Source: NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV submitted to
A NOVEL MANAGEMENT APPROACH TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY, RESILIENCE, AND LONG-TERM SUSTAINABILITY IN CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE MIDWEST
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1008882
Grant No.
2016-69004-24784
Project No.
ND05065
Proposal No.
2015-08714
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
A5160
Project Start Date
Apr 1, 2016
Project End Date
Mar 31, 2021
Grant Year
2018
Project Director
Berti, M.
Recipient Organization
NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV
(N/A)
FARGO,ND 58105
Performing Department
Plant Sciences
Non Technical Summary
The use of cover crops, common in the eastern and central Corn Belt, are uncommon in corn-soybean systems in the Upper Midwest and northern Great Plains due to the short growing season and extreme fluctuations in temperature and precipitation within and across growing seasons. Lack of winter soil cover increases soil organic matter and nutrient losses, resulting in decreased crop productivity and resiliency. For these reasons, larger amounts of agricultural inputs are required to maintain or increase yields. Therefore, there is a critical need to alter current cropping systems in our region by incorporating technologies to improve long-term productivity while enhancing ecosystem services. Our objectives include: i) improving management of existing cropping systems for resilience and increased productivity by innovative seeding and nutrient management of cover crops; ii) improving land use efficiency in current cropping systems through the inclusion of winter camelina and field pennycress as cover/cash crops in double or relay-cropping, and improving corn-alfalfa productivity with intercropping; and iii) increase awareness and adoption of sustainable management practices in our region. Our central hypothesis is that maintaining or increasing long-term productivity of current cropping systems can be achieved through increased adoption of the use of cover crops, double-, relay- or intercropping systems with current corn-soybean or wheat-soybean based systems. Our project seeks to renovate current cropping systems to improve sustainability of agricultural production. If the management of current cropping systems in the northern Upper Midwest and northern Great Plains is not improved, long-term productivity will likely decrease.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
70%
Applied
30%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2051820108010%
2051510108010%
2051599108010%
2051899108010%
2051640108010%
2051631108010%
2051644108010%
2050110107010%
2051570107010%
2052140107010%
Goals / Objectives
Improve management of existing cropping systems for resilience and increased long-term productivity by innovative seeding and nutrient management of cover crops. We hypothesize that new or modified seeding equipment will enable growers to successfully establish second crops (cover crops) in standing corn or soybean. Also, by determining the nutrient credits for the next cash crop the grower will be able to reduce fertilizer costs as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions.Improve land use efficiency in corn-soybean or wheat-soybean cropping systems by temporal intensification through the inclusion of winter camelina (Camelina sativa L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvensis L.) as cover crops and/or cash oilseed crops, and determine their impact on over-all system productivity and ecosystem services. Also, improve land use efficiency by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with corn. Alfalfa in this intercropping system has dual purpose, i) hay production and ii) soil cover in the winter. We hypothesize that including camelina and pennycress as well as alfalfa-corn intercropping will reduce soil erosion; increase crop productivity and organic matter; and provide early sources of pollen and nectar for pollinators.Increase awareness and adoption of sustainable management practices for long-term increased productivity in northern Great Plains and Upper Midwestern farms. Our working hypothesis is that our on-farm replicated trials and demonstrations, economic analyses, and extension activities including field days and workshops will increase awareness of the benefits of diverse cropping systems, resulting in increased adoption of sustainable practices by growers.
Project Methods
Task 1. Obj. 1. Improving cover crops management and establishment. Modification of seeding equipment, decision tool development and estimation of N credits to optimize cover crops establishment and management. Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean at different growth stages.Seed equipment modification to plant a cover crop into standing corn on growth stage V7 at the same time as side dressing application will be designed. 2. A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean.True aerial seeding and 'aerial seeding' by hand with a spinner will be evaluated. The airplane method will have two cover crop treatments (winter camelina and rye) at two locations, one in each state (ND and IA) in corn and soybean. Aerial data with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to determine cover crop coverage will be conducted.The trials will be conducted at three locations Fargo, ND, Ames, IA, and Lamberton, MN. The replicated small-plot experiments will have four cover crops as main treatments (rye, forage radish, camelina, and a legume) and seeding at two growth stages of the main crop (R1 and R4) as sub treatments. For rainfall predictions, a web site where rainfall forecasts based on Global Forecast System (GFS) links will be used. 3. Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models.An automated weather station with paired temperature and solar radiation observations inside and outside the canopy area will be installed. The automated weather station will be similar to that utilized by the North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network . There are about 80 NDAWN stations located in North Dakota and northwest Minnesota. Climatic data will be collected continuously and archived once every 5 minutes. 4.Estimation of N credits from cover crops and increased N use efficiency by subsequent crops.Two experimental fields will be identified in North Dakota for cover crop experiments. One field will be in long-term no-till cultivation and the other in continuous conventional tillage. A spring wheat crop will be grown in each field the year previous to fall cover crop establishment (Year 1 and Year 2). Corn will be planted the following year immediately after terminating surviving cover crops. 5. Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications An economic analysis will be conducted to measure financial and non-financial impacts for each crop and system. Existing crop enterprise budget models will be adapted to estimate multi-year economic costs and benefits for alternative crop rotations and cropping systems. Models will be expanded to account for impacts on soil health, with economic measures of the costs and benefits resulting from changes in soil moisture, soil organic matter, and nutrient content. These values will be capitalized into the price of the land using a net present value framework. Emissions associated with alternative cropping practices using results of a LCA will be accounted for.Task 2. Obj. 2. Introducing relay-cropping and intercropping to existing cropping systems. 1.Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean in conjunction with relay cropping soybean.The research will be conducted at three locations.The main plot will be corn and soybean; the sub-plot will be the growth stage at relay-seeding of winter camelina and pennycress. Corn and soybean experiments will be seeded from late April and mid-May depending on the location in both 2016 and 2017. Camelina and pennycress will be planted at V6, R1, and approximately R7 in late August. Similarly, in corn, camelina will be planted at growth stages V4, R1, and approximately R5 to R6 in late August.The following spring (Year 2), soybean will be relay planted (i.e., interseeded) into the winter camelina and pennycress plots about bolting stage. The relayed soybean will then be harvested in early autumn (Year 2). This sequence will be repeated in years 3 and 4.2. Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress. Flower cover and insect visitation will be recorded every 3-5 days throughout anthesis at each of the four sites.Anthesis duration is expected to last for 2 to 3 weeks for each species. Flower cover will be estimated visually as percent ground cover of open flowers by viewing the crop from above.3. Intercropping of corn and alfalfa.The experiment will be conducted in Prosper, ND, in Ames, IA, and Lakefield, MN. Treatments will include: T1, corn at 76-cm row spacing; T2, corn +alfalfa intercropped; T3, corn +alfalfa intercropped + PHX; and T4, an alfalfa control. In Year 2, alfalfa will be seeded in T1. 4.Economic analysis of cropping systems energy balance and LCA of novel cropping systems.Crop budgets for each state and system will be developed using existing models. Emissions, economic analysis, and LCA for each treatment will be determined based on field operation inputs and outputs including: i) field operations, ii) material and services, and iii) overhead.LCA will be conducted to assess the sustainability of each system, quantitatively to compare different systems in the experiment and also existing hay production systems. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data obtained from GREET, Ecoinvent, and US LC databases, as well as the industrial literature will supplement empirical data generated for corn, soybean, and wheat. Furthermore, net carbon and nitrogen addition to the environment (output- input), and other environmental benefits (reduction in soil erosion, reduced use of herbicides, enhancing biodiversity, nutrient cycling, etc.) will also be considered for the analysis, comparing corn and soybean production with and without camelina or pennycress as a cover crop.Task 3. Objective 3. On-farm, outreach, and Extension activities1.On-farm replicated trials establishmentTwo on-farm replicated studies will be included in each state. Each of the systems above will be planted and used as demonstration and education tools for Extension programming.On-farm Trial 1:Trial 1 will consider an aerial seeding of cover crops. The experiment will consist of three treatments (winter camelina, cereal rye, and no cover crop) with three replicates in randomized strips. This will be done in soybean and corn, in mid- to late August in Years 2 and 3 of the project.On-farm Trial 2:Trial 2 will be a demonstration of alfalfa-corn intercropping. The experiment will have 4 treatments, alfalfa alone, corn alone, corn+alfalfa, and corn + alfalfa + PHX with three replicates in randomized strips. The experiment will be planted in the spring of Year 1 and evaluated Years 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the established alfalfa crop.Extension activities description Our foundation in building an outreach educational program is the development of science-based knowledge educational activities in North Dakota, Minnesota and Iowa during years 1-4 of project.Research farm demonstrations, field days, large regional workshops, county based educational events, educational material development, web based education and one-on-one consultations are all part of the Extension program. Two annual regional research-based workshops will take place at a central location to the project area.Web based learning will be included in the outreach. Webinars will be organized to disseminate results to farmers, ag-industry and government agronomists. One of the components of training sessions (workshops, county meetings, and webinar) will consist of video clips, which will be taped during the growing season. These clips will present critical aspects of the research and demonstrations. These video clips will also be posted, after the educational event, on participating institutions web-sites and on 'YouTube.' A website for the CropSys-CAP will be developed.

Progress 04/01/16 to 03/31/21

Outputs
Target Audience:Farmers, ranchers, extension agents, crop consultants, seed and equipment personnel, researchers, graduate and undergraduate students, NRCS, and USDA personnel. CAP-sponsored events reached over 2,000 unique individuals over the lifetime of the project, including 1,003 field day participants, 496workshop participants (319 CAP-only workshops), 1,167 Café Talks attendees (805 of these attended virtually in 2020), and 893 conference participants where a set of presentations centered on CAP research results (Conservation Tillage Conference, Dakota Innovation Research & Technology Workshop (DIRT)). Participants came from seven different countries (1,409 from the USA, 59 from Canada, and 7 from an additional 5 countries). Project events served 1,249 people within the project states: 1,083 from North Dakota, 197 from Minnesota, and 14 from Iowa. The majority these participants (762) were farmers and ranchers (58% of those for whom we have data). Government participants (164) came from USDA, NRCS, Soil Conservation Districts, and various state and regional governments (12%). Industry personnel, including sales reps for seeds and agricultural inputs, equipment personnel, and ag-dependent companies (e.g., Crystal Sugar and Land-O-Lakes) accounted for 10% of the data set (131 individuals). Crop consultants number 75 or 6% of those for whom we have data. University personnel represented 10% of the data set, including 72 researchers and 75 extension personnel. Two percent (31) were undergraduate and graduate students. And the commodity groups represented 1% of the data set (16 people). Participants per year were 420, 270, 785, 611, and 1423 for years 2016 thorugh 2020, respectively.Cancelation of all in-person meetings starting in March 2020 provided the benefit of extending the reach of the project way beyond the project state borders. Thus, 2020 participation is nearly twice the size of 2018 data and more than double 2019 participation.Though no field days were held in 2020, their participation numbers remained on par with the two categories that benefitted most from hosting online participants. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Training: Graduate students training: We trained 12 graduate students, 3 PhD and 9 MS candidates, respectively. Sergio Cabello, PhD. Nutrient credits from cover crops in no-till systems in the northern Great Plains. North Dakota State University. (Berti and Franzen) August 2016-May 2018 Nadia Delarvarpour, PhD, North Dakota State University, Improving the twin-row interseeder guidance system. (Nowatzki and Bajwa) January 2017-December 2021 (expected) Swetabh Patel, PhD. Interseeding cover crops and alfalfa into standing corn and soybean. Iowa State University. (Lenssen and Moore) May 2016-August 2019 Alan Peterson, MS, Interseeding camelina on standing soybean. North Dakota State University. (Berti) June 2016-December 2018 Melissa Geiszler, MS, Corn row spacing and hybrid maturity effects on establishment of interseeded cover crops. North Dakota State University. (Ransom) April 2016-December 2018. Bryce Andersen, MS Integrating faba bean (Vicia faba Roth.) into cropping systems as a cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage for grazing. North Dakota State University. (Berti). January 2017-May 2019 Kyle Aasand, MS, corn and soybean relay cropping with winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina. North Dakota State University (Johnson) June 2016-December 2021 (expected) Nick Steffl, MS, Interseeding winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina in standing corn and soybean. North Dakota State University (Johnson) January 2017-May 2019 Kory Johnson, MS. Interseeding camelina into narrow row spacing soybean of different maturity groups. North Dakota State University (Kandel) January 2017-May 2019 Alex Wittenberg, MS. Morphological differences between spring and winter camelina types. North Dakota State University (Berti) May 2018-May 2020. Mattie Schmitt, MS Measuring light interception and soil water content while assessing the development of interseeded cover crops in corn. North Dakota State University (Ransom) May 2018-May 2020. Johanna Lukaschewsky, MS. Productive and economic analysis of alfalfa-corn intercropping. (Berti) August 2016-May 2021 Postdoctoral Researchers: Maciej Kazula, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant at North Dakota State University. Alfalfa corn-intercropping. May 2016-December 2016. Heather Matthees, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in cropping systems at ARS-USDA Morris, MN (camelina and field pennycress intercropping in standing corn and soybean multilocation trial) May 2016-March 2018. Aaron Laporte, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in economics and decision tools June 2016-December 2018. North Dakota State University. Yesuf Mohammed, postdoctoral research associate at the USDA-ARS in Morris, MN, 10 December 2018-31 March 2021 His work was on Objective 2a (cover crop intercropping in standing corn and soybean multilocation trial). Andrea Cecchin, postdoctoral research associate, North Dakota State University. 1 May 2019-31 March 2021. Life cycle assessment and environmental impact assessment of cropping systems in the project. Cynthia Bartel, postdoctoral research associate, Iowa State University. 1 December 2020-31 March 2021 (cover crop intercropping). Research Scientist Dulan Samarappuli, PhD Plant Sciences June 2017-March 2021. Part-time Research Specialists Alan Peterson, MS Plant Sciences, NDSU May 2016-December 2019 Alex Wittenberg, MS Plant Sciences, NDSU January 2020-March 2021 Luke Ressler, Soil Sciences, NDSU May 2016-March 2019 How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Peer reviewed publications, conferences and symposium presentations, extension publications, CAP website, phone calls, field days, winter talk meetings, plot tours are detailed below (See "products" section). What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1. a) Improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean An 8-row unit interseeder was developed and an ultrasonic navigation sensor was added to the interseeder to avoid tire traffic on corn rows during field operations. The interseeder was used to establish on-farm experiments and interseed cover crops in collaborators' fields. b) A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid was not developed, because drilling is always a better option than aerial seeding, and only late-aerial seeding of winter rye (corn R6, soybean after leaf drop) has been consistently successful on on-farm aerial seeding. c) Microclimate within corn and soybean canopy Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was evaluated in all interseeding experiments. In corn, once canopy closes at V8 stage, light interception is 85-90%. Most cover crops did not tolerate the low light environment, except for rye. In soybean, early interseeded cover crops at canopy closure failed to establish. Light interception by soybean after canopy closure is greater than 95%. Only when the cover crops were interseeded after R6 in soybean were able to establish provided there was enough soil moisture. d) Estimation of N credits from cover crops In all experiments N in the cover crops biomass present in the fall was not recycled as expected from the C/N ratios of the residues. Nutrient cycling in corn after legume cover crops (faba bean and pea) and four N rates also did not show N cycling from legume to corn. In sugarbeet, planted after winter wheat, winter rye and winter camelina cover crops provided green soil cover in early spring and decreased gravimetric water content, which produced a decrease in sugarbeet yield. e) Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications These objective results are included in Obj. 2d. Objective 2. a) Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and field pennycress into standing corn and soybean 1. Interseeding of camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean Two different studies were conducted at four locations in three states (ND, MN, IA). In summary, interseeding winter camelina, field pennycress, and winter rye into standing corn late in the season had poor establishment. Relayed soybean yield was greater after corn than soybean. Pennycress and camelina had an impact on relayed-soybean yield but it tended to be less in the corn than the soybean system. In the soybean system (i.e., covers interseeded into standing soybean the year prior to relaying soybean), yield for soybean relayed into field pennycress and camelina were reduced by as much as 30% when compared with the control (i.e., soybean planted into plots left fallow over the winter). 2. Interseeding of cover crops into standing soybean Early-maturing varieties reduced soybean yield about 5 bu/acre compared with later maturities. Cover crop soil cover was higher in MG 0.4 but not enough to justify the yield loss. Interseeding cover crops at later soybean reproductive stages has potential to mitigate soil nitrate losses and soil erosion in areas that grow soybean as a cash crop without a yield penalty. Camelina and brown mustard interseeded into standing soybean reduced soybean cyst nematode (SCN) multiplication in SCN-resistant soybean. 3. Camelina phenotypic characterization A rapid method for oil, protein, fatty acids content and biotype was developed. Winter and summer biotypes are significantly different in leaf morphology and winter camelina optimal seeding date is after September 15. Earlier planting resulted in winter-kill. b) Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress. Insects observed in field plots of these flowers were classified into seven easily identifiable groups (bumblebee, honeybee, solitary bee, butterfly/moth, beetle, fly and other). Average seasonal observations across years and sites varied from 1.6 to 5.3 total insects/min for field pennycress and 1.4 to 4.5 insects/min for camelina. Pennycress and camelina are reliably attractive to beneficial pollinating insects across a wide geographic region, but visitation rates and proportional representation of various insect groups depended on a range of site and weather characteristics. c) Intercropping of corn and alfalfa The results, indicate that alfalfa intercropped into corn at establishment, had 2.2 to 2.5 times greater yield than the spring-seeded alfalfa following corn (business-as-usual). d) Life cycle assessment and economic analysis of cropping systems 1. LCA soybean-soybean sequence A LCA of sequences described in Obj. 2a was performed. When the environmental impacts were expressed per ha year-1, sequences with cover crops showed lower eutrophication potential and soil erosion than the control, in addition to a lower global warming potential when the cover crop did not receive additional N-fertilization. However, when the economic component was included in the assessment, and the results expressed per $ net margin, the sequences with cover crops significantly reduced their performance in all categories of impact considered. A further optimization of field management for camelina and pennycress is recommended to make the cropping system more sustainable. 2. LCA corn-soybean sequence For the corn-soybean sequence in Obj. 2a, when expressed per ha yr-1, cover crops had lower eutrophication potential and water soil erosion, and lower global warming potential if the cover crop was not fertilized with nitrogen. Camelina and pennycress were more effective than rye in reducing soil losses, while the three cover crops provided similar results for eutrophication potential. When expressed as $ net margin, sequences including camelina and pennycress were overall the worst sequences in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient and soil losses. This negative performance was mainly due to the seed yield reduction in the second year of the sequence. 3. Alfalfa-corn economics The LCA for alfalfa-corn has not been completed yet. The economic analysis in a two-year system, alfalfa intercropped with maize had higher net returns than a silage-maize followed by a spring-seeded alfalfa sequence. This system has the potential to get more growers to have alfalfa in the rotation skipping the typical low forage yield of alfalfa in the establishment year. Objective. 3. Increase awareness and adoption of sustainable management practices for long-term increased productivity in the northern Great Plains and Upper Midwestern farms. A survey was sent to farmers participating in field days and workshops organized by the project since 2016. Farmers made up nearly three quarters of the respondents. Ninety-three percent of grower respondents represent 257,600 acres of farmland across the three participating states. As expected, more acres are leased than owned. Eighty-two percent of consultant respondents cover 760,000 acres across the three states. It is very important to include consultants in outreach events. While the desired outcome is for growers to adopt practices, consultants have the potential to impact far more acres than individual growers. Cover crops practices with greatest impact were: evaluating soil health, using cover crops to manage weeds, insects, and diseases, and interseed a cover crop into a standing crop. More than three quarters of the grower respondents establish a cover crop after harvest of a cash crop (50% prior to 2016 and 28% since 2016). Growers seem to have a handle on using cover crops for erosion control - 60% were doing this prior to 2016 and 22% started after 2016. There appears to be some resistance to using aerial seeding with more than a third not considering the practice.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Schmitt, M. M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, and J. Ransom. 2021. Factors affecting the establishment and growth of cover crops intersown into maize (Zea mays L.). Agronomy 11: 712. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040712
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Kandel, H. D.P. Samarappuli, K. Johnson, and M.T. Berti. 2021. Soybean relative maturity, not row spacing affected interseeded cover crops biomass. Agriculture 11 (5): 441 https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11050441
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Berti, M.T., J. Lukaschewsky, and D.P. Samarappuli. 2021. Establishing alfalfa in intercropping with silage maize can be more profitable than spring-seeded alfalfa after silage maize. Agronomy 11(6), 1196; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061196
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Johnson, K., H. Kandel, D.P. Samarappuli, and M.T. Berti. 2021. Interseeding camelina and rye in soybean with varying maturity provides soil cover without affecting soybean yield. Agronomy 11, 353. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020353
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Cecchin, A., Pourhashem, G., R.W. Gesch, A.W. Lenssen, S. Patel, Y. Mohammed and M.T. Berti. 2021. The environmental impact of ecological intensification of a cropping system in the U.S. Upper Midwest. Sustainability 13: 1696. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041696
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Cecchin, A., Pourhashem, G., R.W. Gesch, A.W. Lenssen, S. Patel, Y. Mohamed, and M.T. Berti. 2021. Environmental trade-offs of relay-cropping winter cover crops within maize and soybean. Agric. Systems 189:103062
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Patel, S., A.W. Lenssen, K.J. Moore, Y.A. Mohammed, R.W. Gesch, M.S. Wells, B.L. Johnson, M.T. Berti, and H.L. Matthees. 2021. Interseeded pennycress and camelina yield and their influence on row crops. Agronomy J. doi: 10.1002/agj2.20655
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Ransom, J., M.T. Berti, G. Endres, D. Franzen, A. Friskop, J. Ikley, H. Kandel and M. Ostlie. 2021. Growing rye as a cover crop in North Dakota. Bull A-2021, March 2021, North Dakota State Univ. Extension, Fargo, ND.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Sigdel, S., A. Chatterjee, M.T. Berti, C. Gasch, and A. Wick. 2021. Interseeding cover crops in sugarbeet. Field Crops Res. 263: 1080709, doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108079
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Sigdel, S. A. Chatterjee, and M.T. Berti. 2021. Adoption of cover crop interseeding within sugarbeet in the Red River Valley. Crops and Soils Magazine, May-June 2021. American Society of Agronomy doi: 10.1002/crso.20117
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2021 Citation: Cecchin A. and M.T. Berti. 2021. Is ecological intensification of agriculture really sustainable? 27th International Sustainable Development Research Society (ISDRS) conference, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Mid Sweden University, Sweden, 11-15 July 2021 (virtual)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Cecchin, A., and M.T. Berti. 2021. Environmental and economic trade-offs of introducing winter camelina in the upper Midwest of the USA: A review European Biomass Conference, Marseille, France 27-29 April 2021. (virtual)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2021. Does nitrogen in cover crops biomass cycles back to the next crop? 13th Nutrient Management Conference. Minnesota Agricultural Water Resource Center (virtual) 16 February 2021. Invited speaker (242 participants).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Bibby, S., M.T. Berti, A.F. Wick, D.P. Horvath, J.V. Anderson, A. Wittenberg, A. Greenberg, and K. Mozea. 2021. Corn-alfalfa intercropping with different row spacings. American Forage and Grassland Council Conference, Savanah, GA (virtual) 11-12 January 2021
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2020 Integrating cover crops into cropping systems for better soil health- What works what doesnt? Soil Management Summit University of Minnesota. Virtual Conference. 15-16 December 2020. Invited
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2021 Citation: Johanna Lukaschewsky. 2021. Productive and economic analysis of silage maize and alfalfa intercropping. MS Thesis North Dakota State University.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Submitted Year Published: 2021 Citation: Sergio Cabello. 2021. Cover crops benefits, nitrogen credits and yield effects in maize and sugarbeet in the northern Great Plains. PhD dissertation. North Dakota State University
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Kory Johnson.2020. Relative maturities and row spacing effect on establishment of interseeded cover crops into soybean. MS Thesis North Dakota State University.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Mattie Schmitt. 2020. Factors establishment and growth of cover crops in a corn-soybean rotation. MS Thesis North Dakota State University
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Swetabh Patel. 2020. Interseeding cover crops and alfalfa into standing corn and soybean. PhD dissertation. Iowa State University.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Alex Wittenberg. 2020. Optimizing winter camelina production as a cover crop in North Dakota. MS Thesis North Dakota State University.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Alan Peterson. 2019. Intersowing cover crops into standing soybean in the Upper Midwest. MS Thesis North Dakota State University.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Bryce Andersen. 2019. Integrating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) into cropping systems as a cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage compared to with more accessible options in the upper Midwest. MS Thesis. North Dakota State University
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: Patel, S., C. Bartel, A.W. Lenssen, K.J. Moore, and M.T. Berti. 2021 Stem density, productivity, and weed community dynamics in corn-alfalfa intercropping. Agronomy (In preparation)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Other Year Published: 2021 Citation: Berti, M.T., A. Cecchin, D.P. Samarappuli, S. Patel, A.W. Lenssen, K.J. Moore, M.S. Wells, and M.J. Kazula. 2021. Establishing alfalfa intercropped with corn increases seasonal alfalfa forage yield in the following season in comparison with a spring-seeded alfalfa in the US Midwest. Agricultural Systems (In preparation)


Progress 04/01/19 to 03/31/20

Outputs
Target Audience:Target audience: Farmers, ranchers, extension agents, crop consultants, seed and equipment personnel, researchers, graduate and undergraduate students, NRCS, and USDA personnel. Evaluation plan for impact of extension activities Indicators used to evaluate the project's impact will include: i.) workshop/meeting/field day participant numbers consistent or increasing over time, ii.) self-reported increase in participant knowledge from select workshops/meetings/field days, iii.) increase in online resource numbers iv.) increase in cover crop articles and resources, and v.) increase in self-reported use of cover crop practices and equipment. Changes/Problems:In May 2019, we added Dr. Ghasideh Pourhashem from North Dakota State University ( Polymers and Coatings Department) to our project's team. She is an expert in LCA and techno-economic analyses. We also hired a postdoc in environmental sciences, Dr. Andrea Cecchin. Both of them have been collecting information from the novel cropping systems (soybean-corn intercropped with camelina, pennycress and rye and the alfalfa-corn cropping systems. A publication on Life cycle and environmental of cropping systems in Objective 2a is in preparation. The LCA for alfalf-corn Objective 2c will be conducted during the no-cost extension year of the project. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Training: Students participating in this project We have 11 graduate students working on the project, 3 PhD and 8 MS. Dates indicated are starting date and expected graduation date. Sergio Cabello, Ph.D. Nutrient credits from cover crops in no-till systems in the northern Great Plains. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti and Dr. Franzen) August 2016-May 2020. Nadia Delarvarpour, Ph.D., North Dakota State University, Improving the twin-row interseeder guidance system. (Dr. Bajwa and Mr. Nowatzki) January 2017-May 2020. Swetabh Patel, Ph.D. Interseeding cover crops and alfalfa into standing corn and soybean. Iowa State University. (Dr. Lenssen and Dr. Moore) May 2016-May 2020. Alan Peterson, MS, Interseeding camelina on standing soybean. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti) June 2016-December 2019. Graduated December 2019. Melissa Geiszler, MS, Corn row spacing and hybrid maturity effects on establishment of interseeded cover crops. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Ransom) April 2016- May 2019. Graduated May 2019. Bryce Andersen, MS Integrating faba bean (Vicia faba Roth.) into cropping systems as a cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage for grazing. North Dakota State University. Dr. Berti). January 2017 May 2019. Graduated May 2019. Kyle Aasand, MS, Corn and soybean relay cropping with winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) June 2016- May 2020. Nick Steffl, MS, Interseeding winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina in standing corn and soybean. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) January 2017-May 2019. Graduated May 2019. Kory Johnson, MS. Interseeding camelina into narrow row spacing soybean of different maturity groups. North Dakota State University (Dr. Kandel) January 2017-May 2020. Alex Wittenberg, MS. Morphological differences between spring and winter camelina types. North Dakota State University (Dr. Berti) May 2018-February 2020. Graduated February 2020. Mattie Schmitt, MS Measuring light interception and soil water content while assessing the development of interseeded cover crops in corn. North Dakota State University (Dr. Ransom) May 2018-May 2020. Postdoctoral Researchers: Yesuf Mohammed, postdoctoral research associate replaced the vacancy (vice Heather Matthees position) at the USDA-ARS in Morris, MN on December 10, 2018 for working on Objective 2 (cover crop intercropping in standing corn and soybean multilocation trial). Andrea Cecchin, postdoctoral research associate, North Dakota State University. May 2019- December 2020. Life cycle assessment and environmental impact assessment of cropping systems in the project. Research Assistants Dulan Samarappuli, PhD Plant Sciences June 2017-December 2019. Part-time Research Specialists Alan Peterson, MS Plant Sciences, NDSU May 2016-December 2019 Alex Wittenberg, MS Plant Sciences, NDSU January 2020- March 2021 Luke Ressler, Soil Sciences, NDSU May 2016-March 2019 How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Peer reviewed publications, conferences and symposium presentations, extension publications, CAP website, phone calls, field days, winter talk meetings, plot tours are detailed below (See "products" section). What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Obj. 1 a) Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean. The future prospect of this study is to design a proper hydraulic system to take the action of changing and correcting the position of the vehicle with shortest possible time delay after receiving the correction signals from the guidance sensor and controller. In this regard, a new test bench is planned to be designed. b) A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean. This decision aid tool was not done, because it was considered not practical or useful for farmers, but sub objective 2c included modeling the probability of successful establishment of cover crops. c) Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models. The field experiment was completed and the student will graduate in May 2020; a publication will be prepared from the thesis results. d) Estimation of N credits from cover crops We plan to conduct field work in soybean corn and spring wheat at Rutland and Gardner similar to in the past years. The study will conclude field work at 2020 harvest and ending soil sampling. Soil sampling to will be conducted after corn and soybean to determine whether N in cover crop in the past has been sequestered as non-exchangeable ammonium. Research on nutrient cycling in corn and sugarbeet has been completed and he will graduate June 2020. e) Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications. This objective was completed in May 2019. Two decision tools are available for farmers to use. Journal publications of economic analysis are pending to March 2021. Obj. 2 a) Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean. Interseeding of camelina and field pennycress into standing corn and soybean This study is nearing completion. Currently, we are finishing soil and plant samples analysis in the lab and processing the remaining data for publications, which should be completed by April/May 2020. In addition, we are working to complete an experiment looking at the effect of winter camelina and pennycress on soybean biological N2 fixation when soybean is relayed in winter camelina and pennycress. Data collection will be completed by October/November 2020, data analysis is expected to completed by December 2020. 2. Cover crops interseeded in sugarbeet: This experiment will be repeated in the summer of 2020. 3. Interseeded cover crops in soybean Soybean crop response trials will be planted in two locations in 2020. These trials will consist of seeding soybean after termination of any surviving cover crops from the cover crop inter-seeded into corn trials conducted in 2019. Cover crop biomass will be sampled in early May from these plots which will then be terminated with glyphosate prior to soybean planting. Data on soybean establishment, iron chlorosis and yield will be collected. Additionally, we plan to inter-seed cover crops into corn at two timings at three on-farm locations where corn hybrid trials are conducted. These plots will be used to demonstrate the cover crop growth within a corn crop. There will be discussion and training of farmers that attend a field day at these locations. We plan to complete the data analysis and preparation of two journal articles on the work conducted in the previous seasons. b)Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress This study has been completed and a publication has been submitted to a refereed journal. c) Intercropping of corn and alfalfa This objective was completed in 2019 with the experiment started in 2017 at Ames, IA, Rosemount, MN and Prosper, ND. The on-farm experiment in Valley City, ND will be completed in 2020. d) Economic analysis of cropping systems energy balance and LCA of novel cropping systems. The LCA and techno-economic analysis of Obj. 2a and 2c will be completed in 2020 and published by March 2021. Obj. 3 a) On farm replicated trials North Dakota: The on-farm experiment in Valley City, ND will be completed in 2020. Publication from this study will be completed by March 2021. The seed provided to the cooperating farmer in Marshall County, IA in fall 2018 has been transferred to the cooperating farmer in Tama County, IA who will be planting it after soybean harvest in 2020. ?Evaluation plan for impact of extension activities Indicators used to evaluate the project's impact will include: i.) workshop/meeting/field day participant numbers consistent or increasing over time, ii.) self-reported increase in participant knowledge from select workshops/meetings/field days, iii.) increase in online resource numbers iv.) increase in cover crop articles and resources, and v.) increase in self-reported use of cover crop practices and equipment.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Obj.1 a) Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean As a result of the recent experiments, we assessed the advantages and disadvantages of several sensors. An ultrasonic navigation sensor (UNS) was developed and added to the interseeder to avoid tire traffic on corn rows during field operations. b) A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean As a result of the recent experiments, we assessed the advantages and disadvantages of several sensors to improve performance of the cover crop interplanter. An UNS was developed and added to the interseeder to greatly reduced tire traffic on corn rows during field operations. b) A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in corn and soybean An experiment was established in two locations in 2019 cropping season to look at the effect of planting date, corn shading, and method of sowing on the establishment of winter camelina, radish, and rye in a corn crop. Limited light intensity (less than 20%) under the corn canopy drastically reduced cover crop development. Model simulations suggest soil water is more limiting for cover crop establishment in August compared with June or July. Interseeded cover crops had no effect on corn yield due to the minimal amounts of biomass cover crops produced. c) Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models Initial model runs show that there is substantial variability between seasons in amount of moisture in the top 5-cm of the soils during the growing season. In 2019, there was adequate or excessive moisture in almost every month. d) Estimation of N credits from cover crops At Rutland and in Gardner, ND, as in previous years, the N in the cover crops was not recycled as expected from the C/N ratios of the aboveground biomass. A separate study on nutrient cycling in corn, including legume cover crops and four N rates in corn, indicated there is no evidence of decreased corn yield when following legume cover crops. In sugarbeet, winter wheat, winter rye and winter camelina provided green soil cover in early spring and decreased gravimetric water content in the spring, and a decrease in sugarbeet yield. Obj. 2. a) Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean Interseeding of camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean Soil and plant samples collected from four locations (Ames, Morris, Prosper, and Rosemount) from 2016-2019 are being analyzed for NH4 and NO3 content and biomass N and C accumulation to evaluate the effects of interseeding cover crops on soil mineral N content and C and N sequestration from growing cover crops. Relative maturities and row spacing on establishment of interseeded cover crops into soybean The wheat canopy cover after rye was significantly lower compared with camelina or without a cover crop. The final result was that wheat yield after rye was significantly lower than after camelina or no cover. Interseeding cover crop in sugarbeet Interseeding cover crops in June or July in 2018 and 2019 did not reduce sugarbeet yield or recoverable sugar in three out of four environments but did increase sugar concentration in the root by 1%. Camelina and brown mustard to reduce soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Across all experiments, interseeding camelina and mustard or planting them in the fall preceding soybean only had an effect in SCN population if planted into a resistant soybean variety. Winter camelina fall seeding date effect on stand survival and seed yield next season Fall stand were greater at later fall sowing dates. Spring stand counts ranged from 7 to 84 plants/m2, with higher stand counts at sowing dates from early to mid-Sept. Across sowing dates that survived the winter, seed yield ranged from 99 to 1317 kg/ha. Results from these three environments indicate that when sown in Sept. and even into Oct., plants can successfully survive the winter and produce a harvestable crop. b) Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress. Average seasonal visitation rates varied from 1.6 to 5.3 insects/min for field pennycress and 1.4 to 4.5 insects/min for winter camelina. Multiple regressions showed that visitation rates for specific insect groups were correlated significantly with select variables. For example, in pennycress, visitation by bumble bees and honeybees (Apidae) increased with greater air temperature at sampling time and annual site precipitation, whereas flies (Diptera) visitation was related to sampling date and flower cover percentage. Similarly, in winter camelina, solitary bees were linked to increasing air temperature at sampling time and annual site precipitation, whereas flies were correlated with wind speed and flower cover at sampling. c) Intercropping of corn and alfalfa The third year of alfalfa evaluations were completed in Prosper, ND and Ames, IA, in 2019. Alfalfa yield was the same among all treatments indicating differences observed in 2018 between spring-seeded and alfalfa coming from intercropping no longer existed. Economic analysis of cropping systems energy balance and LCA of novel cropping systems. A life cycle assessment (LCA) study was designed to evaluate multiple environmental impacts of employing winter cover crops within a two-year rotation maize-soybean in the Upper Midwest. A multi-impact environmental assessment of four scenarios using a cradle-to-gate LCA method was conducted. Two functional units (FU, unit employed to express the results of the assessment) were chosen: a land-based functional unit and an economic one, in order to discuss the results from two different but important perspectives. Field data were used to quantify the system inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, fuel for machinery use, etc.). LCA databases were used to quantify the environmental impact of producing such inputs, while field emissions (N2O, NOx, NH3, NO3, PO4, CO2, CH4, pesticides) were estimated by using models. Multiple impacts were considered including global warming potential, eutrophication, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, erosion, C stock variation, and impact on pollinators. The results for the land-based FU showed a better environmental performance of treatments with cover crops for eutrophication and erosion for all three sites. Winter camelina and pennycress provide a better control of erosion than rye due to a longer vegetative period in Year 2, while rye outperformed the other cover crops and the control in C footprint and impact on soil C stock. The good performance of winter camelina and pennycress in eutrophication and erosion control is due to a most efficient use of soil NO3 and a reduced loss of soil particles and PO4 within the cropping system. Obj. 3. On-farm replicated trials Three farmers participated of the large on-farm trials in ND in 2019, results on these large studies were similar to those obtained in the small plots multi-location trials. Five farmers participated in replicated large strip trials in Iowa in 2018-2019. Extension activities Fifteen field days and plot tours were conducted and two conferences were organized in ND in 2019 with a combined impact to over 1000 farmers. In MN one field day was organized. Evaluation of extension impacts The survey conducted of farmers attending the 2019 DIRT workshop indicated that 40% were considering use of cover crops to manage problematic areas as a result of attending this workshop.Farmers are already doing most of cover crops practices or considering them. Cover crops have been a common topic at Café Talks since they began in 2014. The increase in adoption among respondents illustrates the success of this approach. Establishing a cover crop after a cash crop saw the most dramatic increase (9%). Establishing a cover crop in standing corn saw the most dramatic decrease (15%).

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Delavarpour, N., S. Eshkabilov, T. Bon, J. Nowatzki, and S. Bajwa. 2020. The tractor-cart system controller with fuzzy logic rules. Computer and Electronics in Agriculture.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Forcella, F., S. Patel, A.W. Lenssen, , C. Hoerning, J. Eckeberg, M.S. Wells, R.W. Gesch, and M.T. Berti. 2020. Pollinator visitation of flowering winter oilseeds (field pennycress and winter camelina). J. Poll. Ecol. Submitted
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Andersen, B., D.P. Samarappuli, A. Wick and M.T. Berti. 2020. Faba bean and pea can provide late-fall forage grazing without affecting maize yield the following season. Agronomy, 10:80.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2020 Citation: Delavarpour, N., S. Eshkabilov, T. Bon, J. Nowatzki, and S. Bajwa. 2020. Performance comparison of two guidance systems for agricultural equipment navigation. DSMIE, 541-551. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-22365-6_54
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2019 Citation: Mohammed, Y.A., H.L. Matthees, R.W. Gesch, S. Patel, F. Forcella, K. Aasand, N. Steffl, B.L. Johnson, M.S. Wells, and A.W. Lenssen. 2019. Establishing winter annual cover crops by interseeding into maize and soybean. Agron. J. doi: 10.2134/agronj2019.06.0415.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Peterson, A., D. Samarappuli, and M.T. Berti*. 2019. Intersowing cover crops into standing soybean in the US Upper Midwest. Agronomy 9: 264 http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9050264
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Wittenberg, A., J.V. Anderson, and M.T. Berti*. 2019. Winter and summer annual biotypes of camelina have different morphology and seed characteristics Ind. Crops Prod. 135:230-237.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Anderson, J.V., A. Wittenberg, H. Li, and M.T. Berti. 2019. High throughput phenotyping of Camelina sativa seeds for crude protein, total oil and fatty acids profile by near infrared spectroscopy. Ind. Crops Prod. 137:501-507.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Delavarpour, N., S. Eshkabilov, T. Bon, J. Nowatzki, and S. Bajwa. 2019. The performance analysis of tactile and ultrasonic sensors for planting, fertilizing, and cultivating cover crops. ASABE.doi: https://doi.org/10.13031/aim.201901247
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Acharya, K., G. Yan, and M.T. Berti. 2019. Cover crops as hosts of two populations of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. Crop Protection (Submitted)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Acharya, K., G. Yan, and M.T. Berti. 2019. Can camelina, crambe, and brown mustard reduce soybean cyst nematode populations? Ind. Crops. Prod. 140:111637.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Berti, M.T., G. Yan, D. Samarappuli, A. Peterson, A. Wittenberg, and J.V. Anderson. 2019. Potential benefits to the environment by integrating winter camelina in current cropping systems of the northern Great Plains of the USA. p. 131 In European Biomass Conference and Exhibition. 27-30 May 2019, Lisbon, Portugal. Available at http://www.etaflorence.it/proceedings/index.asp (verified 10 June 2019).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2020. Cover crop seed regulations and crop variety v. selection. Cover Crops In-Service, An in-person training for NDSU Extension agents, NRCS, and SCD personnel. Carrington, ND, 13 January 2020. Invited.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2020 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2020. Selecting cover crops by function. An in-person training for NDSU Extension agents, NRCS, and SCD personnel. Carrington, ND, 13 January 2020. Invited.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Berti, M.T., G. Yan, and A. Peltier 2019. Managing soybean cyst nematode with cover crops. Prairie Grains Conference Grand Forks, 11-12 December 2019. Invited
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2019.Timing and establishment of cover crops. Dakota Innovation Research and Technology Workshop Fargo, ND, 9-11 December 2019. Invited
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Berti, M.T. and Y. Lawley 2019. High protein forage options and interseeding alfalfa in corn. Dakota Innovation Research and Technology Workshop Fargo, ND, 9-11 December 2019. Invited
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Cabello, S., S. Podder, M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, B. Andersen, A. Wittenberg, and A. Peterson. 2019. Cover crops decrease initial water content, sugarbeet root yield, and residual NO3-N in the northern Great Plains. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, TX, 10-13 November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Mohammed, Y.A., H.L. Matthees, R.W. Gesch, S. Patel, F. Forcella, K. Aasand, N. Steffl, B.L. Johnson, M.S. Wells, and A.W. Lenssen. Winter annual cover crops and interseeding dates evaluation in Upper Midwest, USA. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, TX, 10-13 November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Cabello, S., S. Podder, M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, B. Andersen, A. Wittenberg, and A. Peterson. 2019. Legume fall-planted cover crops slightly increased corn yield in the northern Great Plains. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, TX, 10-13 November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Patel, S., A.W. Lenssen, K.J. Moore and M.T. Berti. 2019. Increasing overall productivity by intercropping corn and alfalfa. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, TX, 10-13 November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Patel, S., A.W. Lenssen, and K.J. Moore. 2019. Relay cropping soybean with oilseed cover crops. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, TX, 10-13 November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Franzen, D.W., M.T. Berti, S. Matthews, and A. Wick. 2019. Increase in non-exchangeable ammonium after cover crop rye and forage radish. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, TX, 10-13 November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Berti, M.T., 2019. Importance of integrating cover crops into cropping systems. First International Cover Crops Conference, Lanzhou, China 20-26 September, 2019. Invited speaker.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Anderson, J.V., W. Chao, D.P. Horvath, M.T. Berti and R.W. Gesch. 2019. Evaluation of winter hardy oilseed cover crops suitable for developing multi-cropping systems in cold and growth-limiting climates. First International Cover Crops Conference, Lanzhou, China 20-26 September 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Wittenberg, A., M.T. Berti, A. Peterson, D.P. Samarappuli, A. Greenberg, K. Mozea, S. Cabello, S. Podder, and J.V. Anderson. 2019. Fall sowing dates in camelina affected plant density. 31th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC). Tucson, AZ, 8-11 September 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Mohammed, Y.A., H.L. Matthees, R.W. Gesch, S. Patel, F. Forcella, B.L. Johnson, M.S. Wells, and A.W. Lenssen. 2019. Seed and oil yields of winter annual oilseed crops interseeded into maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [(Glycine max (L.) Merr.)]. 31th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC). Tucson, AZ, 8-11 September 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Wittenberg, A., M.T. Berti, A. Peterson, D.P. Samarappuli, A. Greenberg, K. Mozea, S. Cabello, S. Podder, and J.V. Anderson. 2019. Sowing date affects winter camelina stand. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, TX, 10-13 November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Sigdel, S. M.T. Berti, S. Cabello-Leiva, and A. Chatterjee. 2019. Interseeding cover crops under sugarbeet production. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, TX, 10-13 November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Schmitt, M. and J. Ransom. 2019. Factors affecting establishment of cover crops in corn prior to harvest. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, TX, 10-13 November 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Gesch, R.W. M.S. Wells, A. Hard, J. Eklund, J. Boots, Y.A. Mohammed. 2019. Establishing winter annual oilseeds in a maize system. 31th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC). Tucson, AZ, 8-11 September 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Schmitt, M. and J. Ransom. 2019. Factors affecting establishment of cover crops in corn prior to harvest. Annual Meeting of the Soil Health Institute: Soil Health a Global Imperative, July 2019, Sacramento, CA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Berti, M.T., G. Yan, D. Samarappuli, A. Peterson, A. Wittenberg, and J.V. Anderson. 2019. Potential benefits to the environment by integrating winter camelina in current cropping systems of the northern Great Plains of the USA. In European Biomass Conference and Exhibition. 27-30 May 2019, Lisbon, Portugal. Available at http://www.etaflorence.it/proceedings/index.asp (verified 10 June 2019).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Wittenberg, A. M.T. Berti, A. Peterson, S. Cabello, B. Andersen, and S. Podder. 2019. Industrial applications of processed camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] seed oil and meal. Annual EpsCor Conference, Fargo, ND. 27 March 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2019. Interseeding, nutrient cycling, alfalfa-corn intercropping, and winter camelina studies. Annual Coordinated Agricultural Program (CAP) project. Fargo, ND, 26-27 March, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2019 Citation: Cabello-Leiva, S. and M.T. Berti, 2019. Cover crops decrease initial water content, sugarbeet yield, and residual N-NO3 in the northern Great Plains. 35th Annual Plant Science Graduate Student Symposium. Fargo, ND, 16-15 March, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Sigdel, S., M. Berti, S.C. Leiva, and A. Chatterjee. 2020. Cover crop inter-seeding under sugarbeet production. Presented at the 50th Annual Sugarbeet Research Reporting Session of SREB, Fargo, ND, 14 January 2020.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2020 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2020. Cover crops North Dakota Report. Midwest Cover Crop Council Conference. Kansas City, MO 10-12 February 2020.


Progress 04/01/18 to 03/31/19

Outputs
Target Audience:Farmers, ranchers, extension agents, crop consultants, seed and equipment personnel, researchers, graduate and undergraduate students, NRCS, and USDA personnel. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Students participating in this project We have 11 graduate students working on the project, 4 PhD and 7 MS candidates, respectively. Sergio Cabello, PhD. Nutrient credits from cover crops in no-till systems in the northern Great Plains. North Dakota State University. (Berti and Franzen) August 2016- May 2018 Nadia Delarvarpour, PhD, North Dakota State University, Improving the twin-row interseeder guidance system. (Nowatzki and Bajwa) January 2017-May 2018 Swetabh Patel, PhD. Interseeding cover crops and alfalfa into standing corn and soybean. Iowa State University. (Lenssen and Moore) May 2016- August 2019 Alan Peterson, MS, Interseeding camelina on standing soybean. North Dakota State University. (Berti) June 2016- December 2018 Melissa Geiszler, MS, Corn row spacing and hybrid maturity effects on establishment of interseeded cover crops. North Dakota State University. (Ransom) April 2016- December 2018. Graduated. Bryce Andersen, MS Integrating faba bean (Vicia faba Roth.) into cropping systems as a cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage for grazing. North Dakota State University. (Berti). January 2017- May 2019 Kyle Aasand, MS, corn and soybean relay cropping with winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina. North Dakota State University (Johnson) June 2016- December 2018 Nick Steffl, MS, Interseeding winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina in standing corn and soybean. North Dakota State University (Johnson) January 2017-May 2019 Kory Johnson, MS. Interseeding camelina into narrow row spacing soybean of different maturity groups. North Dakota State University (Kandel) January 2017-May 2019 Alex Wittenberg, MS. Morphological differences between spring and winter camelina types. North Dakota State University (Berti) May 2018-May 2020. Mattie Schmitt, MS Measuring light interception and soil water content while assessing the development of interseeded cover crops in corn. North Dakota State University (Ransom) May 2018-May 2020. Postdoctoral Researchers: Heather Matthees, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in cropping systems at ARS-USDA Morris, MN (camelina and field pennycress intercropping in standing corn and soybean multilocation trial) May 2016-March 2018. Left the project in March 2018. Aaron Laporte, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in economics and decision tools June 2016-December 2018. North Dakota State University. Left the project in December 2018. Yesuf Mohammed, postdoctoral research associate replaced the vacancy (former Heather Matthees) at the USDA-ARS in Morris, MN on December 10, 2018 for working on Objective 2 (cover crop intercropping in standing corn and soybean multilocation trial). Research Assistants Dulan Samarappuli, PhD Plant Sciences June 2017-December 2019. Part-time Research Specialists Alan Peterson, MS Plant Sciences, NDSU Luke Ressler, Soil Sciences, NDSU How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Peer reviewed publications, conferences and symposium presentations, extension publications, CAP website, phone calls, field days, winter talk meetings, plot tours are detailed below : Websites CropSys CAP website www.cropsyscap.org: 10,190 visits and 24,397 pages viewed in 2018. NDSU Soil Health website: https://www.ndsu.edu/soilhealth/ Continues to be an outlet for soil health information including circulars to download, links and videos. It is also used to do on-line registrations, post conference information. An RSS feed was started in November, 2017 for the "in the news" tab to notify subscribers when a new story highlighting NDSU Soil Health is posted. 568 subscribers to YouTube Channel (30 December 2018). Extension events for the CAP and extension materials are published on this site as well as in the CropSys CAP website. Field day and tours (CAP researchers at each event indicated) Fifteen field days and plot tours and four conferences and workshops were organized and were conducted in North Dakota but CAP team members in 2018. Three field days were conducted in Minnesota in 2018, the third year of the project. North Dakota NDSCS Student Field Tour, Dwight, Mooreton, ND, 22 Oct, 2018. 45 participants. (Wick) Cover crops field day, Dickinson and Hettinger, ND. 19 October 2018. 30 participants (Berti) Man-Dak Zero Till Early Years Reunion. Rutland, ND, 16-17 October 2018. 35 participants. (Wick). Cover Crops Field Day on Campus Plots, Fargo, ND 18 September 2018. 65 participants (Berti, Kandel, Johnson, Gesch, Wick, Franzen). Rye and camelina interseeded in soybean and corn Steele County Plot Tour. 15 September, 2018. 21 participants. (Kandel, Ransom) NDSU Extension Efforts in Soil Health, Senator Heitkamp and Howard Buffet Visit, Fargo, ND, 14 September 2018. 25 participants. (Wick) Big Iron show. Extension booth with cover crop plants and handouts. 11-13 September 2018, Fargo, ND. (Nowatzki, Kandel, Wick) Plot tour. Interseeding soybean and corn with cover crops, Ransom County plot tour, Lisbon, ND, 30 August 2018. (Kandel, Ransom) Cover Crop Field Day, Benefits of cover crops in the farming system, including utilization of cover crops as forage, Rutland, ND. 28 August 2018. 100 participants (Wick, Berti, Franzen, Ransom, Kandel) Plot tour. Interseeding soybean with cover crops, IDC, Growing Degrees and soybean production. Sargent County plot tour, Gwinner, ND, 21 August 2018. 25 participants. (Kandel, Ransom) North Central Soybean Research Program Annual Meeting Tour of the SHARE Farm, Mooreton, ND, 8 August 2018. 45 participants. (Wick) Soil Health Bus Tour, Valley City-Fort Ransom-Jamestown, ND. 25-26 July 2018. 75 participants (Wick, Berti, Franzen) Walsh County Soil Health Extravaganza Tour 28 June 2018, Park River, ND 75 participants. (Franzen, Wick) Soil Health Tour of Toussaint Farm Wahpeton, ND. 6 June 2018. 20 participants. (Wick) NDSCS Student-Farmer Mentoring Meeting (Soil Health) Rutland, ND, 1 February 2018. 25 participants (Wick) Minnesota Camelina, field pennycress, alfalfa-corn field day. Topics included: Cover crop and alfalfa interseeding, cover crop seeding technologies, and oilseeds in double and relay cropping systems. Rosemount, MN. 14 September 2018. 15 participants. (Wells, Berti) USDA-Natural Resource Conservation Service Field Day, Beardsley, MN 10 August 2018. (Gesch) Winter Camelina Open House Field Day that specifically targeted oil processors, food entrepreneurs, culinary professionals hosted at the Southern Research and Outreach Center in partnership with Agricultural Utilization Research Initiative. Event highlighted the camelina lifecycle, from field to plate with a Chef Anderson preparing a six-course meal using USDA GRASS processed camelina oil. Waseca, MN, 27 June 2018. 50 participants (Gesch, Forcella, Wells) Workshops, conferences, and professional training Grazing Cover Crops Workshop, Grand Forks, ND, 28 January 2019. 40 participants (Berti, Wick, Sedivec, Stokka, Keena, Meehan, Ressler, Kalwar) Cropping System Economics workshop. Webinar, Learn how to properly evaluate financial, economic, and environmental tradeoffs among alternative cropping systems. 8 February 2018. 13 participants (Ripplinger) Conservation Tillage Conference. Fargo, ND. 18-19 December 2018. 350 participants. (Wick, Berti, Franzen) Midwest Cover Crops Council Annual Conference. Fargo, ND, 13-14 March 2018. 199 participants. (Berti, Wick, Ripplinger, Johnson, Franzen, Wells, Gesch, Lenssen) Café Talks Q&A session with farmers about cover crops, soil fertility, soil health. Café Talks are an informal setting for farmers to be able to talk and learn from each other about soil health, cover crops seeding, interseeding, management, no-till and other related topics. Different specialists participate in the Café Talks to aid the discussion. Dr. Abbey Wick organizes and leads the Café Talks, Dr. Franzen and Berti are among the specialists. Numbers of farmers at the Café talks varies from 10 to 60 in each session reaching over 600 farmers. In the News and popular pressOur team members were featured in the news, TV, radio, newspapers and magazines articles. A total of 63 interviews or articles were published. All interviews and articles details are included in Appendix C. Radio or TV interviews CAP researchers Gesch, R.W. Tracy Hmielowski Science Editor for Crop Science Society of America (CSSA) News wrote a research summary for promoting the paper (Gesch et al., 2018) on winter camelina, which acknowledges NIFA funding of the CAP project, in the CSSA News Magazine, July 2018. Berti, M.T. 15.Farm Talk 890; Midwest Cover Crops Council Meeting; interview with Mick Kjar, Fargo, ND. 13 March 2018. Kandel, H. Sarah Heinrich KFGO 790 Farm & Ranch Director. Interview about incorporating cover crops into soybean. 18 September, 2018. Fargo, ND. KFGO; Conservation Tillage Conference; interview with Sarah McNaughton, Fargo, ND, 18 December 2018 Farm Talk 890; Conservation Tillage Conference; interview with Mick Kjar, Fargo, ND, 12, 16, and 20 November and 4 and 11 December 2018. Freelance Radio; Cover Crops; interview with Dan Lemke, Albert Lea, MN, 30 November 2018 Farm Talk 890; Soil Health; interview with Mick Kjar, Fargo, ND, 2 October 2012 KFGO; Soil Health at Big Iron; interview with Sarah McNaughton, Fargo, ND, 9 September 2018. Stories from the Soil; Soil Health; interview with Tim Hammerich, Rutland, ND 4 September 2018. Richland County Local Newspaper; NCSRP to the SHARE Farm; interview with local reporter. Mooreton, ND, 8 August 2018 KFGO; NCSRP to the SHARE Farm; interview with Sarah McNaughton, Fargo, ND, Mooreton, ND, 8 August 2018. Farm Talk 890; Soil Health Bus Tour; interview with Mick Kjar, Fargo, ND, 17, 20, and 25 July 2018. Farm Talk 890; Soil Health Bus Tour Walsh County; interview with Mick Kjar, Fargo, ND, 7 and 29 June 2018. Farm Talk 890; Soil Health; interview with Mick Kjar, Fargo, ND, 30 May and 4 April 2018 Farm Talk 890; Midwest Cover Crops Council Wrap Up; interview with Mick Kjar, Fargo, ND, 29 June 2018. RRFN; Midwest Cover Crops Council Meeting; interview with Megan Ternquist, Fargo, ND. 13, March 2018. KFGO; Midwest Cover Crops Council Meeting; interview with Sarah Heinrich, Fargo, ND, 13 March 2018. Farm Talk 890; Midwest Cover Crops Council Meeting; interview with Mick Kjar, Fargo, ND, 16 and 20 February and 3, 5, 9, 12, and 13 March 2018. Ag News Daily; Status of Soil Health in ND; interview with Mike Pearson, Fargo, ND, 13 February 2018. AgWeek TV; Corn and Soybean Expo Panel. Fargo, ND, 13 February 2018. RRFN; Soil Health; interview with Don Wick, Fargo, ND, 13 February 2018. KFGO; Soil Health; interview with Sarah Heinrich), Fargo, ND, 13 February 2018. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Obj. 1 a) Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean. Our goal this year is to build or purchase a road hitch that will facilitate moving the interplanter by pulling it on roads using a pickup truck. b) A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean. The experiments started in 2018 will continue in 2019. c) Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models. Prior to field work in 2019, we plan to do start the modeling work with the APSIM model. This will entail formatting weather data for at least two locations, and simulating corn growth and development using 20 years of past weather data d) Estimation of N credits from cover crops This project will continue with one more sequence of corn planted after cover crops in 2019. e) Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications. Obj. 2a a) Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean. 1) Interseeding of camelina and field pennycress into standing corn and soybean In 2019, the third year of the second replication of the cover crop interseeding experiment that was initiated in 2017 will be planted to corn at all four locations to complete the three year sequences of corn-soybean-corn and soybean-soybean-corn. Corn grain yields will be collected in the fall of 2019 and seed samples will be sent to Morris, MN to analyze total C and N content. Seed samples of winter oilseeds and relayed soybean collected in 2018 will be analyzed for oil content and total C and N content. Following completion of these analyses, data will be analyzed, and a manuscript written on relay-cropping soybean with cover crops in corn-soybean and soybean-soybean systems. Another paper will be published on the performance of corn in the third year of the sequences. In 2019, analysis of nitrate-N in soil samples taken from all four locations will be completed as will analysis of total C and N of cover crop samples taken in 2018. These data will be analyzed and used to produce a manuscript on the ability of cover crops to pick up and sequester excess nitrate-N remaining after the previous crop in the cropping systems being evaluated. Additionally four of experiments described in results established in 2018 will continue in 2019. b) Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress All pollinator data has been collected for both cycles of the cover crop establishment experiment. Data analysis will be completed, and a manuscript has been initiated on this aspect of the study. c) Intercropping of corn and alfalfa Field experiments completed. Publication of this study will be completed in 2019 d) Economic analysis of cropping systems energy balance and LCA of novel cropping systems. Obj. 3 a) On farm replicated trials North Dakota: Field demonstrations will be established in Ransom, Sargent, and Steele counties to show farmers interseeded camelina, rye, and a cover crop mixture in soybean and corn. The interseeder will interseed cover crops into corn, soybean, dry bean and sunflower in 2019. Each field will be between 50-100 acres. Two farmers planted 50 acres of winter camelina each at Rutland, ND and Wahpeton, ND. Winter camelina planted in fall 2018 will be relayed with soybeans in June 2019. The alfalfa-corn on farm experiment established in Valley City in 2018 will continue in 2019. Minnesota: The Rollofson Farm trial has been completed. Iowa Five farmers working with Practical farmers of Iowa planted winter camelina in the fall of 2018 with seed grown and clean in North Dakota, growth and aboveground biomass and yield of the subsequent row crop, corn or soybean, will be recorded in 2019. Evaluation of extension impacts During the final year of the project, we will conduct a comprehensive survey of a sample growers in each of the project states. The survey will include questions to assess grower practices, potential barriers to adopting new practices, and basic demographics. All evaluation data collected during the life of the project will be aggregated and summarized. Instead of evaluating the impact using NASS2017 census data we plant to do an evaluation of extensions goals and an internal evaluation of our team members. We consider important to know what we can improve in the future on working on these large multi institutional and multidisciplinary grants and what lessons we learned on this grant. Our professional evaluator will interview each member of the team to assess their perception of the CAP grant functioning to identify the barriers that limit collaboration or progress..

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Obj. 1. a) Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean An ultrasonic navigation sensor was developed and added to the interseeder to avoid tire traffic on corn or soybean rows during field operations. b) A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean An experiment was established in two locations, Casselton and Hickson, ND, during the 2018 cropping season to look at the effect of planting date, corn shading, and method of sowing on the establishment of winter camelina, radish, and winter rye in a corn crop. Conditions were favorable for the germination and initial establishment of cover crops at the V7 stage of corn, but generally once emerged they developed slowly, with most of the radishes dying prior to corn harvest. Planting cover crops in a furrow and covering was slightly better than broadcasting, but cover crop emergence was adequate when broadcast. c) Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models The information collected in Objective 1b will be used to characterize microclimate under the corn canopy. This will be completed in 2019. d) Estimation of N credits from cover crops At Rutland and in Gardner, ND, as in 2017, the N in the cover crops was not recycled as expected from the C/N ratios of the residues. A different study on nutrient cycling in corn but including legume cover crops (faba bean and pea) and four N rates in corn indicated there is no evidence of decreased corn yield with the legume cover crops. In fact, legume cover crops increased the yield slightly in all the N rates in this study. A study in sugarbeet was conducted in 2017-2018. In summary, winter wheat, winter rye and winter camelina provided green soil cover in early spring and decreased gravimetric water content, which produced a decrease in sugarbeet yield. e) Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications This objective will be completed in 2019. Obj. 2. a) Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and field pennycress into standing corn and soybean 1. Interseeding of camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean Similar to the previous season, relayed soybean yield was greater after corn than soybean. Generally, the herbicide-killed rye had little or no effect on soybean yield, whereas field pennycress and camelina had an impact on relayed-soybean yield but it tended to be less in the corn than the soybean system. In the soybean system (i.e., covers interseeded into standing soybean the year prior to relaying soybean), yield for soybean relayed into field pennycress and camelina were reduced by as much as 30% when compared with the control (i.e., soybean planted into plots left fallow over the winter). 2. Interseeding of cover crops into standing soybean. The objective of this study was to determine the establishment and green cover of interseeded cover crops and their impact on soybean yield and quality. The four cover crops, winter camelina, Austrian winter pea, winter rye, and forage radish, were sown at R4 and R6 stages of soybean. Results indicate interseeding cover crops have no impact on soybean yield and quality. Interseeding cover crops at later soybean reproductive stages has potential to mitigate soil nitrate losses and soil erosion in areas that grow soybean as a cash crop. 3. Relativematurities and row spacing on establishment of interseeded cover crops into soybean In summary, early-maturing varieties reduced soybean yield in about 5 bu/acre compared with later maturities. Cover crop cover was higher in MG 0.4 but not enough to justify a 5 bu/acre yield loss. 4. Interseeding faba bean, forage pea, clovers and winter rye into standing corn. Rye, faba bean, and late intercropped forage pea showed the most promise, however, intercrop yields seen were relatively low due to the experiments being conducted during abnormally dry summers. 5. Interseeding cover crop in sugarbeet Interseedingover crops (camelina, rye, Austrian pea, and brown mustard) in June or July did not reduce sugarbeet yield or recoverable sugar but did increase sugar content in the root, which is a promising result. 6. Interseeding camelina, crambe and brown mustard to reduce soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Camelina and brown mustard reduced SCN egg population in a greenhouse study by 51 and 60% respectively. In a field experiment, camelina was able to decrease SCN egg population present in the soil by 32% when camelina was intersseded in the susceptible soybean variety. 7. High throughput phenotyping, seeding date and morphological differentiation of winter and spring types of camelina A NIRS calibration was developed and tested for oil, protein, fatty acids, and biotype which will allow high throughput phenotyping. Winter and summer biotypes are significantly different in leaf morphology. b) Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress. In 2018, flowering of field pennycress commenced two to three weeks later than in 2017. Flower cover of field pennycress reached 2 to 3.5% at all sites. Winter camelina flowered successfully at all sites in 2018, reaching about 2% cover in Morris and Rosemount, but less than 1% cover in Ames. Anthesis of winter camelina typically commenced one to two weeks later than that of field pennycress both years. c) Intercropping of corn and alfalfa The results across seven environments, indicate that alfalfa yield was greater for alfalfa established alone the first year compared with the other treatments. Alfalfa intercropped into corn at establishment, with or without prohexadione application, had lower yield than alfalfa seeded alone, but 2.2 to 2.5 times greater yield than the spring-seeded alfalfa following corn (business-as-usual, conventional system). However, early economic outputs indicate this system has a positive outcome. In Year 1, corn yield decreases on average 30 bu/acre due to the competition alfalfa imposes. In Year 2, alfalfa yield increases in about 2.5 tons/acre compared with spring-seeded alfalfa. d) Economic analysis of cropping systems energy balance and LCA of novel cropping systems. This objective will be completed in 2019. Obj. 3. a) On farm replicated trials Six farmers participated of the large on-farm trials in North Dakota and two in Minnesota, results on these large studies were similar to those obtained in the small plots multi-location trials. b) Extension activities Fifteen field days and plot tours were conducted and two conferences were organized in North Dakota in 2018 with a combined impact to over 1000 farmers. In Minnesota, two field days were organized and in Iowa five cooperating farmers planted winter camelina last fall. c) Evaluation of extension impacts Participants at 6 NDSU extension events completed an online survey to assess the events, provide data on adopted practices, and provide feedback on potential barriers to adopting new project-related practices. All respondents rated the events at least somewhat useful; 48% rated them very useful. All but 7% of respondents used the information from events they attended; 100% shared the information with others. The greatest impact on grower practices as a result of attending one or more events include: 35% of grower respondents use cover crops for soil moisture management; 31% use cover crops to manage pests; 22% establish a cover crop in a standing cash crop; 19% use cover crops to management problematic areas (e.g., salinity); and 19% use cover crops for nutrient management. The greatest potential impact among grower respondents is 67% are considering using cover crops to attract pollinators as a result of attending an event. The greatest barriers for grower respondents are the cost (56%) and the lack (50%) of interseeding equipment.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Anderson, J.V., A. Wittenberg, H. Li., and M.T. Berti. 2019. High throughput phenotyping of Camelina sativa seeds for crude protein, total oil and fatty acids profile by near infrared spectroscopy. Ind. Crops Prod. (Submitted)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Submitted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Acharya, K., G. Yan, and M.T. Berti. 2019. Can camelina, crambe, and brown mustard reduce soybean cyst nematode populations? Ind. Crops. Prod. (Submitted)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Wick, A.F., J. Haley, C. Gasch, T. Wehlander, L. Briese, and S. Samson-Liebig. 2019. Network-based Approaches for Soil Health Research and Extension Programming in North Dakota, USA. Invited Submission, Soil Use and Management, Special Issue: Soil Knowledge Sharing and Exchange. (in press).
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Gesch, R.W., H.L. Matthees, A.L. Alvarez, and R. Gardner. 2018. Winter camelina: Crop growth, seed yield, and quality response to cultivar and seeding rate. Crop Sci. 58:2089-2098.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Franzen, D., A.F. Wick, H. Bu, L. Ressler, J. Bell, M.T. Berti, and C. Gasch, 2019. Nitrogen non-cycling from cover crops grown before corn and spring wheat- Unexpected early project results. Advanced Crops Advisors Workshop. Fargo, ND. 13 February 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Peterson, A. M.T. Berti, D.P. Samarappuli, S. Cabello, B. Andersen, and S. Podder. 2019. Interseeding Cover Crops into Standing Soybean. Advanced Crops Advisors Workshop. Fargo, ND. 13 February 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2018. Where to start with cover crops. 14th Annual Conservation Tillage Conference, Fargo, ND, 18-19 December 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wick, A.F. and S. Schenk. 2018. Cover Crops and Crop Insurance.14th Annual Conservation Tillage Conference, Fargo, ND, 18-19 December 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wick, A.F. 2018. SHARE Farm Research and Extension Updates. 14th Annual Conservation Tillage Conference, Fargo, ND, 18-19 December 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wick, A.F. 2018. Cover Crop Ideas. 14th Annual Conservation Tillage Conference, Fargo, ND, 18-19 December 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wick, A.F. and T. Wagner. 2018. Using Soil Health Practices On-Farm. Central Dakota Ag Day, Carrington, ND. 13 December 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wick, A.F., Endres, G. and M. Vig. 2018. Cover Crop ID and Use, Central Dakota Ag Day. Carrington, ND. 13 December 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wick, A.F. 2018. Getting Started with Soil Health Discussion, Central Dakota Ag Day, Carrington, ND. 13 December 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wick, A.F. and D. Franzen. 2018. In depth look at using cover crops. Northern AgExpo. Fargo, ND, 25 November 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Franzen, D., A.F. Wick, H. Bu, L. Ressler, J. Bell, M.T. Berti, and C. Gasch, 2018. Nitrogen non-cycling from cover crops grown before corn and spring wheat- Unexpected early project results. Northern AgExpo. Fargo, ND, 25 November 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Cabello-Leiva, S., M.T. Berti, A. Peterson, D. Samarappuli, S. Podder, B. Andersen, and A. Wittenberg. 2018. Cover crops decreased soil N-NO3 prior to sugarbeet production in the northern Great Plains. ASA-CSSA International Annual Meetings, Baltimore, MD, 4-7 November 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Patel, S., A.W. Lenssen, K. Moore, M.T. Berti, and R.W. Gesch. 2018. Establishing field pennycress and winter camelina as cash cover crop in corn-soybean rotation systems. ASA-CSSA International Annual Meetings, Baltimore, MD, 4-7 November 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Patel, S., A.W. Lenssen, K. Moore, and M.T. Berti, 2018 Management and productivity of corn and alfalfa intercropping. ASA-CSSA International Annual Meetings, Baltimore, MD, 4-7 November 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Andersen, B. and M.T. Berti. 2018. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as a cover crop, intercrop and late-season forage in the Midwest. ASA-CSSA International Annual Meetings, Baltimore, MD, 4-7 November 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Peterson, A., M.T. Berti, D.P. Samarappuli, S. Cabello, B. Andersen, and S. Podder. 2018. Maximizing cover crop performance by interseeding cover crops into standing soybean. 30th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC). Pathway to commercialization of Industrial Crops. London, Ontario, Canada 23-26 September 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wick, A.F. and D. Franzen. 2018. Soil Health Q and A, ND Association of Soil Conservation Districts Annual Meeting. Bismarck, ND. 19 November 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Franzen, D., A.F. Wick, H. Bu, L. Ressler, J. Bell, M.T. Berti, and C. Gasch, 2018. Nitrogen non-cycling from cover crops grown before corn and spring wheat- Unexpected early project results. North Central Extension-Industry Soil Fertility Conference, Des Moines, IA, 14 November, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wick, A.F. and D. Franzen. 2018. Nitrogen non-cycling in cover crops in a dry season. ASA-CSSA International Annual Meetings, Baltimore, MD, 4-7 November 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Berti, M.T., B.L. Johnson, H. Kandel, J. Ransom, A. Wick, D. Franzen, D. Ripplinger, J. Nowatzki, A. Peterson, M.S. Wells, A. Lenssen, S. Patel, R.W. Gesch, F. Forcella, and H. Matthees. 2018. CROPSYS-CAP- A novel management approach to increase productivity, resilience, and long term sustainability of cropping systems in the northern Great Plains-Research Update. 30th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC). Pathway to commercialization of Industrial Crops. London, Ontario, Canada 23-26 September 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wittenberg, A., M.T. Berti, D.P. Samarappuli, S. Cabello, B. Andersen, S. Podder, A. Peterson, and J.V. Anderson. 2018. Morphological characteristics of winter and summer biotypes of camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.]. 30th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC). Pathway to commercialization of Industrial Crops. London, Ontario, Canada 23-26 September 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Anderson, J.V., A. Wittenberg, and M.T. Berti. 2018. Analysis of fatty acid profiles and percent oil and protein content in seeds of summer and winter-biotypes of Camelina sativa using near infrared spectroscopy. 30th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC). Pathway to commercialization of Industrial Crops. London, Ontario, Canada 23-26 September 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Gesch, R.W., M. Ott, H. Matthees, and F. Forcella. Improving productivity of relay-cropping industrial oilseeds with soybean. 30th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC). Pathway to commercialization of Industrial Crops. London, Ontario, Canada 23-26 September 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Delavarpour, N., J. Nowatzki, T. Bon, and S. Bajwa. 2018. Evaluations of a novel ultrasonic guidance system for cover crop planter grain cart. Annual International Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Detroit, MI 30-31 July, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Kandel, H. 2018. How can we incorporate cover crops into the farming system? Challenges and opportunities. Soil Health Workshop. Langdon, ND, 11 April 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2018. Alfalfa-corn intercropping. Midwest Cover Crops Council Annual Conference, Fargo 13-14 March 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Peterson, A., M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, B. Andersen, S. Cabello, and S. Podder. 2018. Maximizing cover crop performance by interseeding into standing soybean. Midwest Cover Crops Council Annual Conference, Fargo 13-14 March 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Andersen, B., M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, A. Peterson, S. Cabello, and S. Podder. 2018. Faba bean (Vicia faba Roth.) as cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage. Midwest Cover Crops Council Annual Conference, Fargo 13-14 March 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Gesch, R.W., H. Matthees, B. Johnson, and F. Forcella. Interseeding cover crops and relay systems, Midwest Cover Crops Council Annual Conference, Fargo, ND 13-14 March 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Cabello, S., M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, B. Andersen, A. Peterson, and S. Podder. 2018. Cover crops decrease soil nitrogen (N-NO3) previous sugarbeet production in the northern Great Plains. Midwest Cover Crops Council Annual Conference, Fargo, ND, 13-14 March 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Franzen, D. 2018. Nutrient cycling in cover crops. Midwest Cover Crops Council Annual Conference, Fargo, ND, 13-14 March 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Patel, S., A.W. Lenssen, K. Moore, M.T. Berti, and R.W. Gesch and H. Matthees. 2018. Integrating oilseed cash cover crops in a corn and soybean rotation system in Iowa. Midwest Cover Crops Council Annual Conference, Fargo, ND, 13-14 March 2018. Wick, A.F. 2018.Tips from on-farm cover crop trials. Midwest Cover Crops Council Annual Conference, Fargo, ND, 13-14 March 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wick, A.F., C. Gasch, L.Briese, T. Wehlander, and A. Hohenhause. 2018. Approaches for Cover Crops and Soil Health. Commodity Classic, Anaheim, CA, 28 February, 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Wick, A.F. and J. DeJong-Hughes. Soil health session. Advanced crop advisors workshop, Fargo, ND. 14 February 2018.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Geiszler, M. 2019. Corn row spacing and hybrid maturity effects on establishment of interseeded cover crops. MS thesis. North Dakota State University.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Berti M.T. 2018. Seven soil health takeaways. Dakota Farmer. October 23, 2018
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Berti, M.T., 2018. Alfalfa-corn intercropping may increase forage and improve soil health. North Dakota Research Report. Forage Focus, December 2018, p. 17.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Kandel, H. 2018. Cover crops Planted during the summer. Cover Crops Pest Report 19 July 2018 no. 12:5.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2019. Cover crops North Dakota report. Midwest Cover Crops Annual Conference. Springfield, IL. 20-21 February 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Berti, M.T. and K. Sedivec. 2019. Cover crops selection and timing. Grazing Cover Crops Workshop, Grand Forks, ND, 28 January 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Ripplinger, D.G. and A. DeLaporte. Measuring Environmental Impacts of Alternative Cropping Systems, Association of Natural Resource Extension Professionals Annual Meeting, Biloxi, MS. 30 April 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Ripplinger, D.G. and A. DeLaporte. Economics of interseeding. 2018 Midwest Cover Crops Council Annual Meeting, Fargo, North Dakota. 14 March 2018.


Progress 04/01/17 to 03/31/18

Outputs
Target Audience:Target Audience: Farmers, extension agents, consultants, seed and equipment companies personnel, researchers, graduate and undergraduate students, NRCS and USDA personnel. Extension activities included 13 field days and tours, 4 workshops, 10 Café talks about cover crops, 11 extension publications, and numerous invited presentations or interviews. On February 1, Dr. Wick and cooperating farmers conducted a farmer mentoring workshop for 20 North Dakota State College of Science students. These students are generally young farmers from the region who are enrolled in a two-year agricultural program and have a specific interest in using cover crops on their farms. The Soil and Soil Water Workshop, 2018 at the Fargodome included a presentation to 225 crop consultants, farmers, and ag-industry representatives, the Corn and Soybean Expo in Fargo February 13, included a cover crop presentation and update by Dr. Wick to over 500 farmers with considerable interaction. Dr. Wick and her colleague Jodi Dejong-Hughes from University of Minnesota also addressed 150 crop consultants at the Advanced Crop Advisors Workshop, February 14, 2018. On February 15, Dr. Wick presented to 75 MinnDak Sugar Beet Coop. growers about including cover crops in the corn, soybean, and wheat phases of their rotation. The outreach has extended beyond the borders of North Dakota, with Chris Augustine, Soil Health Area Specialist from Minot, using Dr. Wick's information in a presentation to 200 farmers at a Soil Health day in Mitchell, SD, February 15, 2018. The economic framework that incorporates environmental impacts was delivered as part of the Farm Business Management in-service in November, 2017, as part of three face-to-face local trainings in January and February 2018, and developed into an input management packaged program for county agents to deliver in February 2018. a) Evaluation of extension impacts The evaluation of the first two years of the project in conjunction with a NC-SARE Professional Development Program (2015-2017) included the surveys of attendees to 22 field days and winter workshops with more than 500 participants. Workshops and professional training During the project, we held three separate Train the Trainer workshops for cover crops; two in Fargo, ND, and one in Langdon, ND. We had 19 extension agents participating of the workshops. These agents accounted for about one-third of the workshop participants. Other university research and extension personnel accounted for nearly another third, and the rest included industry representatives, crop consultants, and various state and federal agencies. Attendees who completed cover crop "tests" before and after training averaged a 16% gain in scores from 64% pre-workshop to 80% post workshop. In addition to cover crop identification, topics covered by the experts included: cover crops grazing, soil health improvement, soil salinity control with cover crops, soybean cyst nematode reduction with cover crops, cover crops N and P uptake, nutrient cycling, soil erosion reduction, importance of mycorrhizae, and residual herbicide injury to cover crops and how to avoid it. Train the Trainer impacts - the domino effect The point of train the trainer events is that those attending the training will then take what they've learned to train others. We were very successful in this area, according to survey respondents, 81% of whom rated the workshops very or extremely useful. Key findings from the survey include: • 97% of respondents used what they learned at these three workshops to create cover crop activities in their part of the state • 91% shared what they learned with their colleagues • 89% shared what they learned with farmers Field day and tours 1. Cover crops for grazing workshop. 22 January 2017, Havana, ND (77 participants) 2. Farm tour, Brekers farm, interseeding cover crops on-farm experiments. 20 October 2017. Havana, ND. (20 participants) 3. Cover crops field day. North Dakota State University Experimental Station, 26 September 2017. Fargo, ND. (82 participants) 4. Cover crops interseeding field day. NDSU Extension. 15 August 2017. Rutland, ND. (88 participants) 5. Field day. Using Cover crops and grazing tools. NDSU Extension. 25 July 2017, Gardner, ND. (58 participants) 6. Field day North Dakota State University and Univ. of Minnesota Extension, 28 June 2017, West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris, MN. (190 participants) 7. 2nd Annual Cover Crop Field School and Learning Tour. 8 September 2017. Rushmore, MN. (64 participants) (Wells) 8. Institute for Ag Professionals Field School. 17 July 2017. St. Paul, MN. 9. Stearns County Soil and Water Conservation District Cover Crop Field Day. 16 May 2017. Richmond, MN. 10. Cover Crops Meta Analysis. UMN Extension, UMN Beef Team Cow/Calf days. Educational topics: Aspects of soil health: processes mediated by the small, functional relations of cover crop biomass, total plant N, and subsequent impacts on soil extractable N. 27 January and 28 February. LeCenter, MN. (20 participants). 11. Interseeding cover crops: What works so far. 15 February 2017. Fergus Falls, MN 12. Cover crops interseeding in V2-V10 corn. UMN Beef Team Cow/Calf Days 23-25 January 2017. Mora, Glenwood and Pipestone, MN. (30 participants at each location). 13. Cover crops interseeding in V2-V10 corn. SROC Winter Crops Days, 12 January 2017. Lake Crystal, and Hutchinson, MN. (30 participants at each location). Workshops and professional training 1. Cover Crop Interseeding: A New Pathway for Enhanced Adoption. Crop Pest Management Short Course & Minnesota Crop Production Retailers Association Trade Show. December 2017, St. Paul, MN. (80 participants ). 2. Train -the-trainer and cover crops workshop 7-8 March 2017. Fargo, ND. ( 25 participants). ) 3. Cover Crop Workshop-UMN Extension. Educational topics: Soil health, what it is, and how to improve it. Presented research on cover crop interseeding and presented outreach materials on the oilseed production system 2 March 2017. Owatonna, MN. (80 participants). 4. Farm Business Management Extension In-service. Managing Crop Inputs. 7 November 2017. Bismarck, ND. (20 participants). 5. Crop Economics Workshop-NDSU Extension. Educational topics: Managing crop inputs, the environmental cost and benefits of alternative production practices including those that accrue of time. January 24, Devils Lake (10 participants); 25 January. Minot, ND. (10 participants); 9 February 2018, Carrington, ND. (15 participants). (Ripplinger and Delaporte). 6. Managing Crop Inputs. 7 February 2018, Napoleon, ND. (30 participants). (Ripplinger and Delaporte) Café Talks Q&A session with farmers about cover crops, soil fertility, soil health. Café Talks are an informal setting for farmers to be able to talk and learn from each other about soil health, cover crops seeding, interseeding, management, no-till and other related topics. Different specialists participate in the Café Talks to aid the discussion. Dr. Abbey Wick organizes and leads the Café Talks, Dr. Franzen and Berti are among the specialists. Numbers of farmers at the Café talks varies from 10 to 30 in each session impacting over 400 farmers. 9 and 30 January, 2018, Lisbon, ND 10 January 2018, Rutland, ND 11 and 25 January 2018, Jamestown, ND 16 January and 20 February, 2018, MacVille, ND 23 January and 22 February, 2018, Lamoure, ND 29 January, 2018, Park River, ND Changes/Problems: The project objectives and activities remain unchanged. One of the co-PD of the project Dr. Adnan Akyuz, from North Dakota State University, will no longer continue to participate in the project. His absence won't affect the project's outcomes. Plans to continue with his portion are already in place. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Training: Students participating in this project We have 11 graduate students working on the project, 4 PhD and 7 MS candidates, respectively. Sergio Cabello, PhD. Nutrient credits from cover crops in no-till systems in the northern Great Plains. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti and Dr. Franzen) August 2016- May 2018 Dulan Samarappuli, Ph.D. Productivity and life cycle analysis of novel cropping systems in North Dakota. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti) April 2016- June 2017. Graduated. Nadia Delarvarpour, PhD, North Dakota State University, Improving the twin-row interseeder guidance system. (Nowatzki and S. Bajwa) January 2017-May 2018 Swetabh Patel, PhD. Interseeding cover crops and alfalfa into standing corn and soybean. Iowa State University. (Dr. Lenssen and Dr. Moore) May 2016- August 2019 Alan Peterson, MS, Interseeding camelina on standing soybean. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti) June 2016- December 2018 Melissa Geiszler, MS, Corn row spacing and hybrid maturity effects on establishment of interseeded cover crops. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Ransom) April 2016- May 2018 Bryce Andersen, MS Integrating faba bean (Vicia faba Roth.) into cropping systems as a cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage for grazing. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti). January 2017- May 2019 Kyle Aasand, MS, corn and soybean relay cropping with winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) June 2016- December 2018 Nick Steffl, MS, Interseeding winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina in standing corn and soybean. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) January 2017-May 2019 Kory Johnson, MS. Interseeding camelina into narrow row spacing soybean of different maturity groups. North Dakota State University (Dr. Kandel) January 2017-May 2019 Alex Wittenberg, MS. Morphological differences between spring and winter camelina types. North Dakota State University (Dr. Berti) May 2018-May 2020. Postdoctoral Researchers: Heather (Dose) Matthees, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in cropping systems at ARS-USDA Morris, MN (camelina and pennycress intercropping in standing corn and soybean multilocation trial) Aaron Laporte, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in economics and decision tools. North Dakota State University. Undergraduate students: Taylor Bullock- (Univ. of Minnesota, Morris) 2017 Alex Wittenberg (North Dakota State University) January-May 2018 How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Peer reviewed publications, conferences and symposium presentations, extension publications, CAP website, phone calls, field days, winter talk meetings, plot tours are detailed below (See "products" section). What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Obj. 1 a) Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean. Task completed. Fine-tuning of the new planter will continue. Improving directional system. It will be used to establish on-farm research plots in 2018 in North Dakota. Navigation Sensor for Grain Cart on Interseeder We will conduct additional tests on the grain cart guidance system, collect field maps showing path of motion., and run the test in field in different situation such as no till, cover crop, fertilizing, etc Use of UAVs to Monitor Cover Crop Growth and Impact to Existing Crop We will collect multispectral imagery of growing cover crops inter-planted in soybean fields at the NDSU Agronomy Seed Farm at Casselton, ND. Collection will be biweekly imagery during July and August over the inter-planted fields. Crop growth and development and yield on between areas of the field with and without cover crops will be compared. a) A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean. The crop model, DSSAT, will be used to estimate the frequency of conditions being favorable for the establishment of interseeded cover crops in corn in two locations in North Dakota. Field plots will be established where cover crops will be interseeded at two dates, with and without incorporation, to verify the findings from the model for at least the 2018 growing season. A second series of experiments will be established to examine the rooting patterns of cover crops that are interseeded by broadcasting or by furrow planting into corn at two dates. The objective of this research is to determine if surface seeded winter rye, winter camelina, and radish establish roots and crowns that develop similarly to these crops when seeded below the surface of the soil. c) Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models. In 2018, soil moisture, temperature, and relative humidity under corn and soybean canopy will be determined every two weeks throughout the growing seasonSoil moisture will be determined from 0-15 cm at the time of cover crop seeding and weekly after. d) Estimation of N credits from cover crops At Rutland and Gardner, ND, the plot areas following soybean and spring wheat will have six N rates imposed on cover crop and no-cover crop main plots to determine the contribution of cover crop N to 2018 corn (after spring wheat) and corn (following soybean). Moisture sensors and a downloadable internet-accessible weather station will be included at each N rate site. Cover crops will be seeded in corn experiments at about stage V6, in spring wheat after harvest, and in soybean at the beginning of senescence, stage R7. e) Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications. Economic models that consider environmental dimensions of the alternative cropping systems have been developed. Baseline data has been use to validate their performance. These economic models will be updated with field trial and other data from the literature in 2018. Obj. 2a a) Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean. All experiments established in 2016 will be continued or repeated. 1) Interseeding of camelina and field pennycress into standing corn and soybean All experiments established in 2016 and 2017 will be continued through 2018 and 2019, respectively. Surviving winter camelina, winter rye, and field pennycress from fall plantings in 2017 will be evaluated in the spring of 2018 for winter survival. For cover crop plots with winter camelina and field pennycress, soybean will be relay-seeded (interseeded) into the cover crops and adjacent to the previous crop rows of corn and soybean. The camelina and field pennycress will be harvested for grain in mid- to late June and soybean from all plots will be harvested in the fall. For the experiments established in the fall of 2016, corn will be planted in all the plots to determine the system effect on corn yields. This will be repeated in 2019 for the plots that were established in 2017. Additionally four experiments established in 2017 will continue in 2018 and one new experiment will be established including: i.) interseeding cover crops in standing soybean of different maturities, ii.) interseeding legumes and rye into standing corn and after wheat, iii.) cover crops variety and seeding date trial, iv.) winter cover crop variety trials, seeding date, and morphological differentiation of winter and spring types of camelina, and v.) (New) cover crops used to reduce soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). b) Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress Pollinator visitations to camelina and field pennycress will be evaluated for a second year in the spring of 2018 at the same locations as in 2017. Broad groups of pollinating/visiting insects will be identified and recorded within each plot as per the protocol. c) Intercropping of corn and alfalfa The experiments established in 2017 will be continued in 2018. A peer-reviewed publication is nearly ready for submission and has been reviewed once by coauthors. d) Economic analysis of cropping systems energy balance and LCA of novel cropping systems. Life cycle assessment of cropping systems developed will be started in 2018 with results incorporated into updated versions of the existing financial calculators. Obj. 3 a) On farm replicated trials Yields and biomass of cover crops will be collected along with yields of relayed soybeans and corn at Rutland and Gardner, ND, or other participating grower. There will be two cover crops; winter camelina and winter rye and a combination of the two, seeded at two different growth stages of the soybean and corn, compared with a control (no cover crop). Field observations will be regularly conducted as well as videoing of the growth stages of the main crop and the cover crops during the season. The demonstration will be used for educational events and training. b) Extension activities Our outreach plan will have a multi-faceted approach. Research farm demonstrations, field days, regional workshop, county based educational events, educational material development, web based education, Soil Health bus tour, and one-on-one consultations are all part of the extension outreach. A regional research based will take place in March of 2018 in Fargo, ND. A field tour will be organized in the summer of 2018 to the on-farm replicated plots. A fall field day on cover crops will be organized in 2018 in Fargo, ND. Information gathered during 2017 will be edited and posted on the http://www.cropsyscap.org web site. A field day will be held in Barrett, MN where strips of winter camelina and winter rye have been established in standing corn and following spring wheat. The timing of the field day will coincide with harvest of the winter camelina . A replicated demonstration of interseeded winter camelina will be planted in western Iowa in fall of 2017. A summer field day will be held at the research site near Boone, IA. An online factsheet will be prepared and made available through the ISU Extension and Outreach store. Target audience: Includes farmers, crop consultants, extension personnel, and companies interested in bioenergy feedstocks. b) Evaluation plan for impact of extension activities To evaluate each one of the outcomes in the logic model an external evaluator will be hired. Indicators used to evaluate the project's impact will include: i.) workshop/meeting/field day participant numbers consistent or increasing over time, ii.) self-reported increase in participant knowledge from select workshops/meetings/field days, iii.) increase in online resource numbers iv.) increase in cover crop articles and resources, and v.) increase in self-reported use of cover crop practices and equipment.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Obj. 1. a) Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean In 2017, the accuracy of a navigation system for the grain cart attached to the interseeder was evaluated. b) A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean This activity has been delayed to 2018. c) Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models Data were collected in corn, soybean, and corn-alfalfa cropping to characterize light conditions under the crop canopies. The results indicated that available soil water during the three weeks following interseeding is critical for the cover crop establishment and survival. Photosynthetically active radiation under both the corn and soybean leaf canopies is the main driver of interseeded cover crop growth. d) Estimation of N credits from cover crops Experiments were established near Rutland, and near Gardner, ND, in 2016 and 2017. Corn interseeded at stages V6-V8 with winter rye, radish or winter camelina emerged and established stands that did not compete adversely with corn performance. Soybean interseeded at V6-V8 with winter rye did not affect soybean yield, but the addition of radish and winter camelina reduced soybean yield in the first growing season. e) Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications The decision-tools are currently undergoing final review, as part of NDSU Extension best management practices, and will be published online at ag.ndsu.edu/farmmanagement/tools in March 2018. Obj. 2. a) Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and field pennycress into standing corn and soybean Seven different experiments were conducted in 2017 to address specific aspects of this objective. As we collect information on the original experiment proposed (Study 1 below), new research questions have arisen for which we have designed new experiments. 1. Interseeding of camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean The research was conducted at Prosper, ND, Ames, IA, and Morris and Rosemount, MN. The final results from data collected over two growing seasons from seven locations indicates that a distinct latitudinal gradient exists for optimum times to interseed winter annual cover crops into standing corn and soybean. Greater establishment success was achieved with all winter annual cover crops in this study at more northerly locations. Establishing winter annual cover crops in standing corn was more difficult, and greater success was achieved by establishment into standing soybean. 2. Interseeding of cover crops into standing soybean. The experiment consisted of six cover crops interseeded at the R4 and R6 reproductive stages of soybean. Winter pea provided the most soil cover at both environments compared with any other cover crop. Fall soil residual NO3-N was significantly higher in the check treatment compared with the plots with cover crops. 3. Relative maturities and row spacing on establishment of interseeded cover crops into soybean When cover crops were interseeded into the early maturing soybean variety at stage R6, the cover crops coverage was nearly half compared with the cover crops interseeded at R6 in the late maturing variety. Winter rye produced nearly four times the biomass as compared with that of winter camelina. 4. Interseeding camelina and rye in corn at different stages, row spacing, and hybrid maturity. Corn hybrid relative maturity did not have a significant effect on fall cover crop biomass, but significantly affected spring biomass accumulation. Corn row spacing and cover crop interseeding date did not significantly affect cover crop biomass. 5. Interseeding faba bean, forage pea, clovers and winter rye into standing corn. No difference in soil NO3-N or biomass was found between the cover crop treatments or the check treatment (no cover crop) in both studies, interseeded into corn or seeded after wheat. 6. Variety and seeding date trial Thirty one cover crops were established on two seeding dates (27 July and 23 Aug. 2017) in Fargo, ND, in 2017. Warm-season annuals had greater biomass N accumulation in the first seeding date compared with the second seeding date. Most field pennycress plants survived the winter of 2016/2017 in Fargo, ND, but winter survival of fall established camelina was poor. b) Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress. Pollinator visitation data were collected throughout the flowering period for winter camelina and field pennycress at each site in the project. The estimated average percent flowering visitation during the period of flowering was 0.5% for pennycress and 0.4% for camelina. Overall, field pennycress tended to attract more flies while camelina attracted more small (native) bees. c) Intercropping of corn and alfalfa The experiment was established at four and three locations in 2016 and 2017, respectively. In the seeding year, alfalfa seasonal forage yield was significantly greater when alfalfa did not have to compete with corn during establishment. Prohexadione (a growth regulator) did not improve alfalfa biomass or plant density in the seeding year. Seasonal forage yield of alfalfa established in 2016 was significantly greater than the 2017 spring-seeded alfalfa. d) Economic analysis of cropping systems energy balance and LCA of novel cropping systems. This activity will start in 2018. Obj. 3. a) On farm replicated trials On-farm trials were conducted with the new interseeder in Rutland and Gardner, ND, in 2017. All nutrient cycling studies in both corn and soybean were done in the on-farm replicated trials (results in Obj. 1d). In Morris, MN, 5 acres were planted with winter camelina in the fall of 2016. In May 2017, soybean was relayed planted into standing camelina and camelina grain was harvested at the end of June. Strips of cover crops were planted during the R7 and R5 stage in soybean and corn, respectively in Barrett, MN. The cover crops established well in standing corn, however cover crop establishment failed in soybean. a) Extension activities The website was completed and is available at www.cropsyscap.org. Extension activities included 13 field days and tours, 4 workshops, 10 Café talks about cover crops, 11 extension publications, and numerous invited presentations or interviews. b) Evaluation of extension impacts Train the Trainer impacts - the domino effect According to survey respondents, 81% of whom rated the workshops very or extremely useful. Key findings from the survey include: (i) 97% of respondents used what they learned at these three workshops to create cover crop activities in their part of the state, (ii) 91% shared what they learned with their colleagues, and (iii) 89% shared what they learned with farmers Farmer impacts and outcomes - changes in attitudes and behavior The greatest change in behavior among respondents was establishing a cover crop after harvest of a cash crop (50%) and using cover crops for soil erosion control (51%). The greatest potential for adoption of new practices included establishing a cover crop in a standing cash crop (51%) and interseeding at the time of side-dressing N into corn (50%). These two are a direct impact of this CAP project, since interseeding is the main topic shared at extension activities of the CAP.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Anderson, J.V., W.S. Chao, D.P. Horvath, R.W. Gesch, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Progress towards developing early maturing winter varieties of Camelina sativa as oilseed cover crops for northern climates. 29th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC), Ames, IA, 10-13 September, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Gesch R., H. Matthees, A. Alvarez, and R. Gardner 2017. Winter camelina: cultivar variation and sowing rate. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops 29th annual meeting, Ames, IA. 10-13 September 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Steffl, N.J., K.A. Aasand, B.L. Johnson, P.J. Petersen, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Relay cover crops in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cropping systems in eastern North Dakota. In Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops 29th annual meeting, Ames, IA. 10-13 September 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Aasand, K.A., N.J. Steffl, B.L. Johnson, P.J. Petersen, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Corn relay cropping with winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina. In Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops 29th annual meeting, Ames, IA. 10-13 September 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Matthees, H., M. Thom, F. Forcella, and R.W. Gesch. 2017. Industrial oilseed crop germination in response to salinity. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops 29th annual meeting, Ames, IA. 10-13 September 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Geiszler, M., J. Ransom, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Interseeding cover crops into corn: How much will they grow? In 15th Annual Nitrogen Use Efficiency Conference - Baton Rouge, LA. 7-9 August 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Acharya, K., G. Yan, A. Plaisance, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Reducing soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines populations by planting cover crops in infested soils. American Phytopathology Society.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T., and D. Samarappuli. 2017. Nutrient cycling potential of Camelina sativa as a cover crop in the northern Great Plains, USA. European Geosciences Union Conference, Vienna, Austria, 22-27 April 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T. 2017. Nutrient uptake by cover crops. How Far North Can We Grow? 49th Parallel Cover Crop Project. Innovation Working Group Meeting, Devils Lake, ND, 5 April 2017. Invited speaker.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T. and D. Toussaint.2017. Interseeding cover crops into standing, corn, soybean, and sunflowers. Midwest Cover Crop Council Annual Conference. Grand Rapids, Michigan, 12-14 March, 2017.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: The projects website was completed and is available at www.cropsyscap.org.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T., D. Samarappuli, B.L. Johnson, and R.W. Gesch. 2017. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems. Ind. Crops. Prod. 107:595-601 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.06.014
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T., B.L. Johnson, D. Ripplinger, R.W. Gesch, and A. Aponte. 2017. Environmental impact assessment of double- and relay-cropping with winter camelina in the northern Great Plains, USA. Agricultural Sys. 156C:1-12.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Sainju, U.M., A.W. Lenssen, B.L. Allen, B. Stevens, and J.D. Jabro. 2018. Nitrogen balance in dryland agroecosystem in response to tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice. Nutrient Cycling in Agriculture: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-018-9909-7
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: 6. Appelgate, S., A.W. Lenssen, M. Wiedenhoeft, and T. Kaspar. 2017. Cover crop options and mixes for upper Midwest corn-soybean systems. Agronomy J. 109:968-984. doi:10.2134/agronj2016.08.0453
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Matthees, H.L., M.D. Thom, R.W. Gesch, and F. Forcella. 2018. Salinity tolerance of germinating alternative oilseeds. Ind. Crops Prod. 113:358-367. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.01.042
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Gesch, R.W., H.L. Matthees, A.L. Alvarez, and R.D. Gardner. 2018. Winter camelina: crop growth, seed yield and quality response to genotype and sowing rate. Crop Sci.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Peterson, A., M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, B. Andersen, S. Cabello, and S. Podder. 2018. Maximizing cover crop performance by interseeding into standing soybean. Production Agriculture Symposium Univ. of Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN. 15 Feb 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Andersen, B., M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, A. Peterson, S. Cabello, and S. Podder 2018 Integrating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage. Production Agriculture Symposium Univ. of Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN, 15 February 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Cabello, S., M.T. Berti, D. Samarappuli, B. Andersen, A. Peterson, and S. Podder. 2018. Cover crops decreased soil nitrogen (N-NO3) previous sugarbeet production in the northern Great Plains. Production Agriculture Symposium Univ. of Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN, 15 February 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T., 2017. Cover crops: why and what to seed. Central Dakota Ag Day Conference. Carrington Research Extension Center, Carrington, ND. Invited speaker.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T., 2017. Role of cover crops roots. North Dakota Chapter of Soil and Water Conservation Annual Conference, Bismarck, ND, 21 November 2017. Invited speaker.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Peterson, A., M.T. Berti, H.H. Kandel, and B.L. Johnson. 2017. Intersowing cover crops into standing soybean to reduce soil loss in late fall. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings. Tampa, FL, 22-25 October 2017.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Acharya, J., M.G. Bakker, T.B. Moorman, T.C. Kaspar, A.W. Lenssen, and A.E. Robertson. 2017. Time interval between cover crop termination and planting influences corn seedling disease, plant growth, and yield. Plant Disease 101:591-600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-16-0975-RE
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Sainju, U.M., A.W. Lenssen, B. Allen, W. Stevens, and J. Jabro. 2017. Soil residual nitrogen under various crop rotations and cultural practices. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 180:187-198. doi:10.1002/jpln.201600496
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Dose (Matthees), H.L., R.W. Gesch, F. Forcella, K. Aasand, B.L. Johnson, N. Steffl, M.S. Wells, S. Patel, A. Lenssen, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Intensifying production in the northern Corn Belt by incorporating cash cover crops. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings. Tampa, FL, 22-25 October.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Patel, S., A.W. Lenssen, K.J. Moore, M.T. Berti, R.W. Gesch, and H.L. Dose (Matthees). 2017. Integrating and managing oilseed cash cover crops in a corn and soybean rotation system. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings. Tampa, FL 22-25 October 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Geizsler, M. J. Ransom, and M.T. Berti. 2017. Interseeding cover crops into early season corn. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings. Tampa, FL 22-25 October 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Gesch R.W., and H. Matthees. 2017 Cultivar and planting date selection for relay-cropping soybean with winter oilseeds American Society of Agronomy, Crops Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America annual meeting, Tampa, FL. 22-25 October 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Matthees (Dose) H., M. Thom, and R.W. Gesch. 2017. Soil salinity: germination tolerance of alternative oilseed crops for soil health. American Society of Agronomy, Crops Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America annual meeting, Tampa, FL.22-25 October 2017.


Progress 04/01/16 to 03/31/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Includes farmers, crop consultants, extension personnel, and companies interested in bioenergy feedstocks. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Students participating in this project We have 11 graduate students working on the project. 3 PhD and 8 MS Sergio Cabello, PhD. Nutrient credits from cover crops in no-till systems in the northern Great Plains. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti and Dr. Franzen) August 2016- May 2018 Dulan Samarappuli, Ph.D. Productivity and life cycle analysis of novel cropping systems in North Dakota. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti) April 2016- June 2017 Swetabh Patel, PhD. Interseeding cover crops and alfalfa into standing corn and soybean. Iowa State University. (Dr. Lenssen) May 2016- May 2019 Alan Peterson, MS, Interseeding camelina on standing soybean. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti) June 2016- December 2018 Melissa Geizler, MS, Corn row spacing and hybrid maturity effects on establishment of interseeded cover crops. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Ransom) April 2016- May 2018 Bryce Andersen, MS Integrating faba bean (Vicia faba Roth.) into cropping systems as a cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage for grazing. North Dakota State University. Dr. Berti). January 2017- May 2019 Kyle Aasand, MS, corn and soybean relay cropping with winter rye, field pennycress, and winter Camelina. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) June 2016- December 2018 Nick Steff, MS, Interseeding winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina in standing corn and soybean. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) January 2017-May 2019 Kory Johnson, MS. Interseeding camelina into narrow row spacing soybean of different maturity groups. North Dakota State University (Dr. Kandel) January 2017-May 2019 Nancy Stenger, MS, North Dakota State University, Microclimate under corn and soybean canopy. (Dr. Akyuz and Dr. Berti) January 2017-May 2019 Nadia Delarvarpour, PhD, North Dakota State University, Improving the twin-row interseeder guidance system. (Nowatzki and S. Bajwa) January 2017-May 2018 Postdoctoral Researchers: Maciej Kazula, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in cropping systems June 2016-December 2016. North Dakota State University (corn-alfalfa interseeding research, multilocation trial) Heather Dose, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in cropping systems at ARS-USDA Morris, MN (camelina and pennycress intercropping in standing corn and soybean multilocation trial) Aaron Laporte, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in economics and decision tools June 2016-December 2016. North Dakota State University How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Yes, peer reviewed publications, conferences and symposium presentations, extension publications, bi- weekly CAP project seminar sessions forages website, phone calls, field days, winter talk meetings, andplot tours. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Objective 1 1. Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean at different growth stages. Task completed. Fine-tuning of the new planter will continue. Improving directional system. It will be used to establish on-farm research plots in 2017. 2. A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean. This activity is planned for 2017. 3. Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models. Research activities will continue in 2017. 4. Estimation of N credits from cover crops and increased N use efficiency by subsequent crops. Three experiment at two sites (Rutland and Gardner, ND) will be established in 2017. Experimental design will be a split plot, each experimental site rotation is stand-alone. Main plots- cover crop, no cover crop; cover crop unique to experimental site (camelina, radish rye). Subplots (to corn and to spring wheat only)-N rates- 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 lb N/acre with preplant ammonium nitrate applied broadcast. Measurements: soil moisture, weather measurements (on site), biomass, soil test nitrate-N and P, plant N, P, C, S. Yield, protein in wheat Plant nutrients include biomass, N,C,S, P of cover and main crop. 5. Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications. Not planned until 2018. Objective 2 All experiments established in 2016 will be continued or repeated 1. Interseeding of camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean. Surviving camelina, rye and pennycress plants will be evaluated in the spring of 2017 both experiments corn and soybean in 2016 will be planted with soybean in 2017 in relay cropping. Then camelina, pennycress and rye will be harvested for grain the first week of July. 2. Interseeding of cover crops in standing soybean. Surviving cover crops will be evaluated in the spring of 2017 and then the whole experiment will be planted with wheat at both locations. The same experiment conducted in 2016 will be repeated in 2017 at two locations. 3. Interseeding camelina and rye in corn at different stages, row spacing and hybrid maturity. Surviving cover crops will be evaluated in the spring of 2017. The same experiment will be repeated in 2017 at two locations. Objective 3 On farm replicated trials Replicated trials will be established in Rutland and Gardner, ND, Lamberton, MN and Ames, IA. Replicated trials will vary in size and planting method among locations according to the interseeder available in the area. The treatments at each locations will include camelina, rye or camelina/rye mixture and a check both in corn and soybean. Stage of establishment also will vary according to the equipment available and the preliminary results of Year 1. Alfalfa-corn interseeding will not be evaluated on farm, since preliminary results showed a drag in corn yield.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Obj. 1. Improving cover crops management and establishment. Modification of seeding equipment, decision tool development and estimation of N credits to optimize cover crops establishment and management. a.Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean at different growth stages. (Breker and Nowatzki) A cover crop drill was developed by Amity Technology. The interseeder plants two twin rows spaced 6" apart in the center of two corn or soybean rows at 30" apart. The planter is a high clearance planter adapted to plant in V8 stage corn at the time of side dressing. The pilot planter was completed by the end of June 2016. The pilot planter was used to interseed radish and rye mix in a total of approximately 100 acres at two locations, Morton and Rutland, ND. Cover crops established well and provided cover in the fall after corn was harvested. No corn yield drag was observed. c. Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models. Data was collected in corn and soybean at Prosper, ND to characterize microclimate conditions under the corn canopy with and without interseeded camelina and pennycress. An automated weather station was installed on May 2, 2016. Blocks were arranged so that the station would be able to sample weather conditions in 4 separate blocks in the first year of the project to collect preliminary data as follows: i) Seedling cover crops into corn, ii) control, iii) most aggressive treatment (rye). The same was conducted in soybean. Inside and outside the blocks, air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, soil moisture/temperature was measured. d. Estimation of N credits from cover crops and increased N use efficiency by subsequent crops. (Wick and Franzen) Several studies were established in the fall of 2016 to determine N credits to corn from cover crops after wheat and interseeded cover crops in corn. Gardner site- Fargo soil- Cover crops were established into wheat stubble for land going to corn in 2017. Spring wheat left to volunteers in no-cover crop treatments. Radish and rye drilled in September, 2016. Beginning soil nitrate to 2 ft averaged about 16 lb/a with little range in variability. Soybean to soybean and soybean to spring wheat experiments will begin in same section in spring 2017. Soil nitrate samples taken on 12 Aug., 28 Sep., and 24 Oct. in cover crop and no cover crop main plots resulted in a decrease of nitrate in the soil profile with a cover. Soil nitrate at the end of the season was 15 lbs N/acre with cover crop and 114 lbs/acre with no cover crop. Also, soil with cover crops had less water than soil without cover crop. Interseeding into corn stalks, going to soybean 2017. Interseeding 23 June, 40 lbs/acre rye, 5 lbs/acre radish. Crops emerged 6 July. Rye stand averaged 140,000 plants per acre, range 87,000 to 150,000. Radish stand averaged 57,000 plants per acre, range 0- 75,000. Soil nitrate on 9 Aug. no differences between treatments cover/no-cover, no soil moisture differences- all dry. Biomass of cover crop at the end of the season 10 Novemebr, 1100lbs/acre. No reduction on corn grain yield. Obj. 2. Introducing relay-cropping and intercropping to existing cropping systems. a. Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean in conjunction with relay cropping soybean. Interseeding of camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean The research was conducted at Prosper, ND, Ames, IA, Morris, MN and Waseca, MN. Experimental design was a RCBD with a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Corn and soybean were in separate experiments. Camelina and pennycress was planted at V6, R1, and approximately R7 in late August. Similarly, in corn, camelina was planted at growth stages V4, R1, and approximately R5 to R6 in late August. Results indicate interseeded cover crops did not reduce soybean or corn yield. Cover crop establishment varied among locations and interseeding dates. No cover crop showed superior performance. In general establishment of cover crops ranged between 10-20% under corn canopy and 40-60% under soybean canopy. Interseeding of cover crops in standing soybean. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seeding cover crops into soybean at two late stages of development, on soybean yield, cover crop establishment, potential negatives effects to soybean quality, and soil cover. Four cover crop treatments were seeded between the soybean rows a: Austrian winter pea forage radish cv. Daikon winter camelina cv. Joelle, winter rye cv. Rymin, a mixture of all four cover crops, and a check treatment with no cover crops. Cover crops were interseeded at the R4 and R6 reproductive stages of soybean on 25 and 26 July for R4 in Fargo and Prosper, respectively and on 16 August for R6. Results indicate soybean grain yield were not affected by interseeding cover crops at any of the cover crops seeding dates or locations. This indicates cover crops interseeded into soybean at R4 or R6 did not compete with soybean and provide cover in the fall. Winter peas had the best performance and coverage (69%). Camelina coverage was only 3.7%, rye and radish coverage was 18% and 39% respectively. Nitrogen in pea biomass was 70 lbs N /acre. Interseeding camelina and rye in corn at different stages, row spacing and hybrid maturity. Two experiments were established in Forman and Prosper, ND. Exp. 1 design was a RCBD arranged as a split-plot with three replicates. The treatments were a factorial combination of row spacing, cover crop, and date of cover crop interseeding. Row spacing was the main plot with cover crop and date of interseeding as the subplots. Row spacing treatments were narrow (56 cm) or wide (76 cm). All plots were planted with four corn rows to depth of 5.1 cm at a seeding rate of 79,000 live seeds ha-1. The hybrid used was Dekalb 'DKC 36-28' which has a relative maturity of 86 d. Cover crops were sown when the corn reached the V7 or R4 growth stage. Cover crops were camelina, rye and a mix of camelina and rye. Exp. 2 design was a RCBD with four replicates; treatments were a factorial combination of corn hybrid RM and cover crop. Dekalb 'DKC 30-19' with a RM of 80 d were used as the early maturing hybrid. Dekalb 'DKC 39-27' with a RM of 89 d was used as the later maturing hybrid. Cover crop treatments were sown when the corn reached the V7 growth stage. Cover crops did not reduced corn grain yield in any of the experiments. b. Intercropping of corn and alfalfa The experiment was established in Prosper, and Forman, ND, and Waseca, MN in 2016. The design for this experiment was a RCBD with four replicates. Treatments included: T1, corn at 76-cm row spacing; T2, corn +alfalfa intercropped; T3, corn +alfalfa intercropped + PHX; and T4, an alfalfa control. Corn plots were planted first with plot drill at 76 cm, and alfalfa was drilled over the corn plots with an 8-row plot seeder at 15-cm row spacing. Each experimental unit had either 4 rows of corn or 4 rows of corn and 16 rows of alfalfa seeded on top of the corn on the same date. The alfalfa and corn cultivars were glyphosate-resistant cultivar. PHX was applied to alfalfa at 20-cm in height at a rate of 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 over the alfalfa, but under the corn canopy. The results combined across three locations indicated that alfalfa decreased corn grain yield in both treatments with and without PHX. Corn check grain yield was 224 bu/acre, significantly higher than corn with interseeded alfalfa. Alfalfa with corn had 194 bu/acre a 13.4% yield reduction and corn with alfalfa and PHX had a yield of 188 bu/acre, a 16% reduction in yield. No significant differences were observed in corn yield between alfalfa treatments .Alfalfa biomass at harvest was greater for alfalfa alone. Treated or not treated alfalfa under the corn canopy had similar biomass yield.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., R.W. Gesch, C. Eynck, J. Anderson, and S. Cermak. 2016. Camelina uses, genetics, genomics, production and management. Ind. Crops Prod. 94:690-710.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., B.L. Johnson, R.W. Gesch, and A. Aponte, 2016. Environmental impact assessment of double- and relay-cropping with winter camelina in the northern Great Plains, USA. Agricultural Systems (submitted, under review)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., D. Samarappuli, B.L., Johnson, and R.W., Gesch. 2017. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems. Ind. Crops Prod. (Submitted, under review)
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Wick, A. M.T. Berti, Y. Lawley, and M. Liebig. 2016. Integration of annual and perennial cover crops for improving soil quality and health In M. Al-Kaisi and B. Lowery (Eds.) Soil Health and Intensification of Agroecosystems. Elsevier Publ.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., A. Aponte, B.L. Johnson, and D. Ripplinger. 2016. Environmental sustainability of double- and relay-cropping of food, feed, and fuel crops in the northern Great Plains, USA. In 24th European Biomass Conf. and Exhibition.5-9 June, 2016, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Available at http://www.etaflorence.it/proceedings/index.asp (verified 10 December 2016).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti., M.T., B.L. Johnson, R.W. Gesch, J. Ransom, H.H. Kandel, M. Kazula, M.S. Wells, and A. Lenssen. 2016 Integrating camelina into corn and soybean cropping systems. p. 9 In Berti, M.T. and E. Alexopoulou (Eds.) 28th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC), Rochester, NY, 14-19 September, 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., J. Lukaschewsky, and M. Kazula. 2016. Alfalfa silage corn interseeding in North Dakota. North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference, Trifolium Conference and Grass Breeders Conference. Madison, WI. 12-14 July, 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Forcella F., D. Wyse D, and R.W. Gesch 2016. Keep it green: Ecosystem services of year-round cropping. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Symposium  IPM Resistance Management. November 7, 2016. (30 attendees + continuous on-line access) https://scisoc.confex.com/scisoc/2016am/videogateway.cgi/id/25419?recordingid=25419
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Dose, H.L., R. Gesch, F. Forcella, B.L. Johnson, K. Aasand, M.S. Wells, A. Lenssen, S. Patel, M.T. Berti. 2017. Determining optimum time to seed winter cover crops into standing corn and soybean in the northern Corn Belt. Production Agriculture Symposium, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN, 22-23 February, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T. Interseeding cover crops into standing corn and soybean: what, when and how. Agriculture Production Symposium, University of Minnesota, 22-23 February 2017.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Holin, F. 2016. New research on interseeding cover crops into standing corn begins. Clippings 17 June, 2016. Midwest Forage Association, St. Paul, MN. Available at https://www.midwestforage.org/pdf/1041.pdf (M. Berti and R. Gesch mentioned in the article) Wick, A. 2016. Planting Soybean into Cereal Rye  Observations. NDSU Soil Health, Fact Sheet.