Source: MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
ASSESSING THE RESILIENCY OF INTEGRATED CROP-LIVESTOCK ORGANIC SYSTEMS UNDER CURRENT AND PREDICTED CLIMATE
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1007105
Grant No.
2015-51106-23970
Project No.
MONB00128
Proposal No.
2015-06281
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
112.E
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2015
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2019
Grant Year
2015
Project Director
Menalled, F.
Recipient Organization
MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
BOZEMAN,MT 59717
Performing Department
Land Resources and Envir. Sci
Non Technical Summary
Organic production has become a major agricultural, economic, and cultural force. However, in the face of unprecedented climate change and market demand, organic producers in water-limited environments need to increase the resiliency of their enterprise to secure their long-term environmental and economic sustainability. Based on inputs from stakeholders, we developed organic systems that replace tillage with targeted sheep grazing. While successful to terminate cover crops, manage pests, and improve nutrient cycling; can this integration enhance the long-term resiliency of the organic enterprise while mitigating the emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases?This research/education/extension project combines experimental plot studies with on-farm research to increase our knowledge-base on the biophysical and economic short- and long-term challenges facing integrated crop-livestock organic systems in water-limited environments. We will 1) compare agronomic performance, greenhouse gas emissions, and weed-pathogen interactions between organic-tilled and organic-grazed systems, 2) model the long-term consequences of these interactions under current and predicted climate scenarios, and 3) evaluate approaches to improve perennial weed management, a major concern expressed by our advisory group.We will develop educational resources on organic practices to engage students in system thinking and critical evaluation. Our transformative extension activities will enhance producers' ability to make informed management decisions about integrated crop-livestock organic systems. An external evaluator will assess our research, education, and outreach achievements.By addressing two general NIFA-ORG priorities and three Specific Priority Areas for FY 2015, this project will help new and existing organic growers in water-limited regions balance short-term economic and environmental constraints with long-term challenges.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
80%
Developmental
10%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1010110107015%
1040110107015%
1321549107015%
2131549114015%
2121549113015%
3072410101015%
6012410310010%
Goals / Objectives
This research/education/extension project combines experimental plot studies with on-farm research to increase our knowledge-base on the biophysical and economic short- and long-term challenges facing integrated crop-livestock organic systems in water-limited environments. We will 1) compare agronomic performance, greenhouse gas emissions, and weed-pathogen interactions between organic-tilled and organic-grazed systems, 2) model the long-term consequences of these interactions under current and predicted climate scenarios, and 3) evaluate approaches to improve perennial weed management, a major concern expressed by our advisory group. Our specific objectives includeResearch objectivesAddress the potential for integration of livestock into diversified organic crop production systems to reduce tillage intensity and mitigate GHG emissions2i. Evaluate how critical ecological interactions between pathogens and weeds that increase the vulnerability of organic production are modified by management systems and environmental variables; and 2ii. Model how, under different climate scenarios, critical ecological interactions impact the long-term sustainability of organic systems.3i. Assess the long-term effects of livestock integration on agricultural production, and 3ii. Develop enterprise budgets to assess economic trade-offs and impacts of integrating sheep and crop production in water-limited environments.Evaluate approaches to manage perennial weeds in organic small-grain production.Education and extension objectivesDevelop training opportunities and educational resources on sustainable organic practices to engage undergraduate and graduate students in system thinking and critical evaluationDesign and disseminate transformative extension activities to enhance organic producers' ability make informed decisions on integrated crop-livestock production systems.Evaluation objective Adopt a systematic approach to evaluate the success and adjust protocol of research, educational, and outreach activities.By addressing two general NIFA-ORG priorities and three Specific Priority Areas for FY 2015, this project will help new and existing organic growers in water-limited regions balance short-term economic and environmental constraints with long-term challenges.
Project Methods
This research, education, and extension project will be conducted at two research farms (Ft. Ellis, Corvallis), one horticultural farm (Townes Harvest), and on eight certified-organic farms. Collectively, these sites provide a range of environments, management practices, and socio-economic contexts. Specific research approaches are as follow:1) To address the potential for integration of livestock into diversified organic crop production systems to reduce tillage intensity and mitigate GHG emissions we will we will measure soil emissions of N2O, CO2, and CH4 following USDA-ARS GRACEnet protocols using vented chambers (0.50-m long, 0.20-m wide, 0.15-m high). Greenhouse gas concentrations will be determined using a gas chromatograph equipped with 633Ni electron capture, flame-ionization, and thermal conductivity detectors. Soil moisture content (0-10 cm depth) and soil (5 cm depth) and air temperature will be monitored continuously site using soil dielectric constant probes ECHO NRC weather stations.2) We will evaluate the interactions occurring among three species that, while occurring at different trophic levels, are major threats to the sustainability of small grain systems: Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), its vector (the wheat curl mite, WCM, Aceria tosichella), and a preferred host (cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum). To do this, we will use 1.4 m bottom diameter open-top chambers (OTC) which raise yearly mean temperature by 1.6 C and rain out shelters which reduce precipitation by 50%. Temperature will be recorded continuously using i-button data loggers (Maxim Integrated). Soil moisture will be recorded twice weekly via Delmhorst GB-1 gypsum sensor blocks and a KS-D1 digital soil moisture tester (Delmhorst Instrument Co). Soil N samples will be obtained in all plots prior to seeding. We will measure yield, B. tectorum biomass and seed production, and WCM population growth. WSMV infection will be evaluated in the laboratory through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Disease severity will be evaluated based on wheat yield losses. Yield and biomass data will be compared across treatments and systems with non-linear mixed effects models. WSMV incidence will be compared with a GLM model for binomial data. The information gathered in this field study will be used to 3) Model how, under different climate scenarios, critical ecological interactions impact the long-term sustainability of organic systems.4) As part of our long-term assessment of the impact of livestock-crop integration, we will continue assessing weed pressure and sample crop production. Weeds and cover crops production will be determined by clipping biomass at two 0.5-m2 areas within each plot, separating by species, and weighing. Samples will be oven-dried at 55oC and ground to 1 mm for determination of C and N concentrations by a high induction furnace C and N analyzer. Carbon and N removal in crops and C and N in crop residue returned to the soil in each year will be determined by multiplying crop or biomass yields by their respective C and N concentrations. Visual appraisals of species regrowth and mean plant counts will be conducted after each grazing event. By combining data obtained since 2013 with the information gathered in this research, we will produce 5) long-term enterprise budgets, a straightforward and intuitive interpretation of economic costs and benefits. The analysis will include input costs and revenues associated with current organic production of crops, evaluated in the short- and long-run. We will consider both observed (e.g., total price paid for an input and outputs) and unobserved factors affecting costs and revenues (e.g., foregone marketing opportunities due to a particular production choice). 6) To address specific concerns expressed by our stakeholders on the spread and impact of Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed), one of the biggest threats to the production of organic small-grains we will evaluate approaches to manage perennial weeds in organic small-grain production. The study will combine manipulative experiments conducted at an MSU research farm with on-farm studies.At the MSU research farms, treatments to manage field bindweed will include a combination of a biocontrol agent (Aceria malherbae, bindweed gall mite), crops (spring wheat, kamut -khorasan wheat, pea, flax (Linum usitatissimum), safflower, and oat (Avena sativa), and seeding density (recommended, 1.5 recommended) treatments, plus a no-crop control. The following year, this field will be seeded with winter wheat at 430 plants m-2 in all plots (except control). On-Farm Sites: in collaboration our stakeholders, we will establish experiments on eight commercial organic farms located to measure C. arvensis - crop competition. Farmers will select areas of fields, with different crops when possible, which are infested with C. arvensis, will establish the bio-control agent in half of the infested patches and monitor their development.7) Our education objectives will develop training opportunities and educational resources on sustainable organic practices to engage undergraduate and graduate students in system thinking and critical evaluation. We will incorporate results of our research into classrooms at various levels to provide experimental learning and critical thinking that combines systemic and systematic reasoning, an essential strategy to develop educational curricula in sustainable agriculture.8) We will Design and disseminate transformative extension activities to enhance organic producers' ability make informed management decisions on integrated crop-livestock production systems. Extension activities will be conducted during years two and three of this project in collaborations with the Montana Organic Association, the Montana Farmers Union, the Montana Woolgrowers Association, and NRCS (see Letters of Support). We expect to directly reach an audience of approximately 4,000 growers and agricultural professionals through our local and regional outreach meetings.9) Finally, an external evaluator will assess the achievement of the research, educational, and outreach objectives. Adjust research, education and extension methods as needed. The evaluation will adopt a systematic approach to assess the achievement of our objectives. Data collected from monitoring and evaluation activities will be analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods and findings will be communicated to the leadership of the project in a timely and frequent manner (formative) and at the end of each year/cycle (summative). Formative assessments will allow a permanent revision and enhancement of the project activities to effectively reach the project's objectives. Evaluation activities will be framed by two models: one focusing on the multidisciplinary nature of the project, and the other focusing on its outreach component. The first model is based on organizational theory, while the second addresses outcomes of agricultural extension programs including: 1) dissemination of technology focused on the production of staple food crops; 2) development of human capital in relation to technical and management skills needed to increase farm income; 3) building social capital; and 4) education about sustainable systemic management of natural resources.

Progress 09/01/17 to 08/31/18

Outputs
Target Audience: Our targeted audience included organic farmers and ranchers as well as agricultural professionals, researchers, and extension agents interested in organic dryland agriculture. Our educational activities targeted undergraduate and graduate students and research associated interested in sustainable and organic agriculture with a special emphasis on the integration of crop and livestock operations. Changes/Problems:As explained in a previous report, to minimize the risk of wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) infection in the whole experimental site, we performed a mechanical inoculation instead of a biological one. Greenhouse trails were conducted to evaluate the rate of plant-plant WSMV infection via the Wheat Curl Mite. To increase our inferential space, we supplemented the field data with observations obtained at an additional site located 15 km from the original site What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?The research outcomes were presented in the following courses: ENSC410/LRES 510. Biodiversity Survey and Monitoring. MSU AGSC 428/ LRES 529 Sustainable Cropping Systems. ANRN 222. Livestock in Sustainable Systems. MSU LRES 110. Introduction to Land Resources and Environmental Sciences. MSU AG SC 342- Forage Undergraduate students: Mellissa Marlen, Uriel Menalled, Jeanna Ratcliff, Claire Dittemore Graduated students: Adhikari, S. 2018. Impacts of dryland farming systems on biodiversity, plant-insect interactions, and ecosystem services. Ph.D. dissertation. Montana State University Nixon, M. In Preparation (targeted defense: December 2018). Effects of Bromus tectorum on wheat growth and yield under contrasting climate scenarios. MS thesis. Montana State University Research technicians: Devon Ragen, Jeff Holmes, Rosie Wallander Post-doctoral associate: Bree Cummings, Timothy Seipel, and Suzanne Ishaq How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?During this reporting period, Drs. F. Menalled, Z. Miller, P. Carr, R. Engel, and P. Miller offered a total of 16 extension presentations, directly reaching 1020. Since the initiation of this project, we offered a total of 49 extension presentations, directly reaching 2879 participants. These presentations were offered in the context of field days, producers meetings, and extension/outreach workshops in Montana and Wyoming. In these talks, we discussed the potential advantages and shortcomings of using livestock in an organic cropping system. Topics discussed included agronomic and soil challenges of organic production, weed management, and impact and mitigation of climate change, among other topics. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Our goal is to finalize the predictive model of winter wheat yield under stresses due to climate, weeds, and wheat streak mosaic virus. We except to submit two to three peer-reviewed publication within the next reporting period and prepare the final report.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? In water-limited environments, organic crop production is highly challenged by environmental, biological, and economic stressors. Recently, there has been increased interest in the integrating crop and livestock operations to reduce tillage intensity and increase system diversification. We compared greenhouse gas emissions, agronomic performance, weed and disease challenges between organic-tilled and organic-grazed systems. We are using data gathered in field conditions to model the long-term consequences of these management systems under current and predicted climate scenarios. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions We evaluated the impact of integrating sheep grazing into organic cropping systems on GHG (N2O, CH4, and CO2) soil emissions. Soil emissions were measured between early spring and fall over three seasons (2016, 2017, and 2018) utilizing vented chambers. Aliquots of air inside the chamber were collected and concentrations of GHG were determined using a gas chromatograph equipped with 63Ni electron capture, flame-ionization, and thermal conductivity detectors. Soil emissions of GHG were episodic and variable across the site. Periods of elevated GHG emissions were linked to precipitation events and soil moisture, tillage, and fertilizer (including sheep feces and urine). In general, the intensity of soil N2O emissions was modest (< 10 g N2O-N ha-2 d-1) and cumulative N2O production levels did not exceed 0.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 in any one season. Cropping systems had only a nominal effect on N2O production during brief periods of the year when soils were wet, and following tillage events (organic till system). CO2 emissions were strongly related to soil moisture content. During wet periods, CO2 emission activity by soil microbes becomes elevated (5 to 15 kg CO2 ha-1 d-1) but was not affected by cropping system practice. Overall, soils behaved as modest sinks for CH4 under all cropping systems averaging 0 to 1.2 g CH4 d-1 over much of the three growing seasons. Cropping system did not significantly affect cumulative CH4 consumption. In summary, introduction of sheep for targeted grazing of organic systems may result in brief episodes of elevated N2O production, but generally has a nominal effect on cumulative N2O production as well as CH4 and CO2. Organic production and climate variability Winter wheat yields and weed communities were compared across organic systems and climate conditions (ambient, increased temperature, and increased temperature and reduced moisture). Under ambient conditions, winter wheat yields was higher in the tilled systems (5.1 t/ha) than the grazed system (3.1 t/ha; P<0.001). Also, wheat yield was negatively impacted by hotter and drier climate condition (P=0.02). Weed biomass and number of weed species was highest in the grazed-organic system (14.4 g and 4.4 species per plot) than the tilled-organic system (3.8 g and 1.5 species per plot). Climate did not influence the number of weed species (P=0.96) or biomass (P=0.87) but impacted seed production. Weed communities varied with farming system (P=0.001, R2=0.28), but not in response to climate conditions (P=0.77, R2=0.02). Using field data, we are constructing a predictive model of winter wheat yield under stresses due to climate, weeds, and wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV). The model is based on a system of ordinary differential equations that describe the yearly spread of WSMV, winter wheat density, volunteer wheat density, and Bromus tectorum density. Multi-year simulations and sensitivity analysis are underway. Preliminary results indicate that winter wheat yield is dominated by combined climate and weed effects, and is much less impacted by WSMV which will either remain endemic over a multi-year period or will naturally extinguish. The primary parameter dominating this process is the wheat-wheat transmission, indicating that control of volunteer wheat and mite movement are promising strategies for controlling the disease., whereas B. tectorum control has little effect on disease spread. Agronomic integration of crop and livestock production The chief result of the first 5-yr rotational cycle shows a significant yield gap between organic grazed and tilled organic systems. In 2017, winter wheat yielded 15-23% (8-15 bu/ac) less in the reduced tillage system, and lentil yielded 33% less (460 lb/ac). Winter wheat protein content did not differ between the organic systems, but levels were low (10-11%). Safflower yields, nor sweet clover biomass, differed between these systems. Most worrisome is the rapid advancement of Cirsium arvense, Canada thistle, a game-stopper for organic producers in Montana, often requiring conversion of annually cropped systems to perennial forage to achieve control. Disease pressure Wheat and lentil whole plant samples were collected to assess disease pressure across systems. Wheat was sampled at tiller, flag, and maturity. Lentil was sampled when the sixth multifoliate leaf had unfolded, at the sixth node, and at full bloom. Foliar diseases were scored and diseased samples were placed into a humid chamber. Hyphal growth was transferred to potato dextrose agar, and to selective media if required, for morphological and molecular identification. Disease scores were converted to whole plant disease incidence and disease severity. For wheat, foliar diseases included tan spot, powdery mildew, and stripe rust. Root rots included rhizoctonia, pythium, common root rot, and fusarium. Disease incidence was low in all lentil plots at both sampling times. Perennial weeds management This study was done with funds in part provided by our OREI grant 2012-02244. Field bindweed rhizomes were planted in 1m2 plots at 0, 4, 12, and 32 fragments plot-1 and ten cropping treatments were imposed. In the fall of 2016, plots were planted to winter wheat. In spring 2017, bindweed abundance and spread was measured. Winter wheat and safflower halted increases in bindweed patch growth and fruit production. Tilled fallow management led to a 10x increase in the number of bindweed shoots. We conducted meta-analyses of the existing literature to identify promising management approaches for field bindweed and Canada thistle in organic systems. Mechanical control accounted for 40% of data extracted, but did not outperform most of the other management actions. Integrated management emerged as the management technique that caused the greatest decrease in abundance and survival for field bindweed. Additional management techniques that decreased field bindweed and/or Canada thistle included biocontrol, mowing, grazing, crop diversification, solarization, shading, flaming, and crop competition. However, most of the studies reported impacts over short time spans and only 16% of field bindweed and 26% of Canada thistle studies reported measures of variability. Integrating poultry into organic vegetable rotations In this study, poultry plus cover crop was compared to a cover crop treatment. Our preliminary results indicate that the poultry system (stocking rate of 30 birds in a 10 x 10 ft. chicken tractor) is efficient to manage cover crops and weeds. In one day, chickens grazed the plants, removing most vegetation, but allowed the cover to regrow. By the time the pens returned in 14 days, the cover had regrown to a height of ~20-30 cm. As a result of grazing, very little weed seed production was observed in the poultry treatments, while it was common in the control. The cover crop + poultry treatment had higher subsequent fertility. In the following spring, total fall planted cover crop biomass in the cover crop + poultry system averaged 7400 kg/ha, over twice that seen in the cover crop alone (mean=3500 kg/ha). Weed biomass was similar among treatments. Effects of vegetable production were measured in the treatments for two years (year1=winter squash, year2= corn). Yields were higher following poultry, but analysis is ongoing.

Publications

  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2018 Citation: Menalled, F. In Press. Sustainable agriculture and integrated weed management. In Weed Control. Sustainability, Hazards and Risks in Cropping Systems Worldwide. N. E. Korres, N. R Burgos, and S. O. Duke, eds. Science Publishers
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Grimberg, B.I., S. Ahmed , C. Elis, Z. Miller, and F. Menalled. 2018. Climate change perceptions and observations of agricultural stakeholders in the Northern Great Plains. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1687; doi:10.3390/su10051687
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Ranabhat, N., T. Seipel, E. Lenhoff, Z. Miller, K. Owen, F. Menalled and M. Burrows. 2018. Temperature and alternative hosts influence Aceria tosichella infestation and Wheat streak mosaic virus infection. Plant Disease 102:546-551. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-17-0782-RE
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Adhikari, S., T. Seipel,, F. Menalled, and D. Weaver. 2018. Farming system and wheat cultivar affect infestation of and parasitism on Cephus cinctus in the Northern Great Plains. Pest Management Science DOI 10.1002/ps.4925
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Grimberg, B.I., Burrows, M. and Menalled, F.D. 2018. Plant Virus Classification. Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-K-2017-1129-01
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Orloff, N., J. Mangold, Z. Miller, and F. Menalled. 2018. A meta-analysis of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L.) management in organic agricultural systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 254: 264-272.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Ishaq, S., S. Johnson, Z. Miller, E. Lehnhoff, S. Olivo, C. Yeoman, and F. Menalled. 2017. Impact of cropping systems, soil inoculum, and plant species identity on soil bacterial community structure. Microbial Ecology 73:417-434.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Lehnhoff, E., Z. Miller, P. Miller, S. Johnson, T. Scott, P. Hatfield, and F. Menalled. 2017. Organic agriculture and the quest for the holy grail in water-limited ecosystems: Managing weeds and reducing tillage intensity. Agriculture 7, 33; doi:10.3390/agriculture7040033.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Adhikari, S., L. Burkle, K. O'Neill, D. Weaver, C. Delphia, and F. Menalled. Impacts of simplified dryland farming systems on forbs, bees, and bee-flower networks. Submitted to Agriculture, Ecosystems, and the Environment.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Adhikari, S., L. Burkle, K. O'Neill, D. Weaver, C. Delphia, and F. Menalled. Dryland organic farming increases floral resources and bumble bee colony success in agriculturally intensive and highly simplified landscapes. Submitted to Agriculture, Ecosystems, and the Environment.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2018 Citation: S.L. Ishaq, T. Seipel, C.J. Yeoman, F. Menalled. A longitudinal look at wheat-rhizosphere soil bacterial communities in three dryland cropping systems over the course of a season. Submitted to Soil Biology and Biochemistry
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Cummins, B., T. Seipel, T. Gedeon, M. Burrows, and F. Menalled. In preparation. A predictive model of winter wheat yield under stresses due to climate change, weed competition, and wheat streak mosaic virus. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Seipel, T., S. Ishaq, and F. Menalled. 2018. The effect of climate conditions on weed competition and wheat yields in the Northern Great Plains. 2018 Western Society of Weed Science Annual Meeting. March 12-15, 2018. Garden Grove, CA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Engel, R. and R. Wallander. 2018. Soil emission of N2O under organic tilled, organic grazed reduced-till and chemical no-till cropping systems. Proc. Great Plains Soil Fertility Conference. Denver, CO March 6-7, 2018. 17:235-241.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Menalled U., Seipel T., & Menalled F. (2018) Crop management system and crop identity effects on biologically mediated plant-soil feedbacks. LRES Colloquium Montana State University. April 11th, 2018
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Menalled U., Seipel T., & Menalled F. (2018) Crop management system and crop identity effects on biologically mediated plant-soil feedbacks. Undergraduate Scholar Program Research Symposium Montana State University. April 20th, 2018


Progress 09/01/16 to 08/31/17

Outputs
Target Audience:The targeted audience of our research, extension activities includes farmers, ranchers, agricultural professionals, and extension agents with interest in dryland sustainable organic agriculture. Our education activities targeted undergraduate and graduate students, and research associates interested in sustainable agriculture, animal production, and organic cropping systems. Changes/Problems:To minimize the risk of wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) infection in the whole experiemnta site, we performed a mechanical inoculation instead of a biological one. Greenhouse trails were conducted to evalaute therate of plant-plantWSMV transmition via teh Wheat Curl Mite. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Several undergraduate and graduate students, research technicians and post-doctoral associates collaborated in this project. Undergraduate students: Ali Thornton, Marco Huot, Laura Ippolito, Genna Shaia, Nathan Kerznar, Karl Owen, Clare Dittermore. Michaela O'Donohue, Emma Bode, and Melissa Marlen Graduated students: Adhikari, S. In Preparation (targeted defense: October 2017). Impacts of dryland farming systems on biodiversity, plant-insect interactions, and ecosystem services. Ph.D. dissertation. Montana State University Nixon, M. In Preparation (targeted defense: December 2017).Effects of Bromus tectorum on wheat growth and yield under contrasting climate scenarios.MS thesis. Montana State University Research technicians: Devon Ragen, Jeff Holmes, Rosie Wallander Post-doctoral associate: Bree Cummings, Timothy Seipel, and Suzanne Ishaq. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Delivery to community of interests. Between 2016 and 2017, Drs. Menalled, Miller, Carr, and Glunk offered a total of 33 extension presentations, directly reaching 1859 participants. These presentations were offered in the context of field days, producers meetings, and extension/outreach workshops in Montana and Wyoming. In these talks, data was presented which showed the potential of using livestock in an organic cropping system, agronomic and soil challenges of organic production, weed management, and impact and mitigation of climate change, among other topics. At the international level, results were presented at the 2016 Aapresid Meeting in Rosario, Argentina (400 attendants). Results were showcased in the eOrganic Webinar Targeted Sheep Grazing in Organic Systems on October 11, 2016 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5OssfAuwhyA). As on August 23, 2017 these webinars were viewed 820 and 264 times, respectively. We produced the video MSU organic farming study finds diverse benefits (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y5w25UgWMTs), with 1,751 views as August 23, 2017. As part of our program to train teacher in organic and sustainable agriculture, we produced the article Science in action: Biological and ecological principles of urban agriculture to be published in Designing urban agriculture programs to improve STEM learning and teaching. Patchen et al. eds. Springer and gave an invited presentation on this topic at the 2016 National Association Research in Science Teaching meeting. We published the Extension Bulletin: Between 2016 and 2017, results of our research were disseminated via the following mass-media channels: Belgrade News new article "Organic agriculture topic of field day discussion" http://www.belgrade-news.com/news/agriculture/organic-agriculture-topic-of-field-day-discussion/article_83c9302c-4555-11e7-ab84-8348e45ae5d4.html MSU New release "MSU Extension offers new MontGuide on climate science in Montana" (http://www.montana.edu/news/16559/msu-extension-offers-new-montguide-on-climate-science-in-montana) Bozeman Chronicle news article "Tester says climate change impacting farmers and ranchers" http://www.bozemandailychronicle.com/news/environment/tester-says-climate-change-impacting-farmers-and-ranchers/article_f948abf2-fcb1-5aa8-a446-3c9655cb2190.html Pivot news article "Fort Ellis Field Day" http://www.pivotandgrow.com/blog/event/fort-ellis-farm-field-day/ An alternative view to weeds (In Spanish). Agro TV, Argentina. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dePr2UbMfg. An alternative view to weed management (In Spanish). Aapresid. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-RyuWGStQv8 Western Farmer Stockman news article "Montana guide offers climate insight" http://www.westernfarmerstockman.com/weather/montana-guide-offers-climate-insight Montana Farmer Union news release "Montana Farmers Union & Montana State University to hold climate change event in Lewistown" https://montanafarmersunion.com/montana-farmers-union-montana-state-university-to-hold-climate-change-event-in-lewistown/ Great Falls Tribune news article "Ag leaders discuss climate change in Great Falls" http://www.greatfallstribune.com/story/news/local/2015/06/19/ag-leaders-discuss-climate-change-great-falls/29016161/ The Furrow news article "Who's warming up" https://www.johndeerefurrow.com/2016/03/27/whos-warming-up/ What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Our goal is to complete the data analysis and finish the development of the model to assess the vulnerability of organic crop prodcution under contrasting management and cliamte scenarios

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? 1. Organic production and GHG emissions Evaluation of trace soil gas emissions begun in April of the 2016 using a vented, static chamber sampling system. Aliquots of gas from the headspace were collected at 0, 20, and 40 min following placement of the lid onto the chamber anchor. Samples were transferred to pre-evacuated 13-mL septum-capped Exetainers and gas concentrations were determined via a gas chromatograph. Gas fluxes were calculated from the change in concentration within the vented chamber headspace. In 2016, spring N2O emission activity from the no-till chemical system was greater than for the organic tilled and organic grazed systems, likely due to the urea fertilizer application to the no-till system. This elevated production was observed within a week following application of the urea-N and persisted for approximately 7 weeks. N2O emission activity during the summer was modest for all systems, a common observation in semiarid climates and reflects the drought induced reduction in microbial activity. Finally, N2O emission activity in the fall increased in the grazed system, probably because of fecal. 2 Vulnerability of organic production to climate variability We compared winter wheat yields and weed communities across contrasting climate conditions and the three framing systems described above. Climate treatments included ambient, hotter conditions created using open-top chambers that increased temperatures ~2C, and hotter and drier conditions achieved using open-top chambers and rain-out shelters that block ~50% of precipitation. Under ambient conditions, winter wheat yields were similar between the conventional (5.7 t/ha) and tilled-organic systems (5.1 t/ha; P=0.37), and lowest in the grazed system (3.1 t/ha; P<0.001). Wheat yield in the hotter and drier climate condition declined 46% (P=0.02) when compared to the ambient conditions in the conventional system. Wheat yield in the tilled- and the grazed-organic systems remained similar between ambient and hotter and drier conditions (P=0.17 and P=0.14, respectively).Weed biomass and number of weed species was highest in the grazed-organic system (14.4 g and 4.4 species per plot; P=0.08 and P=0.03, respectively), and lowest in the conventional farming system (0.60 g and 0.4 species per plot) and the tilled-organic system (3.8 g and 1.5 species per plot). Climate did not influence the number of weed species (P=0.96) or biomass (P=0.87) but impacted seed production. Weed communities varied with farming system (P=0.001, R2=0.28), but not in response to climate conditions (P=0.77, R2=0.02). We are modeling the long-term impact of climate change on wheat yield due to the transmission of wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) in a mixed population of wheat and cheatgrass. The model incorporates the interactions between the primary host (wheat), the reservoir hosts (cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum, and volunteer wheat), WSMV, the timing of the transmissions between hosts, and the effects of climate on the length and/or intensity of these transmission effects. The algorithms have been coded and are awaiting parameter estimates. The model is a set of ordinary differential equations that arise from a compartmental model in epidemiology. Each population (wheat, cheatgrass, and volunteer wheat) is divided into infected and susceptible populations. WSMV is transmitted from an infected individual to a susceptible individual with a probability that is dependent on which populations the individuals come from. In this model, the wheat yield depends on climate conditions, competition with cheatgrass, and the proportion of wheat infected at various times of the year. We are working on the parameterization of the model using field data, lab data, and data from previously published studies. 3. Agronomic and economic integration of crop and livestock production The 2017 harvest of winter wheat and lentil is complete; safflower harvest will occur in October. Yield results from the reduced tillage Organic -Grazed system lagged the conventionally tilled Organic - Till system by 20% in both winter wheat and spring lentil. Grazing value may offset crop yield losses. While it appears that it is not agronomically or economically feasible to attempt a completely no-till organic system with current knowledge and technology, we have achieved a net reduction in the number of tillage events of approximately 50-60%. Economic assessment will be made in fall 2017 now that one full rotational cycle is complete. Grain protein data will be obtained a few weeks from now but it was visually obvious that wheat protein concentration was lower in the organic than in the conventional chemical no-till system. Discounts for low protein in winter wheat are not particularly severe in conventional markets in Montana in August 2017, but wheat grain protein content can be a much more vital valuation factor in organic markets. 4. Perennial weeds management This study was done with funds in part provided by our OREI grant 2012-02244. Our field study evaluated crops, crop sequences, and cultural methods to suppress field bindweed. In 2015, rhizomes were planted in 1m2 plots at 0, 4, 12, and 32 fragments plot-1 and ten cropping treatments were imposed. In the fall of 2016, plots were planted to winter wheat. In spring 2017, bindweed abundance and spread was measured. Winter wheat and safflower halted increases in bindweed patch growth and fruit production. Tilled fallow management led to a 10x increase in the number of bindweed shoots. We conducted meta-analyses of the existing literature to identify promising management approaches for field bindweed and Canada thistle in the absence of synthetic herbicides and determine aspects of management warrant further study. Mechanical control was the most studied management technique, accounting for 40% of data extracted, but did not outperform most of the other management actions. Integrated management emerged as the management technique that caused the greatest decrease in abundance and survival for field bindweed. Additional management techniques that decreased field bindweed and/or Canada thistle included biocontrol, mowing, grazing, crop diversification, solarization, shading, flaming, and crop competition. However, most of the studies reported impacts over short time spans, with 53% being conducted for one to two years, and only 9% conducted for five or more years. Further, only 16% of field bindweed and 26% of Canada thistle studies reported measures of variability. 6. Training opportunities and educational resources on sustainable organic practices The research outcomes were presented in the following courses: ENSC410/LRES 510. Biodiversity Survey and Monitoring. MSU AGSC 428/ LRES 529 Sustainable Cropping Systems. T ANRN 222. Livestock in Sustainable Systems. MSU LRES 110. Introduction to Land Resources and Environmental Sciences. MSU AG SC 342- Forages Ten undergraduate students, two graduate students, and three post-doctoral research associates participated in different components of this project. 5. Evaluation A survey was conducted at the end of the field day at our study site focused on: 1) integration of crop-livestock, 2) weed management, 3) beneficial insects, 4) soil quality and greenhouse emissions, 5) climate change impact on agricultural production, and 6) economic overview of integrated systems. The field day was attended by about 60 people including producers, extension agents, students, and researchers, and 29 completed the survey. Results showed that participants increased the understanding by 3.44/4.00 for beneficial insects, and 3.15/4.00 for assessing climate change impact and soil quality. 79% of attendees strongly agreed or agree to apply the information obtained in the field day, 96% find the information of the field day relevant and will recommend it to their colleagues. Weed management and crop rotation were the most relevant topics, and greenhouse gases the least useful.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Menalled, F., R. K. Peterson, R. G. Smith, W. S. Curran, D. J. Perez, Menalled, F., R. K. Peterson, R. G. Smith, W. S. Curran, D. J. Perez, and B. D. Maxwell. 2016. The eco-evolutionary imperative: revisiting weed management in the midst of a herbicide resistance crisis. Sustainability 8(12), 1297; doi:10.3390/su8121297
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Carr, P.M., S. Briar, G. Gramig, F. Menalled, and P. Miller. 2016. Current status and future outlook of organic conservation tillage in the U.S. Great Plains Region. International seminar on emerging trends in organic farming and sustainable agriculture. Dec. 29-31, 2016.t Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: S. Adhikari, L.A. Burkle, K.M. ONeill, D.K. Weaver, A.J. Hansen, A. Adhikari, and F.D. Menalled. 2016. Effects of agricultural management systems on natural habitat distribution in the Northern Great Plains: Implications for pollinators. 101st Ecological Society of America meeting. Aug 7-12, 2016. Fort Lauderdale, FL.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Ishaq, S.L., S.P. Johnson, Z.J. Miller, E.A. Lehnhoff, S.K. Olivo, C.J, Yeoman, and F.D. Menalled. 2016. Farming systems modify the impact of inoculum on soil microbial diversity. American Society for Microbiology meeting. June 16-20, 2016. Boston, MA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Grimberg, B.I. and F. Menalled. 2016. Science in action: Biological and ecological principles of urban agriculture. Environmental Education Symposium - Urban Agriculture: An Untapped Context for STEM Learning. 2016 NARST Annual International Conference. April 14-17. Baltimore, MD. USA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Menalled. F.D. 2016. Weeds: there are other management strategies beyond herbicides. XXIV Argentinean Association of Direct Seeding Producers (Aapresid) Congress. August 3-5, 2016. Rosario, Argentina. (available on line at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-RyuWGStQv8. In Spanish)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Menalled, F.D. 2016. For every complex (agricultural) problem, there is an answer that is clear, simple, and wrong. Institute of the Ecosystem Rough Cut Series. October 19, 2016. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Orloff, N., J. Mangold, Z. Miller, and F. Menalled. Accepted with minor revisions. A meta-analysis of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L.) management in organic agricultural systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment.
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Menalled, F. In Press. Sustainable agriculture and integrated weed management. In Weed Control. Sustainability, Hazards and Risks in Cropping Systems Worldwide. N. E. Korres, N. R Burgos, and S. O. Duke, eds. Science Publishers.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Lehnhoff, E., Z. Miller, P. Miller, S. Johnson, T. Scott, P. Hatfield, and F. Menalled. 2017. Organic agriculture and the quest for the holy grail in water-limited ecosystems: Managing weeds and reducing tillage intensity. Agriculture 7, 33; doi:10.3390/agriculture7040033.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Seipel, T., S. Ishaq, and F. D. Menalled. 2017. Impact of predicted climate scenarios and cropping systems on crop yield and weed communities. Ecological Annual Society of America Annual Meeting. August 6-11. Portland, OR.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Ishaq, S.L., T. Seipel, A.M. Thornton, and F. D. Menalled. 2017. Soil bacterial diversity in response to stress from farming system, climate change, weed diversity, and wheat streak virus. Ecological Annual Society of America Annual Meeting. August 6-11. Portland, OR.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Orloff, N. F. Menalled, and J. Mangold. 2017. A meta-analysis of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) management in organic agricultural systems. Western Society of Weed Science Annual Meeting. March 13-16. Coeur DAlene, ID.
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2018 Citation: Grimberg, B. and F. Menalled. In Press. Science in action: Biological and ecological principles of urban agriculture. In Designing urban agriculture programs to improve STEM learning and teaching. Patchen, A. Barnett, M. Esthers, L., and Knobloch, N., eds. Springer.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Carr, P.M. 2017. Guest editorial: conservation tillage for organic farming. Online. Agriculture 7(3), 21; doi:10.3390/agriculture7030021
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Orloff, N., J. Mangold, F. Menalled, and Z. Miller. 2016. A meta-analysis of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) management in organic perennial systems. 4th Conference of the Northern Rockies Invasive Plant Council. Ocoter 19, 2016. Boise ID.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Seipel, T., S. Ishaq, and F. D. Menalled. 2017. Impact of management systems and predicted climate scenarios on weed communities. Western Society of Weed Science Annual Meeting. March 13-16. Coeur DAlene, ID.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2017 Citation: Menalled F, T. Seipel, and S. Ishaq. 2017. Agroecology, resilience, and climate change: a perspective from the semiarid agroecosystems of North America. Havana, Cuba.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Grimberg, B., F. Menalled, S. Ahmed, E. Colter, and Z. Miller. 2017. Agricultural professionals' perceptions about climate change. Western Society of Weed Science 36th Annual Meeting. March 13-16, 2017. Coeur dAlene, ID
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Bauer, B., S.C. McKenzie, F. Menalled, J. Mangold, G. Pederson, and N. Silverman. 2016. Climate Science 101 for Montana. Montguide. Montana State University Extension MT201614AG. Nov. 2016 (available on line at http://msuextension.org/publications/AgandNaturalResources/mt201614AG.pdf.)


Progress 09/01/15 to 08/31/16

Outputs
Target Audience:Our targeted audience includes farmers, ranchers, agricultural professionals, and extension agents with interest in dryland sustainable organic agriculture. We also target undergraduate and graduate students, research professionals, and elementary and secondary rural schoolteachers interested in sustainable agriculture, animal production, and organic cropping systems. Changes/Problems:To minimize the chances of Wheat Curl Mite and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus spread in our research plots, we conducted a mechanical inoculation. All other proposed activities were conducted as planned and we foresee no major changes during the next reporting period. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Several undergraduate and graduate students, research technicians and post-doctoral associates collaborated in this project. Undegraduate students. Ali Thornton, Rachel Sullivan, Kyla Crisp, Lazaro Vinola<!-- --> Master level students: Madison Nixon, Tessa Scott Research technicians. Devon Ragen, Jeff Holmes Post-doctoral associates. Timothy Seipel, and Suzanne Ishaq How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Farmers/ranchers: Between October 2015 and August 2016, we presented our research in nine extension/outreach talks, for a total of 370 participants. We plan to present our results at two e0rganic webinars and we are preparing one outreach publication (see item 6. Design and disseminate transformative..., above) Students / Research Associates: Our research has been used in several undergraduate and graduate courses and our research framework has been to train four undergraduate students, two MS students, two Research technicians, and two Post-doctoral associates (see item 5. Develop training opportunities and educational resources..., above) What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We plan to continue our field and greenhouse studies on 1) the impact of predicted climate scenarios in tilled and grazed organic systems and 2) approaches to manage perennial weeds in organic cropping systems. We will analyze the data and present results among communities of interests by presenting our results in professional and growers meetings and by developing and delivering education and outreach opportunities on organic agriculture and re-integration of sheep grazing into dryland farming systems.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? 1. Potential for integration of livestock into organic systems to reduce tillage intensity and mitigate GHG emissions. Measurements of trace soil gas emissions of N2O, CH4, and CO2 begun in April of the 2016 using a static chamber sampling system. The work is on-going and will be run for another season in 2017. Preliminary analysis of the N2O emission over time indicated that the profiles showed greater emission activity from the no-till chemical system (NT) relative to the organic grazed (OG) and organic tilled (OT) systems. These results were likely a result of the chemical inputs of urea fertilizer applied to NT system as chemical inputs of fertilizer N are known to result in production of N2O due to nitrifier-denitrificiaton. he elevation of N2O emission activity persisted for approximately 7 weeks after N fertilizations, which is consistent with our previous understanding of fertilizer-induced emissions. 2i. Evaluate how critical ecological interactions are modified by management systems and environmental variables. At wheat phase of the three cropping systems (NT, OG and OT), we establish three climate treatments (ambient temperature/ambient precipitation, increased temperature/ambient precipitation, and increased temperature/decreased precipitation), two plant treatments (wheat monoculture, and wheat/B. tectorum biculture), and two disease treatments (with or without Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus, WSMV). To increase temperatures and reduce precipitation we established 1.4 m bottom diameter open-top chambers (OTC) and rain out shelters which reduce precipitation by 50%. Temperature were recorded continuously using I-button data loggers. Soil moisture were be recorded twice weekly via Delmhorst GB-1 gypsum sensor blocks. WSMV was mechanically applied on May 4, 2016 using an air compressor and sprayed following established protocols. We monitored weed and soil microbial communities, soil moisture and temperature, and wheat yield and are processing samples. 2ii. Model critical ecological interactions impact the long-term sustainability of organic systems. To complement the field studies described in 2i. we conducted a growth chamber study aimed at assessing Wheat Curl Mite, the vector of WSMV, growth rate under contrasting plant neighborhood conditions (wheat monoculture, Bromus tectorum monoculture, and wheat - B. tectorum mixture). Preliminary results indicated differences in Wheat Curl Mite (WCM) population growth rate across plant neighborhoods, with larger growth rates in the wheat monoculture, intermediate in the wheat - B. tectorum mixture, and lowest in the B. tectorum monoculture. The information gathered in 2i and 2ii will be used in year three of this study to model WCM and B. tectorum growth under different climate scenarios. 3i. Assess livestock integration on agricultural production. The 2016 harvest of winter wheat and lentil is complete; safflower harvest will occur after this report (October 2016). Yield of the OG system were much more positive than in previous years, due in part to more suitable soil moisture conditions at seeding both in the fall (winter wheat) and spring (lentil). We have evolved a practically competitive reduced tillage Organic- Grazed system that results in ~36 consecutive months of no-till during a 5-yr crop rotation, followed by reduced tillage prior to spring-sown lentil and safflower. While it may not befeasible to attempt a completely no-till organic system with current knowledge and technology, we have achieved a reduction in tillage of ~ 50-60% with a ~30% yield reduction for lentils and between 0-18% yield reduction for wheat, depending on the rotation state. 3ii. Develop enterprise budgets. The information gathered in 2i, 2ii, and 3i will be used in year three of this study to develop enterprise budgets to assess economic trade-offs and impacts of integrating sheep and crop production. 4. Management of perennial weeds in organic small-grain production. We completed our studies aimed at assessing management practices that could help minimize the spread and impact of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), one of the biggest threats to the production of organic small-grains. We are currently processing the samples and expect to obtain our first preliminary results within the next four months. We are also conducting a systematic review of previous field bindweed and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvensis) control and management studies in organic and diversified cropping systems for the Northern Great Plains region. To do that, we conducted topic searches of the Web of Science® (1864-2015) and Agricola® (1970-2015) databases and used a modified meta-analysis framework to analyze the results. We will complete this study within the next twelve months. 5. Develop training opportunities and educational resources. Four undergraduate students, two MS candidates, two research technicians, and Post-doctoral associates collaborated in this project. Our research was presented at these courses: AG SC 342. Dr. Emily Glunk. Forages. Current enrollment: 32 students. ENSC410/LRES 510. Dr. Timothy Seipel. Biodiversity Survey and Monitoring. This undergraduate course utilized the Ft. Ellis field site to assess the impact of management systems on biodiversity. MSU AGSC 428/ LRES 529 Sustainable Cropping Systems. Offered by Dr. P. Miller. Topic included ecologically based weed management and integrated crop - livestock systems. Enrollment: 30 students. ANRN 222. Livestock in Sustainable Systems. Dr. Hatfield revised concepts of sustainable livestock production. Enrollment: 99 students. MSU LRES 110. Introduction to Land Resources and Environmental Sciences. Dr. Menalled provided guests lectures on ecologically based weed management and integrated crop - livestock systems in organic fields. Enrollment: 95 students. Finally, on October 19, 2016 Dr. Menalled will present our results at the Montana Institute on Ecosystems Rough Cut Lecture Series (available on-line at http://montana.adobeconnect.com/roughcutscience/) 6. Design and disseminate extension activities. We surveyed our target audience in terms of perceptions, knowledge and attitudes regarding climate change. We are currently analyzing the data. Between October 2015 and August 2016, we presented results obtained from our research in nine extension/outreach talks, for a total of 370 participants. Great Falls, MT. October 23, 2015.Climate change impacts and mitigations in Montana.Farmers Union. 60 participants Bozeman, MT.November 3, 2015. Using sheep to manage sheep and cover crops.NRCS Soil health workshop. 45 participants Bozeman, MT. December 4, 2015. Integration of crops and livestock.Montana Organic Association Annual Meeting. 65 participants Conrad, MT. December 8, 2015. Grazing alfalfa and alternative forages. Wool Pull 19 participants Joliet, MT. March 2, 2016. Cover crops, what can they do for me? 38 participants Bozeman, MT.December 10, 2015. Talking about climate change.MSU-Extension climate science conference. 50 participants Sheridan, MT.February 2, 2016. Using sheep to manage sheep and cover crops.Cover Crop Seminar. 20 participants Helena, MT.February 2, 2016. Using sheep to manage sheep and cover crops.Cover Crop Seminar. 38 participants Bozeman, MT.June 6, 2016. Integration of crops and livestock.Extension Agents update.35 participants We will present our results in two upcoming eOrganic webinars (integration of sheep grazing and small grain production and perennial weed management in organic systems). Emily Glunk, Perry Miller, and Susan Tallman (NRCS) are preparing the extension publication "Cover crops for shorter growing seasons" to be published at the Progressive Forage Grower. 7. Evaluate the success and adjust protocol of research, educational, and outreach activities. Dr. Grimberg will conduct the first evaluation of our research, educational, and outreach objective on January 2017.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2016 Citation: Johnson, S., Z. Miller, P. Miller, E. Lehnhoff, and F. Menalled. In Press. Cropping systems modify soil biota effects on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and competitive ability. Weed Research
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Ishaq, S., S. Johnson, Z. Miller, E. Lehnhoff, S. Olivo, C. Yeoman, and F. Menalled. Accepted with Revisions. Impact of cropping systems, soil inoculum, and plant species identity on soil bacterial community structure. Microbial Ecology
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Grimberg, B. and F. Menalled. In Press. Science in action: Biological and ecological principles of urban agriculture. In Designing urban agriculture programs to improve STEM learning and teaching. Patchen, A. Barnett, M. Esthers, L., and Knobloch, N., eds. Springer
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: B.I. Grimberg and F. Menalled. 2019. Science in action: Biological and ecological principles of urban agriculture. 2016 NARST Annual International Conference. April 14-17. Environmental Education Symposium - Urban Agriculture: An Untapped Context for STEM Learning. Baltimore, MD. USA