Source: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RIVERSIDE submitted to
NIFA-BARD: ENHANCED RESILIENCE OF LOCAL AGRICULTURAL WATER SUPPLIES THROUGH THE REUSE OF MUNICIPAL AND AGRICULTURAL WASTEWATER: A DYNAMIC EC
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1006000
Grant No.
2015-68007-23191
Project No.
CA-R-SPP-5107-CG
Proposal No.
2014-09477
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
A8101
Project Start Date
Mar 1, 2015
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2017
Grant Year
2015
Project Director
Schwabe, K. A.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RIVERSIDE
(N/A)
RIVERSIDE,CA 92521
Performing Department
College of Nat & Agr Sciences
Non Technical Summary
Water scarcity, deteriorating soil and groundwater quality, and growing climate uncertainty pose a serious threat to irrigated agricultural sustainability. In response, growers and irrigation districts are increasingly considering augmenting current water supplies with more reliable local water sources. Two 'local' sources that are receiving significant attention include ADW and TWW. In both cases, the intensity and scale of treatment as well as its long-term success will depend on a number of biophysical, economic, and behavioral factors. Unfortunately, a systematic regional analysis of the role treatment might play in improving local water supply reliability and reducing the vulnerability of irrigated agriculture to drought and water scarcity is missing in the agricultural economics literature. Most analyses of 'reuse' are limited to integrated on-farm drainage management where agricultural drainage water is reapplied to more salt-tolerant crops; the long-term effects on soil structure and quality of agricultural outputs are overlooked. Systematic regional analyses of TWW are even more sparse, if not nonexistent, especially when food safety issues are included (e.g., residuals of endocrine disrupting and pharmaceutical compounds).This research will begin to fill this gap through using the seed grant along with the knowledge set and experience with TWW in Israel in a collaborative interdisciplinary effort to develop a dynamic model of irrigated agricultural production that can be applied quite flexibly to areas where one or both of these treatment options may be available. This project investigates the ability and most efficient manner in which the reuse of ADW and TWW can help agriculture appropriate the necessary water it needs for sustainability in a reliable manner with additional attention to crop yield, quality, and safety. As discussed above, there is significant interest and growth in the reuse of water for agriculture, yet the state of the science falls far short of the information requirements that agencies and growers need to make informed decisions. Indeed, the growing dependency of agriculture on TWW in the US requires a thorough analysis of PC fate and the danger of long term accumulation in agricultural environments. While this particular project uses seed money to generate larger funding to more fully explore these issues, we expect that there will be stand-alone outputs that can be immediately useful to water and wastewater treatment agencies, growers, farm advisers, and cooperative extension agents in helping society address its water scarcity problem through the efficient adoption of effective wastewater reuse programs.
Animal Health Component
20%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
40%
Applied
20%
Developmental
40%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
4030210202033%
1020110200033%
6050210301034%
Goals / Objectives
The long-term objectives of this research are to develop a regional water reuse decision-support model (RWRM) that can evaluate the impacts of using treated agricultural drainage waters (ADW) and treated wastewater (TWW) on agricultural sustainability and water supply reliability. This model will be developed to:Inform water and irrigation districts of the costs of adopting alternative water reuse programs, including treated ADW and TWW as well as different technological options within each of those categories, and the impacts of these different strategies on irrigated agricultural productivity and profits over time.Illustrate how choice or constraints on reuse technology selection will impact agricultural productivity, crop yields, crop quality, and food safety.Evaluate how the addition of these more localized water supply sources can improve regional water supply reliability through measuring how the variance of regional water supply deliveries over time is impacted both with and without the availability of such options. In regions where groundwater is used as either a primary or secondary (buffer) water supply source, the evaluation will include how these local reuse options influence both the quantity and quality of the groundwater resources over time.To achieve these long-term objectives, the current proposed project intends to bring together scientists from both California and Israel to develop two components of the above research that are most lacking in information and understanding. The two components include:Development of cost and TWW output functions that relate effluent characteristics (quantity and quality) and cost to influent characteristics (quantity and quality), wastewater treatment technology, and input prices. These cost and wastewater treatment output functions will be developed for technologies that are currently being used as well as emerging technologies. Such functions are necessary components to the overall RWRM and can, if need be, stand along functions that may be of interest to water agencies as they consider the feasibility and costs of adopting different wastewater treatment technologies; andGeneration of state-of-the-art response functions that relate crop yield, quality, and safety to the use of TWW based on best available science, and past and ongoing experiments.
Project Methods
Year (1) will consist primarily of data collection based on published research outcomes, ongoing current experiments and research, and discussions and data gathering from agencies and growers. Year (2) will begin with the initial development of cost, effluent, and crop response functions using statistical methods, summaries of the impacts of TWW on salient soil properties, followed by in-depth discussions and presentations (as part of our outreach) of our progress and current approach with agency staff, growers, farm advisers, and extension agents, and other scientists. Year (2) will end with final development of cost, effluent, and crop response functions and incorporation into initial regional model.Across these two years, four specific activities will take place, including: Activity A--development of crop response functions that include yield, crop quality, and food safety effects as a function of water and soil quality in a manner that can be incorporated into a regional economic analysis of reuse options; Activity B--develop an understanding of how TWW applications affect soil properties at different time scales; Activity C--development of the cost and effluent functions that relate effluent quality and quantity to treatment technology, input prices, and influent quality and quantity; Activity D--development of a preliminary regional dynamic model of irrigated agricultural production with access to multiple water sources, including reuse of ADW and TWW and the functions and knowledge developed in Activities A and B. These activities will occur simultaneously with Kan and Chefetz developing Activity A; Chefetz, Jassby, and Simunek developing Activity B; Jassby and Schwabe developing Activity C, and Kan and Schwabe developing Activity D.Each activity will consist of the following. For Activity A, we will summarize results from the literature as well as data that is continually being collected from greenhouse and field experiments which have examined the uptake and accumulation of active pharmaceutical compounds by different crops and plants. The data will be sorted based on the water quality used for irrigation, soil properties and the type of crop (root, leafy and fruit vegetables). Data from ongoing experiments by Chefetz at the agricultural experimental and research station in Lachish, Israel (which includes a Lysimeter setup consisting of 42 units and several fruit orchards) will be used, where all plots have been irrigated for several years with TWW which allows for collecting data simulating agricultural practices of the region. For Activity B, we will collect information from the literature on the effects of TWW on soil hydraulic properties, and identify different steady-state and transient state models to evaluate the long-term impacts of TWW use on soil structure (hydrological conductivity parameters). These effects will be determined for different soils and different sources of wastewater. We will also explore a model developed by Shani et al. (2007)--a plant-water-soil-atmosphere equilibrium model that predicts crop yields for different levels of both quantities of irrigation water applications and the water salinity--to capture the effect on soil structure from use of TWW. This model incorporates parameters representing soil hydrological conductivity. Based on the data collected and the literature, we can derive yield-response functions. For some specific treated wastewater and soils we may conduct laboratory experiments to measure the hydraulic conductivity effects. For Activity C, we will survey technical and scientific literature and identify both existing and emerging wastewater treatment technologies. For each identified technology, we will characterize the treated water quality, energy demand, chemical demand, capital investment and operational costs. In addition to literature searches, we will interview collaborating utilities that practice wastewater reuse, for the purpose of gleaning additional useful information such as operator training requirements and public attitudes towards alternative uses of treated wastewater. When unavailable, we will estimate this information based on our expert understanding of the identified technologies as well on our conversations with cooperating utilities. The parameters generated in these activities will be fed into the integrated agricultural model, which will increase the accuracy and flexibility of the model, as well as expand its usefulness in terms of identifying the optimal combination of treatment and blending which maximizes agricultural productivity while minimizing both economic and environmental costs. Water quality parameters will be grouped into two major groups (organic and inorganic), which will be subsequently subdivided into individual constituents that have been identified to have an impact on agricultural productivity and food quality. The ability of each treatment technology, identified through the literature review, to impact specific water quality parameters will be determined, e.g., reverse osmosis membranes remove 99.8% of salinity, or ozonation degrades 80% of pharmaceuticals. Other emerging treatment technologies (e.g., anaerobic membrane bioreactors) will also be explored. For Activity D, our study will extend existing economic models to include the long-term dynamic effects of irrigation with ADW or TWW. A programming modeling approach will be used that extends previous work by Kan and Schwabe.

Progress 03/01/15 to 08/31/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Similar to the previous report, and the overall motivation of the project, the target audience of the project includes staff and managers for water districts and wastewater treatment plants, as well as the academic community that engages in research on water scarcity, water reliability, water recycling, water reuse, wastewater recyclingand water conservation. In addition, our reserach targets those sectors that are concerned with opportunities to meet their water demand in and near municipal centers at low cost, including agricultural operators, and agencies interested in groundwater recharge. Efforts over this reporting period and the project in general include presentations at an academic conference to reach other scientists, to city operators and wastewater treatment plant staff, and one published technical journal article that has reached professionals, agencies, and academics. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?It provided training and funding support to two graduate students at the University of California Riverside. First, the research has lead to two publications (and two out o the three required papers) for Q. Tran's dissertation (she will be receiving her PhD in Chemical and Environmental Engineering at UC Riverside.. This project also is the basis for her three research project. The project has also supported research by R. Amin and our efforts to illustrate how drought and water conservation activities throughout California have affected influent and effluent flow and quality. R. Amin is a masters student in Public Policy at UC Riverside. This research also lead to her receiving a summer internship at the Water Policy Center of the Public Policy Institute of California during the summer of 2017 to do research on this issue. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?The results have been disseminated to the communities of interest through a variety of venues. For, for the academic community, we have have published papers in high quality peer-reviewed research journals. For water agency managers and stakeholders, in addition to our research publications, we have given numerous presentations at regional, state, and national conferences. We have also met one-on-one with waterwater and water agency managers to discuss our findings. For both water agency managers and the public, our findings have been disseminated in various media outlets (including Science Daily, the Water Education Foundation, and the Inland Empire Press Enterprise). Finally, we are working on a short policy brief and blog to be posted by the Water Policy Center of the Public Policy Institute of California. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? The long-terms goals we accomplished included: (a) illustrating how treated municipal wastewater (TMW) can be produced at a much lower cost than currently and in a manner that is better suited to meet demand characteristics, (b) how drought and water conservation efforts may work to reduce the availability and quality of TMW, (c) how WWTP operators can respond in a cost-effective manner to address the quality impications of drought and/or water conservation efforts on the quality of TMW, (d) how WWTP processes can be optimized to deliver a more cost-effective product--both TMW and ADW to agricultural operators, and (e) how reuse of TMW and ADW within a regional water supply setting can improve society welfare. In particular, three specific outcomes include: 1. Using a cost-minimization framework, we identify least-cost solutions consisting of treatment processes and their intensities (blending ratios) to produce alternative irrigation sources for citrus and turfgrass. Our analysis illustrates the benefits of employing an optimization framework and flexible treatment design to identify cost-effective blending opportunities that may produce high-quality irrigation water for a wide range of end uses. 2. We illustrated, using a case study from Southern California during its most recent drought, how drought and water conservation strategies combine to reduce influent flow and quality and, subsequently, effluent flow and quality. Second, we use a recently developed regional water reuse decision support model (RWRM) to highlight cost-effective strategies that can be implemented to mitigate the impacts of drought on effluent water quality. While the solutions we identify cannot increase the flow of influent or effluent coming into or out of a treatment plant, they can improve the value of the remaining effluent in a cost-effective manner that takes into account the characteristics of its demand, whether it be for landscaping, golf courses, agricultural irrigation, or surface water augmentation. 3. We found that from a regional perspective, and in the case of Israel with the use of the MYWAS model, that: (1) enabling agricultural irrigation with treated wastewater significantly reduces the optimal capacity levels of seawater and brackish-water desalination over the simulated 3-decade period, and increases Israel'swelfare by 3.3 billion USD in terms of present values; (2) a policy requiring desalination of treatedwastewater pre-agricultural reuse, as a method to prevent long-run damage to the soil and groundwater, reduceswelfare by 2.7 billion USD; hence, such a policy is warranted only if the avoided damages exceed this welfare loss; (3) desalination of treated wastewater in order to increase freshwater availability for agricultural irrigation is not optimal, since the costs overwhelm the generated agricultural benefits. We also find the results associated with these three topics to be sensitive to the natural recharge of Israel's freshwater aquifers, and to the rate at which domestic-water demand evolves due to population and income growth.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Tran, Q., Jassby, D. and Schwabe, K.A. 2017. The Implications of Drought and Water Conservation on the Reuse of Municipal Wastewater: Recognizing Impacts and Identifying Mitigation Possibilities. Water Research 124, 472-481
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Reznik, A., Feinerman, I., Finkelshtain, I., Fisher, F., Huber-Lee, A., Joyce, B., and I. Kan. 2017. Economic implications of agricultural reuse of treated wastewater in Israel: A statewide long-term perspective. Ecological Economics 135:222-233.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: (Presentation given by Q. Tran) Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture: Development of a Regional Water Reuse Decision-support model for Cost-effective Irrigation.(w/ D. Jassby) Presented at WaterSmart Innovation Conference and Exposition. Las Vegas, NV., October 5-7, 2016
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: (Presentation given by K. Schwabe).Sustainable Water Resources in Urban Environments: Challenges and Opportunities." Presented at Drought Vulnerability and Tools for Improving Water Resilience. National Water Resource Institute. Long Beach, CA. October 20th, 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: (Presentation given by B. Chefetz). Human exposure to wastewater derived pharmaceuticals in fresh produce: Current knowledge and challenges. Presented at the University of California Riverside Environmental Science Seminar Series. July, 2017. Riverside California.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Fedorova, G., J. Ben Ari, G. Tadmor, O. Paltiel, B. Chefetz. 2016. Environmental exposure to pharmaceuticals: A new technique for trace analysis of carbamazepine and its metabolites in human urine. Environmental Pollution 213:308-313.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Paltiel, O., G. Fedorova, G. Tadmor, G. Kleinstern, Y. Maor, B. Chefetz. 2016. Human exposure to wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in fresh produce: A randomized controlled trial focusing on carbamazepine. Environmental Science and Technology 50:4476-4482.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Paz A., G. Tadmor, T. Malchi, J. Blotevogel, T. Borch, T. Polubesova, B. Chefetz. 2016. Fate of carbamazepine, its metabolites, and lamotrigine in soils irrigated with reclaimed wastewater: Sorption, leaching and plant uptake. Chemosphere 160:22-29.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2017 Citation: Ben Mordechay, E., J. Tarchitzky, Y. Chen, M. Shenker, and B. Chefetz. 2017. Composted Biosolids and Treated Wastewater as Sources of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products for Plant Uptake: A Case Study with Carbamazepine. Environmental Pollution.


Progress 03/01/16 to 02/28/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Similar to the previous report, and the overall motivation of the project, the target audience of the project includes staff and managers for water districts and wastewater treatment plants, as well as the academic community that engages in research on water scarcity, water reliability, water recycling, water reuse, wastewater recyclingand water conservation. In addition, our reserach targets those sectors that are concerned with opportunities to meet their water demand in and near municipal centers at low cost, including agricultural operators. Efforts over this reporting period include presentations at an academic conference to reach other scientists, to city operators and wastewater treatment plant staff, and one published technical journal article that has reached professionals, agencies, and academics. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?The project's main focus in this area has been on the training and professional development of two PhD students. In the US, Schwabe and Jassby are training a PhD student (Quyhn Tran) in Environmental and Chemical Engineering through one-on-one mentoring. In Israel, Kan and Chefetz are training Ami Reznik in Environmental Economics and Management. Each has played an integral role in developing the their respective models with Tran developing the RWRM model in the US and Reznik developing the first version of the RWRM. We have also started mentoring a master's student in public policy on this project. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?As indicated above (in the "Other Products" section), in addition to publishing an article in the journal, Science, Technologiy, and the Environment, we have given four presentations at local, regoinal, and national venues to other academics, agency staff, and stakeholders. We have also given met one-on-one with some wastewater treatment plant staff and city managers about how they may be able to use our model to help them address wastewater issues. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Publishing another manuscript that looks at how conservation actions by water districts influences the costs confronted by WWTPs to reclaim municipal wastewater and the subsequent effects on effluent quality. We then want to further investigate the implications of that changes in effluent quality on crop yields and grower profits, and on instream water quality. Finally, we want to investigate the costs and benefits of mitigating those impacts. Additionally, we wan to finalize the response functions to better represent the impacts of differences in effluent quality and irrigation quality on crop response. Recall that this is a two-year seed grant with the idea to better understand the central issues in the area reusing treated municipal wastewater in agricultural environments. We've made some significant progress in this area, especially with developing the model and illustrating its benefit to local and regional wastewater treatment managers and agricultural operators. Our next step is to scale this research up and make the model more flexible to be easily adapted elsewhere regoinally. Also, we've identified an issue that will require more significant attention -- the impacts of contaminants of emerging concern--as an area that we need to expand upon.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? One of the accomplishments over this period was to finalize the development of the first generation regional water reuse decision-support model (RWRM) using the general algebraic modeling system and to use that model to analyze the cost-effectiveness of alternative treatment trains to generate irrigation water from reclaimed wastewater, with the irrigation water designed to meet crop requirements as well as California's wastewater reuse regulations (Title 22). Using a cost-minimization framework, least-cost solutions consisting of treatment processes and their intensities (blending ratios) were identified to produce alternative irrigation sources for citrus and turfgrass. Our analysis illustrated the benefits of employing an optimization framework and flexible treatment design to identify cost-effective blending opportunities that may produce high quality irrigation water for a wide range of end uses. A second accomplishment was to extend the model aboevl to evaluate the suitability of treated wastewater for crop irrigation during droughts by studying the Inland Empire Utilities Agency - Regional Water Recycling Plant #4 (IEUA - RP4). The impacts and implications of drought on wastewater quality and the ripple effects of deterioration in discharges from wastewater treatment plants on our watersheds were also investigated. Using the revised regional water reuse decision-support model (rRWRM), the least-costly solutions to the irrigation sources and the deterioration of wastewater effluents are identified to retrieve the pre-drought period water/wastewater quality and to produce suitable irrigation water for crops. One outcome of this research is to recommend strict monitoring and more stringent regulating of wastewater discharges to ensure wastewater effluent quality complies with the discharge limitations. We are in the process of finalizing a manuscript to be submitted for publication. A third accomplishment of this research is to begin the development and analysis of the implications of drought on influent and effluent quality and flow volumes. While we're in the initial stages of our analysis, this research will have substantial implications for our understanding of the impacts of state conservation mandates to conserve water on WWTP operations and the resulting impact on the availability and quality of treated municipal wastewater for irrirgated agricultue on urban-rural fringe.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Tran, Q., Schwabe, K., Jassby, D. 2016. Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture: Development of a Regional Water Reuse Decision-Support Model (RWRM) for Cost-Effective Irrigation Sources. Environmental Science and Technology, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02073, 2016


Progress 03/01/15 to 02/29/16

Outputs
Target Audience: The target audience for this first half of the project includes staff and managers for water districts and wastewater treatment plants, as well as the academic community that engages in research on water scarcity, water reliability, water recycling, water reuse, wastewater recyclingand water conservation. In addition, our reserach targets those sectors that are concerned with opportunities to meet their water demand in and near municipal centers at low cost, including agricultural operators. Efforts to date include a presentation of the initial results on the development of a regional wastewater reuse decision support model, a graduate research, and a submitted manuscript. Importantly, graduate student training has been a significant part of this project. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?The project's main focus in this area has been on the training and professional development of two PhD students. In the US, Schwabe and Jassby are training a PhD student (Quyhn Tran) in Environmental and Chemical Engineering through one-on-one mentoring. In Israel, Kan and Chefetz are training Ami Reznik in Environmental Economics and Management. Each has played an integral role in developing the their respective models with Tran developing the RWRM model in the US and Reznik developing the first version of the RWRM. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?As this is the first year of a two year project, we've been focused on developing and testing the models. But we have disseminated the results from the decision support model at three conferences (see "Products") and have submitted a manuscript to the journal, Environmental Science and Technology. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?For the next reporting period, which will be for the second and final year of the project, we will bring the two join the two major elements of the project -- the wastewater reuse models from both countries with the crop model. This will require significant coordinated efforts across the two teams - the US team and the Israeli team. Once this is accomplished, we will then submit manuscripts, give presentations at the local, regional, national, and international levels to the academic and water community on our findings and results. Finally, given this is a two-year seed grant, we will then develop a more indepth longer term study to further develop and calibrate the model for flexible application to water systems nationally and internationlly.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? To date, the US team has developed the cost and TWW output functions that relate effluent characteristics (quantity and quality) and cost to influent characteristics (quantity and quality), wastewater treatment technology, and input prices. These cost and wastewater treatment output functions will be developed for technologies that are currently being used as well as emerging technologies. Such functions are necessary components to the overall RWRM and can, if need be, stand along functions that may be of interest to water agencies as they consider the feasibility and costs of adopting different wastewater treatment technologies. Both teams are working on generating the state-of-the-art response functions that relate crop yield, quality, and safety to the use of TWW based on best available science, and past and ongoing experiments. Finally, the Israeli team developed a first version of the RWRM based on the case of Israel. This is a dynamic discrete-time non-linear mathematical programming model that searches for optimal water allocation and infrastructural investments along time and space, while taking into account a range of economic data, physical factors and constraints. The model incorporates TWW as a source of water for agricultural production, which in turn releases freshwater for the needs of the domestic consumers, which grow due to population growth. Yet, the quality of water in general, and that of TWW in particular, is out of the scope of the model, and will be incorporated later in the project.We developed a first version of the RWRM based on the case of Israel. This is a dynamic discrete-time non-linear mathematical programming model that searches for optimal water allocation and infrastructural investments along time and space, while taking into account a range of economic data, physical factors and constraints. The model incorporates TWW as a source of water for agricultural production, which in turn releases freshwater for the needs of the domestic consumers, which grow due to population growth. Yet, the quality of water in general, and that of TWW in particular, is out of the scope of the model, and will be incorporated during the next year through the integration with the model developed by the US team.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2016 Citation: Tran, Quynh; Schwabe, Kurt; Jassby, David. Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture: A Development of a Regional Water Reuse Decision-Support Model (RWRM) for Cost-Effective Irrigation Sources. Submitted to Environmental Science and Technology (April 28th, 2016). 34 manuscript pages.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: Tran, Q., Schwabe, K., and D. Jassby. 2015. Wastewater Reuse of Agriculture. Presentation at the Towards Food, Energy and Water (FEW) Security in California under Changing Conditions: the Nexus perspective. UCLA, Los Angeles, CA., December 3, 2015
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Tran, Q., K. Schwabe, and D. Jassby. 2016. Wastewater Reuse: A Study of Wastewater Treatment Technologies and Their Impacts on Wastewater Effluents for Agriculture. Presented at the 251st ACS National Meeting & Exposition. San Diego, CA., March 14-17, 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Reznik, A., E. Feinerman, I. Finkelshtain, F. Fisher, A. Huber-Lee, B. Joyce and I. Kan. 2016. Economic Implications of Agricultural Reuse of Treated Wastewater in Israel: A Statewide Long-Term Perspective. Presented at an International Symposium on the The Economic Integration of Agriculture in Israel and Palestine. Rehovot, Israel, 5-6 April 2016