that alfalfa decreased corn grain yield in both treatments with and without PHX. Corn check grain yield was 224 bu/acre, significantly higher than corn with interseeded alfalfa. Alfalfa with corn had 194 bu/acre a 13.4% yield reduction and corn with alfalfa and PHX had a yield of 188 bu/acre, a 16% reduction in yield. No significant differences were observed in corn yield between alfalfa treatments .Alfalfa biomass at harvest was greater for alfalfa alone. Treated or not treated alfalfa under the corn canopy had similar biomass yield.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., R.W. Gesch, C. Eynck, J. Anderson, and S. Cermak. 2016. Camelina uses, genetics, genomics, production and management. Ind. Crops Prod. 94:690-710.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., B.L. Johnson, R.W. Gesch, and A. Aponte, 2016. Environmental impact assessment of double- and relay-cropping with winter camelina in the northern Great Plains, USA. Agricultural Systems (submitted, under review)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., D. Samarappuli, B.L., Johnson, and R.W., Gesch. 2017. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems. Ind. Crops Prod. (Submitted, under review)
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Wick, A. M.T. Berti, Y. Lawley, and M. Liebig. 2016. Integration of annual and perennial cover crops for improving soil quality and health In M. Al-Kaisi and B. Lowery (Eds.) Soil Health and Intensification of Agroecosystems. Elsevier Publ.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., A. Aponte, B.L. Johnson, and D. Ripplinger. 2016. Environmental sustainability of double- and relay-cropping of food, feed, and fuel crops in the northern Great Plains, USA. In 24th European Biomass Conf. and Exhibition.5-9 June, 2016, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Available at http://www.etaflorence.it/proceedings/index.asp (verified 10 December 2016).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti., M.T., B.L. Johnson, R.W. Gesch, J. Ransom, H.H. Kandel, M. Kazula, M.S. Wells, and A. Lenssen. 2016 Integrating camelina into corn and soybean cropping systems. p. 9 In Berti, M.T. and E. Alexopoulou (Eds.) 28th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC), Rochester, NY, 14-19 September, 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., J. Lukaschewsky, and M. Kazula. 2016. Alfalfa silage corn interseeding in North Dakota. North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference, Trifolium Conference and Grass Breeders Conference. Madison, WI. 12-14 July, 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Forcella F., D. Wyse D, and R.W. Gesch 2016. Keep it green: Ecosystem services of year-round cropping. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Symposium  IPM Resistance Management. November 7, 2016. (30 attendees + continuous on-line access) https://scisoc.confex.com/scisoc/2016am/videogateway.cgi/id/25419?recordingid=25419
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Dose, H.L., R. Gesch, F. Forcella, B.L. Johnson, K. Aasand, M.S. Wells, A. Lenssen, S. Patel, M.T. Berti. 2017. Determining optimum time to seed winter cover crops into standing corn and soybean in the northern Corn Belt. Production Agriculture Symposium, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN, 22-23 February, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T. Interseeding cover crops into standing corn and soybean: what, when and how. Agriculture Production Symposium, University of Minnesota, 22-23 February 2017.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Holin, F. 2016. New research on interseeding cover crops into standing corn begins. Clippings 17 June, 2016. Midwest Forage Association, St. Paul, MN. Available at https://www.midwestforage.org/pdf/1041.pdf (M. Berti and R. Gesch mentioned in the article) Wick, A. 2016. Planting Soybean into Cereal Rye  Observations. NDSU Soil Health, Fact Sheet.