Source: CLEMSON UNIVERSITY submitted to
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Accession No.
Grant No.
Project No.
Proposal No.
Multistate No.
Program Code
Project Start Date
Oct 20, 2014
Project End Date
Oct 15, 2016
Grant Year
Project Director
Fallen, BE, .
Recipient Organization
Performing Department
Pee Dee Research & Education Center
Non Technical Summary
It is difficult to estimate the amount of damage and the economic loss in crop production that occurs every year due to stress. Worldwide the loss potential every year is estimated to be between 11% and 49% of the soybean crop due to some type of stress. So on average 25% of the crop is loss every year. The spectrum of what causes this stress is very extensive and diverse. Stress can come from insects, wildlife, drought and disease just to name a few sources. The goal of this project is to develop soybean varieties that are more adapted to withstand these types of stress.Another goal of this project is to improve some of the health benefits of products produced using processed soybean. Both of these goals could greatly benefit both the farmer and the consumer. Maximizing the yield potential can increase the amount of soybeans that a farmer can produce off the same amount of land, which increases the amount of revenue for the farmer and can help to feed the world's growing population. Also the addition of value-added traits will demand a higher premium for the farmer and will increase the appeal to the consumer because of the added health benefits.The key to the success of this project will be identifying what traits are the most beneficial for accomplishing the goals of this project and incorporating those traits into high yielding soybean varieties. This will require extensive field research and collaboration with both fellow scientists and the local community.
Animal Health Component
Research Effort Categories

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
Knowledge Area
201 - Plant Genome, Genetics, and Genetic Mechanisms;

Subject Of Investigation
1820 - Soybean;

Field Of Science
1081 - Breeding;
Goals / Objectives
Goal Statement:To provide genetic solutions that will ultimately lead to new and improved soybean germplasm lines and cultivars and to provide research based knowledge to the public through field days, presentations and publications. The ultimate goal of the program is not only to improve soybean production in SC, but also to work together with farmers and consumers to provide a better way of living.Objectives:1. Develop and release superior soybean varieties, both conventional and herbicide tolerant, adapted for the Southeastern US.2. Develop high yielding soybean varieties adapted for the Southeastern US with improved fatty acid profiles.3. Develop high yielding drought tolerant varieties for the Southeastern US.4. Evaluate the effects of commercially available products on soybean pod retention.5. Develop and release new soybean forage varieties.6. Develop and release soybean genotypes with the long juvenile trait adapted for the Southeastern US.
Project Methods
Most breeding efforts for this project will be conducted using the modified pedigree selection method, a traditional plant breeding technique. Traits of interest will be measured in the lab, greenhouse or in the field depending on what traits are being measured. All lines developed, including lines with value-added traits will be evaluated for agronomic performance across multiple environments. Tests will be conducted throughout SC and in surrounding states. Seed yield will be a key factor when analyzing agronomic performance. One unique aspect of this project is the fact that farmers were able to help define the scope of research and will have an opportunity to add input on how the project proceeds. Also, once lines have reached an advanced stage of development farmers will have the opportunity to grow on farm research trials. Another unique aspect is the direct practical applications of the research from which farmers can greatly benefit. The knowledge gained from this study will be made available to soybean producers and to the public through reports, field day presentations and in published results of the state variety tests in SC, GA and NC. Also, results of the USDA regional soybean tests are published annually and are available online. In addition, I will be available to speak at any scheduled meeting, extension venue and outreach event, as requested.The success of this project will be evaluated on three aspects: economic impact, public outreach, and producer and consumer satisfaction. Potential economic impact will be measured as the added value due to improved genetics. Public outreach will be measured by how many times the results of this project are presented at anevent or in a publication and how many people are reached from each event or publication. Producer and consumer satisfaction is probably the most important evaluation for this project because results from almost all areas of the project can be evaluated by producer and consumer satisfaction. Lab instruments, statistical methods and field evaluations are all important to determine if an objective has been reached, but the ultimate goal of this project is community impact. Producers will only be satisfied with a soybean variety if it is high yielding, pest resistant, herbicide tolerant, profitable and increases production. Consumers are primarily interested in improved cost effectiveness, increased health benefits, ease of access and reduced environmental impacts. Almost all of which will be evaluated using scientific methods to assess if the objectives of this project have been reached.

Progress 10/20/14 to 10/15/16

Target Audience:The target audiences that were reached were(2) the public - who, by in large constitute the local consumer; (2) , farmers - a large portion of which were soybean farmers; (3) , fellow plant breeders; (4) county extension agents andmembers of the soybean breeding community. Results from this researchwere presented through reports, publications and at extension meetings, board meetings, advisor panels, workshops, classrooms and field days. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?An insurance adjuster school was scheduled to be held on October 11 & 12, 2016 at the PDREC. All material was finalized and everything was ready to go, but hurricane Matthew caused the class to be cancelled. We hope to be able to reschedule the class for next year. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Grow Your Future: 6th Grade Science and Career Day, April 15, 2016. This is a day of hands-on science learning for local 6th grade schools. Students get a chance to meet representatives from businesses and agencies and learn about topics related to science standards, as well as about potential science-based careers. The role of this program was to present plant biology to the students using soybean as the model crop. The intent was to not only help students learn about the role of soybean in agriculture, but also help reiterate some of the topics found on the schools new standardized tests. Pee Dee Outdoor Discovery Day, May 7, 2016. This event hadexhibits on a variety of agriculture and nature topics, including wildlife, forestry, agricultural history, and many more. Heritage craftsmen and re-enactors such as woodcarvers and blacksmiths were on site to provide demonstrations, and local artisans and small farm vendors sold local produce.Here a booth was setup demonstrating the uses of soybean in many modern products as well as the economic impact these items can have on the local economy. Pee Dee REC Field Day September 13, 2016. Here members of the community are invited to learn more about the investigators and extension agents who work on various cropsin SC. The soybean program presented information about current projects and what we are currently doing to improve products for both the consumer and the farmer. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1:Develop and release superior soybean varieties, both conventional and herbicide tolerant, adapted for the Southeastern US. Outputs This year we entered fourteen elite breeding lines into the SC OVT, six into the GA OVT, seven into the NC Organic OVT and twelve lines were entered into the Southern Uniform Regional Uniform Trials. Some lines were entered into multiple tests and lines tested ranged in maturity from a MG 5 to MG 8. This summer we made ~4,500 crossing attempts with 52 parental combinations. Eight parental combinations contained the LL trait (~700 attempts), 20 contained the RR2Y trait (~1,700 attempts), 13 contained the RR1 trait (~1,100 attempts) and the rest were conventional (1,000 attempts). Other traits included in these cross combinations included disease and insect resistance, improved composition and nematode resistance, along with other traits. ImpactsOne issue that wasbrought to my attention earlier this year wasrust. When the season first started most areas in SC, including the Pee Dee region, were wet. Luckily we did not see much rust on soybeans this year, but the potential was still there if conditions had remained favorable. This year we continued to develop rust resistant lines for SC. Selections made in 2015 were planted again this year for further evaluations and new populations were also evaluated. Having rust resistant soybean varieties adapted to SC may not be needed every year, but having that option in a high yielding variety that a grower would want to grow regardless of growing conditions, could be very beneficial to growers, saving them time and money. Objectives 2 & 3 Develop high yielding soybean varieties adapted for the Southeastern US with improved fatty acid profiles. Develop high yielding drought tolerant varieties for the Southeastern US OutputsThis year we planted five high protein soybean lines that were used for making cross pollinations this summer. We were able to complete 5 crossing attempts with the high protein parent donors for a total of 500 attempts. During the fall of 2016 we harvested ~30 plant rows of the cross Jing Huang 18 x N05-7432. Jing Huang 18 is a MG VIII soybean line from China with a 57.4% protein content on a dry seed weight basis. N05-7432 is a high yielding drought tolerant line from the NC USDA-ARS (Dr. Carter). Approximately ~45 plant rows total of R08-3206 and R09-3879 crossed to a high yielding MG7 RR1 line from the University of GA (Dr. Li) were also harvested. From the crossing block this year we will be sending 50 seed of each cross: Liberty Link (LL) x UA5814HP and Santee x UA5814HP. UA5814HP is a high protein line that originated from the University of Arkansas (Dr. Chen) and the LL material was acquired this year from Bayer. Santee is a high yielding, Clemson developed variety that consistently yields well across SC. Additional drought tolerant crosses were also made this year. Both slow wilting and sustained nitrogen fixation parents were used this year that included; N05-7432, R10-2436 and R07-7044. Approximately 1,500 F2 population rows were grown, evaluated and bulk harvested this summer in Florence, SC. These were lines derived from crosses with the two drought tolerant parents mentioned above, N05-7432 and R10-2436. ImpactsAnother problem experiencedthis growing season was drought. Almost all the farmers I spoken with were impacted in some way by drought this summer. In fact, >50% of the state of SC was classified as having severe drought conditions the first week of June and the last week of August. This year we were able to include a Drought OVT along with the Irrigated and Dryland OVT. Both slow wilting and fast wilting checks are included for all maturity groups for comparison. This will allow anyone who looks at the data from the OVT grown in Florence, SC to compare the same varieties under irrigated, dryland and drought conditions for better varietal selection by farmers. Also, whole rows originating from drought tolerant parents were harvested this year and next year will be grown in preliminary yield trials, which hopefully will lead to future drought tolerant varieties. Objective 4: Evaluate the effects of commercially available products on soybean pod retention. OutputsThe results this year lined up well with last year. The results showan application of either CK or ABA can have a significant impact on yield. With these two applications, there was a ~5 Bu/A increase compared to the control when applications were made seven days after beginning full flower. Since beginning full flower was considered when ~90% of the plants had started to flower, seven days after would be peak flower production and would suggest that soon after would be the period when flower/pod abortion rates are high.Treatments applied after 7 DAA had either a less significant yield increase or had no impact on yield. ImpactsOn average 75% of pods abort during a typical growing season. Of course, there are a lot of factors that can influence this number. However, most factors, such as drought stress, are hard to control. So, applying plant hormones or nutrients may offer an alternative method to prevent or lessen the yield lossassociated with pod abortion. From this study we were able to show that an increase of ~5 Bu/A is possible with a timely application with either CK or ABA. Objective 5: Develop and release new soybean forage varieties. OutputsTwo forage varieties are currently being proposed for release. SC06-306RR and SC10-261RR were evaluated as maturity group VII and maturity group VIII breeding lines, respectively. When tested in, five environments across four states, the Southern Uniform Soybean Preliminary MG VII Test SC06-306RR (46 in, 41.8 Bu/A) was 10 inches taller and yielded statistically similar to the check AGS758RR (36 in, 44.5 Bu/A) and the mean for the test (36 in, 44.3 Bu/A). SC10-261RR yielded 5 Bu/A higher and was statistically similar in height to SC06-306RR when tested at two locations with four replications. ImpactsThe demand for wildlife plot seed has grown in recent years due to an increase in hunters and the amount of spending each hunter does in a year. In just a five-year period, from 2006-2011, there was a 9 % increase in the number of hunters and a 30% increase in spending. In 2011, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies reported hunting in America produced $38.3 billion in total expenditures and $86.9 billon in overall economic impact. Planting food plots with improved forage varietiescan increase the quantity and quality of forage available to wildlife. This can lead to an increase in increased population size and quality of game available for hunters. Objective 6: Develop and release soybean genotypes with the long juvenile trait adapted for the Southeastern US. OutputsMexico has the largest difference between the amount of soybean produced and the amount of soybeans imported of the four countries identified by the USDA as being the largest importers of soybean. There are several factors affecting this statistic. One of the main factors is varietal options available to soybean farmers in Mexico. The high yield of Agustina, as well as other desirable traits, provides farmers and potential new farmers with an opportunity forincreased revenue. This line will also beavailablein the US as a potential option for double cropping or full season plantingin the South and Southeastern US. Impacts SC10-170 was released in January 2016 as Agustina, a conventional, non-GMO, MG VIII cultivar. In Tampico, MX, the furthest south Agustina was tested, it was the highest yielding line in the test and out yielded the highest yielding check by 6 Bu/A. It has excellent nematode resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines) HG type 2.5.7 (race 1) and HG type 0 (race 3) and moderate resistance to HG type 2.5.7(race 5). Overall, Agustina is an excellent cultivar, able to perform well in multiple environments.


  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2016 Citation: Abrams J.S., B.D. Fallen, C.N. Hatcher, A.M. Saxton, C.A. Beyl, D.A. Kopsell, J.H. Orf, A.S. Killam, P.B. Cregan, D.L. Hyten and V.R. Pantalone. (Under Review). Protein and Oil QTL in a Prominent Genetic Pedigree and Confirmation of Seed Protein QTL. Crop Sci.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2016 Citation: Smallwood C.J., J.D. Gillman, A.M. Saxton, H.S. Bhandari, P.A. Wadl, B.D. Fallen, P.B. Cregan, D.L. Hyten and V.R. Pantalone. (Under Review). Identifying and Exploring Significant Genomic Regions for Soybean Yield, Fatty Acids, Protein, and Oil. Theor. Appl. Genet.

Progress 10/20/14 to 09/30/15

Target Audience:Farmers, consumers, plant breeders, extension agents andmembers of the soybean breeding community. Results from this researchwere presented through reports, publications, extension meetings, and field days. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Nothing Reported How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results from this study were made available to South Carolina soybean producers and other growers throughout the Southeastern US through reports, field day presentations at the Pee Dee Research and Education Center and other research centers, and in published results of the SC Soybean Variety Tests:, USDA Regional Test Annual Reports:, Georgia Soybean Variety Tests:, North Carolina Soybean Variety Tests: I also spoke at various meetings and Extension venues to both soybean growers and the general public, as requested. Specific outreach activities can be found on the other products page of this report that includes educational activities, conferences and newsletters. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

What was accomplished under these goals? In a report released by the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service on February 26, 2015 crop value in SC totaled $762 million in 2014. Soybeans had a total crop value of $160 million, which was the highest crop value reported in SC. In Alabama and Georgia soybeans had a crop value of $193 million and $125 million, respectively. In SC the top soybean producing counties are in the Pee Dee Region, which consists of Clarendon, Dillon, Darlington, Florence, Lee, Horry and Williamsburg. Each state has different growing conditions (climate, disease and insect pressure, etc.) and most of which vary from region to region within the state. That's why having a local breeder in the Pee Dee region of SC is so important for local farmers, consumers and the economy. For each Bu/A increase in yield, harvested from only 5% of the land used to produce soybeans in 2014 would equal an increase in value of $275,500. The results that were seen this year demonstrates how much benefit can be attributed to the research being conducted by this program. This year we saw improvements in both agronomic traits, including yield and other economical and ecological traits. Objectives 1 & 2: Outputs:In 2014-15 approximately 2,500 cross-pollination attempts were made using 50 parental combinations. Approximately 2,000 yield plots were planted and harvested in 2014-15 at the PDREC in Florence, SC. Eleven lines were entered into the GA Official Variety Test (OVT), 12 lines were entered into the SC OVT, 17 lines were entered into the Southern Uniform Regional Test and 2 lines were entered into the NC OVT. Approximately 300 yield trial plots were grown at the EREC in Blackville, SC and approximately 500 plots were grown at the Simpson REC on campus. Impacts:From the yield trials that were grown across multiple states in the Southeastern US and in multiple locations within each state there were a number of very positive results. SC07-108RR which yielded equal to the highest yielding variety in multiple locations in the GA OVT for Maturity Group (MG) VII and VIII; SC04-375RR, SC07-1490RR, SC06-676RR and SC07-108RR were the four top yielding soybeans in the SC OVT for MGVII and VIII. Two Clemson lines had yields equal to the second highest yielding line in the SC OVT for late MG V soybeans. SC10-394RR had a yield that was equal to the second highest yielding line in the Southern Regional Uniform MG VIII Test. Objective 3: Outputs:Five drought tolerant tests were grown in Florence, SC in 2014-15. Plots were screened using a Lee Spider High-Clearance Tractor equipped with NDVI and IRT sensors. These two techniques will be used to determine if this type of technology can be used for high-throughput screening for drought tolerance in soybeans and in other crops. Impacts:The main point of interest was to determine if the plots with the best slow wilting scores were higher yielding than those plots that had received a lower slow wilting score. The plants with the best slow wilting scores meant those lines exhibited less signs of stress and were able to better tolerate drought conditions or were able to better withstand the onset of drought. The plants with undesirable wilting scores showed signs of drought with the first onset of drought and did not appear to show any signs of drought tolerance. After a preliminary examination of the results it does appear that a few of the lines with good slow wilting scores across multiple replications were high yielding lines. The yield of those lines were ~5 Bu/A higher than the average yield of the test. Also, the tests with the worst slow wilting scores were the lowest yielding tests as a whole. Objective 4: Outputs:To evaluate the effects of commercially available products on soybean pod retention five maturity group eight (MG 8) soybean lines was planted in 20 replications for a total of 100 plots in 2014-15. A 1 m section within each two-row plot was marked and each plant within each marked area was labeled. Also, the whole row that contained the marked area for each treatment was sprayed to allow for uniform coverage across the marked area. Developing flowers and pods between the R3 and R4 stage were marked with red paint and full pods at maturity were marked with blue paint. Impacts:In 2014-15, two of the treatments did have a significant effect on pod retention. Plots sprayed with Treatment A had a 14% increase overall in the number of full pods compared to the number of flowers in full bloom, with as much as a 65% increase. Plots sprayed with Treatment B had a 8% increase overall in the number of full pods compared to the number of flowers in full bloom, with as much as a 45% increase. The control had a 26% reduction in the number of full pods compared to the number of flowers in full bloom. The best results were seen when the treatments were applied the first two weeks after flowering. Objective 5: Outputs:In 2013-14 two locations were selected to plant 19 soybean lines that were to be evaluated for plant height, yield, leaf size, biomass and other traits desirable in a forage soybean variety. However, ~20 inches of precipitation fell between June and July at both locations. So no tests were planted in 2013 and the seed was saved in cold storage for planting in 2014-15. During the months that followed there were a few instances where the cold room lost power, which caused both the humidity and temperature to reach levels that allowed mold to form on the seed. So when the seed was planted in 2014-15 most of the seed did not germinate and any data collected could not be used to reach any conclusive results. Impacts:In 2014-15 we were able to plant and make ~1,000 cross-pollination attempts with three soybean forage varieties. The crosses were made using donor parents with the RR1 gene and the RR2Y gene. The RR1 gene is now off patent and the seed harvested by the farmer can be stored and planted again the following year. One targeted audience for these varieties are farmers who want to use these varieties as border to prevent deer from damaging their crop. By developing soybean lines with the RR1 gene itnot only makes it convenient, but it also can cut down on cost because the famer can keep this seed and use it again the following year without having to purchase new seed. Objective 6: Outputs:In 2014-15, four advanced breeding trials were planted in Florence, SC. The four tests consisted of two sets. One test from each set was planted the last week of April and the second test from each set was planted the first week of July. In the first set when the results from the two planting dates were averaged, four breeding lines containing the LJ trait out yielded the highest yielding check by as much as ~5 Bu/A. In the second set eleven breeding lines out yielded the top yielding check by as much as ~8 Bu/A. Based on yield data from 2013-14 three advanced breeding lines with the LJ trait were sent to Mexico for further testing in 2014-15. The two highest yielding soybean lines were SC LJ breeding lines. The top yielding SC LJ breeding line out yielded the highest yielding check by ~3 Bu/A and the lowest yielding check by ~14 Bu/A. Impacts:??In 2013-14 the USDA listed China, the European Union, Japan and Mexico as the four major importers of soybean in the world. Of the four Mexico is not the largest importer based on quantity, but Mexico has the largest difference between the amount of soybean produced and the amount of soybean imported. In SC > 50% of soybeans produced are double cropped or planted late due to the weather or other circumstances. So the need for a soybean variety that can be planted later in the growing season and still have above average yields is necessary in the Southeastern US and more options are also needed in other areas of the world as well. The advanced breeding lines with the LJ trait tested in this study had very good results in both locations and could lead to future variety releases