Source: NORTH CAROLINA A&T STATE UNIV submitted to
SWINE HOUSING DUST MODULATION OF PORCINE IMMUNITY AND RESPIRATORY FUNCTION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1003269
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
NC.X-292-5-15-120-1
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2014
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2018
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Waterman, JE, .
Recipient Organization
NORTH CAROLINA A&T STATE UNIV
1601 EAST MARKET STREET
GREENSBORO,NC 27411
Performing Department
Animal Sciences
Non Technical Summary
The proposed work will study respiratory systems of pigs that are raised across North Carolina to determine if differences exist with regard to respiratory function. An understanding of potential the respiratory system of pigs will help fight diseases affecting swine. These findings will improve enhance production efficiency for farmers and improve food safety for consumers.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3053599102040%
3053599103030%
3053599104030%
Goals / Objectives
The goal of this project is to study the respiratory systems of pigs reared indoors and outdoors across North Carolina to study the impact of housing type on respiratory disease onset. We will accomplish this goal by investigating the central hypothesis that swine housing dust predispose pigs to respiratory disease through modulation of immune cells, airway epithelial proteome and morphology.The objectives are to:Characterization of microbial populations within swine housing dust and the airways of swine reared indoors and outdoors.Characterize respiratory and immunological responses following chronic exposure to SCF dust.Compare airway morphology of pigs from various farms across North Carolina to determine impact of housing.
Project Methods
Animal housing dust samples will be collected and analyzed for microbial diversity. Swine respiratory samples will be collected from pigs produced at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University Farm and local abattoirs and compared. Cells from respiratory tissue samples will be isolated and studied for differences in reactivity. Cellular and molecular analyses will be performed to understand the basic respiratory biology of pigs reared indoors and outdoors to gain insight for understanding potential differences exerted by housing type.

Progress 10/01/14 to 09/30/18

Outputs
Target Audience:Target audiences include undergraduate and graduate students that participate in laboratory research and experiential learning opportunities focused on respiratory biology and toxicology in animal production agriculture. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?This research project continues to expand respiratory biology and toxicology research at N.C. A and T, specifically within the Department of Animal Sciences and CAES. There are singular experiential learning opportunities for students to gain hands-on experience in the area of respiratory biology and proteomics that are not available anywhere else on campus. A new research platform, indoor-outdoor pig model, with high-impact, translational research potential has been established and continues to be strengthened. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results have been communicated via scientific presentations and publications. The lead scientists, students and staff researchers have shared information about respiratory physiology to their local community by participating in a community technology fair. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? At this stage of the project, scientists, veterinarians and potentially clinicians (for translational aspect) would be most interested because a clear understanding of the impact of continuous exposure on swine respiratory tissue function is needed. Most studies to date have focused on swine workers, our group at N.C. A and T has investigated the effect of organic dust/swine production environment on immune function in the lungs and blood of pigs. Results have shown that the respiratory tissues of indoor or conventional pigs have responded to their production environment by enhancing mucus-secreting cells to trap debris. Lower antioxidant defenses and higher oxidants have been observed within airway tissues, which mirrors levels reported in human subjects with chronic respiratory symptoms.

Publications


    Progress 10/01/16 to 09/30/17

    Outputs
    Target Audience:Target audiencesinclude undergraduate and graduate students that participate in laboratory research and experiential learning opportunities that are focused on respiratory biology and toxicology in animal production agriculture. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Evans-Allen funds were used to acquire a flow cytometer and on training for two research faculty within the Department of Animal Sciences. This project has also provided opportunities to train undergraduate and graduate students in the field of animal respiratory research, molecular biology and environmental science. Students and staff scientists on the project have had the opportunity to engage in public speaking activities (e.g., conferences and seminars) and train/mentor high school and undergraduate interns. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results have been communicated via scientific presentations and publications. The lead scientists, students and staff researchers have shared information about respiratory physiology to their local community by participating in a community STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Agriculture and Math) career fair. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?During 2018 we will complete the following activities related to research objectives 2 and 3: Objective 2: Characterize respiratory and immunological responses following chronic exposure to SCF dust. The next year (2018) will be spent completing the immunological analysis of lavage and serum cytokine analysis and flow cytometry studies. Objective 3: Compare the airway morphology of pigs from various farms across North Carolina to determine the impact of housing. The 2018 year will be spent collecting more pig airway tissue samples, preparation and completion of histology analysis of the remaining samples.

    Impacts
    What was accomplished under these goals? By leveraging Evans-Allen funds, researchers have found that pigs reared within indoor swine production houses display cellular and molecular signs of an "adaptation response" to indoor production environments. These findings were used to prepare a major grant for a project that could lead to improved treatments of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), while gaining a deeper understanding of the impact of production environmental exposure on swine respiratory health.

    Publications

    • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Locke, K.P., Harper, M., Johnson, M.L., Ranabhat, R., McIntosh, .P.I, Conklin, D., & Waterman, J.T. (2017). Continuous exposure to swine production facilities leads to inflammation and oxidative stress signatures in lungs and blood: A porcine model. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 195, A3887.
    • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Ranabhat R, McClendon CJ, Waterman JT. 2017. Housing Type Modulates Oxidant Levels and Antioxidant Defenses in Swine Airway Epithelial Tissue. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2017;195:A3888.
    • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Waterman JT, McClendon CJ, Ranabhat R, Gilbert TS, Herring L, Graves LM. 2017. Swine Production Environment Modulates Kinome Signaling in Porcine Tracheobronchial Epithelial Tissues. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2017;195:A3894.
    • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: " Ellison, A., Barton, K.T., Ranabhat, R.S., Locke, K.P., Conklin, D.R., Minor, R.C., & Waterman, J.T. (September,2017). The levels of immunoglobulin E and granulocytes in the serum and lung lavage of indoor and outdoor reared swine. Poster session presented at the NorthCarolina. A&T State University College of Environmental and Agricultural Science Showcase of Excellence, Greensboro, NC.
    • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: " Holmes-Cobb L, Barton KT, Ranabhat RS, Locke KP, Conklin DR, Minor RC, Waterman JT. Comparison of Immunoglobulin M and Degranulated Neutrophil Levels in the Serum and Lung Lavage of Indoor and Outdoor Reared Pigs. N.C. A&T State University CEAS Showcase of Excellence. Greensboro, NC. September 6, 2017.
    • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: " Lee N. Barton KT, Ranabhat RS, Locke KP, Conklin DR, Minor RC, Waterman JT. Effect of Swine Production Buildings on Vacuolated Phagocytes and Immunoglobulin A Levels in Blood and Lung Lavage of Pigs. N.C. A&T State University CEAS Showcase of Excellence. Greensboro, NC. September 6, 2017.
    • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: " Harper M, Locke KP, Johnson ML, Ranabhat RS, Conklin DR, Waterman JT. 2017. Protein Content and Leukocyte Diversity as a Measure of Porcine Lung Health. N.C. A&T State University CEAS Showcase of Excellence. Greensboro, NC. September 6, 2017. *1st Place Graduate Poster Competition.
    • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: " Ranabhat R, McClendon CJ, Waterman JT. 2017. Housing Type Modulates Oxidant Levels and Antioxidant Defenses in Swine Airway Epithelial Tissue. N.C. A&T State University CEAS Showcase of Excellence. September 6, 2017. *2nd Place Poster Competition.
    • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: " Locke KP, Harper M, Johnson ML, Ranabhat R, McIntosh PI, Conklin D, Waterman JT. 2017. Continuous Exposure to Swine Production Facilities Leads to Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Signatures in Lungs and Blood: A Porcine Model. American Thoracic Society International Conference. Washington, D.C. May 19-24, 2017.
    • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: " Ranabhat R, McClendon CJ, Waterman JT. 2017. Housing Type Modulates Oxidant Levels and Antioxidant Defenses in Swine Airway Epithelial Tissue. American Thoracic Society International Conference. Washington, D.C. May 19-24, 2017.
    • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: " Waterman JT, McClendon CJ, Ranabhat R, Gilbert TS, Herring L, Graves LM. 2017. Swine Production Environment Modulates Kinome Signaling in Porcine Tracheobronchial Epithelial Tissues. American Thoracic Society International Conference. Washington, D.C. May 19-24, 2017.
    • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: " Ranabhat R, McClendon CJ, Conklin DR, Waterman JT. Housing Type Modulates Oxidant Levels and Antioxidant Defenses in Swine Airway Epithelial Tissue. Innovations in Agriculture Minority Student Poster Presentation. BASF Corporation, RTP, NC. April 28, 2017.
    • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: " Eure Z, Waterman JT, Minor RC. 2017. Detecting segmented filamentous bacteria in indoor reared swine lungs. Minorities in Agricultural, Natural Resources and Related Science (MANRRS) Annual Career Fair and Training Conference. Pittsburgh, PA. March 29-April 1, 2017.
    • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: " Ranabhat RS, McClendon CJ, Waterman JT. 2017. Housing Type Modulates Oxidant Levels and Antioxidant Defenses in Swine Airway Epithelial Tissue. ARD 18th Biennial Research Symposium. Atlanta, GA. April 1-4, 2017.


    Progress 10/01/15 to 09/30/16

    Outputs
    Target Audience:Target audiences include undergraduate and graduate students that participate in laboratory research and experiential learning opportunities focused on respiratory biology and toxicology in animal production agriculture. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?This project has provided opportunities to train undergraduate and graduate student in the field of animal respiratory research, molecular biology and environmental science. Students and staff scientists on the project have had the opportunity to engage in public speaking activities (e.g., conferences and seminars) and train/mentor high school and undergraduate interns. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Student and staff researchers have participated in Small Farm Field Day demonstrations at N.C. A&T State University to share important findings to small farmers. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

    Impacts
    What was accomplished under these goals? Pork is the No. 1 consumed meat worldwide. To meet high consumer demand for pork, U.S. commercial pig producers have transitioned to high-density, indoor swine production facilities. Consequently, animals within high-density facilities may develop respiratory diseases that can cause devastating financial losses. Research activities in this project focus on understanding production environmental exposures that "prime" animals for respiratory disease development. Importantly, this project will identify dust components that deposit within the lungs of pigs that may contribute to immune responses and disease development. This knowledge will provide farmers with helpful information about environmental conditions that promote respiratory disease development. Reducing exposure to conditions that negatively affect the respiratory system will improve animal health, production and economic outcome. Thus far this research project has resulted in: 1) scientific presentations and manuscript development; 2) generation of preliminary data to prepare/submit larger grant applications; 3) development of strong multidisciplinary and multi-institutional collaborations; and 4) training of undergraduate and graduate students in respiratory biology.

    Publications

    • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Locke KP, McIntosh P, Murray C, Minor RC, Waterman JT. 2016. Swine Housing Dust Extract Elicits Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Macrophages. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 193:A7668.
    • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: McClendon CJ, Ranabhat RS, Gilbert TK, Graves LM, Waterman JT. 2016. Swine Production Environment Influences Expression of CaMKII in Porcine Bronchial Epithelial Tissues. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 193:A7672.
    • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Ranabhat R, McClendon CJ, Souza e Silva AA, Pettiford SG, Conklin DR, Waterman JT. 2016. Expression of superoxide dismutase in porcine tracheobronchial tissues following swine facility dust. N.C. A&T State University 3 Minute Thesis Competition (3MT). Greensboro, NC. March 20-29, 2016. Winner: 1st Place.
    • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Graham EA, McDaniel TC, Watkins A, Murray C, Tatum SD, Waterman JT. 2016. Physical and Biochemical Properties of Organic Dust from North Carolina Animal Production Houses. N.C. A&T State University Undergraduate Research Symposium. Greensboro, NC. April 15, 2016.
    • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Ranabhat R, McClendon CJ, Souza e Silva AA, Pettiford SG, Conklin DR, Waterman JT. 2016. Expression of superoxide dismutase in porcine tracheobronchial tissues following swine facility dust. N. C. A&T State University Biomaterials Day Poster presentation. Greensboro, NC. May 5, 2016. 2nd Place.
    • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Ranabhat R, McClendon CJ, Conklin DR, Waterman JT. 2016. Molecular regulation of airways antioxidants response to environment organic dust exposure. N.C. A&T State University CEAS student showcase of excellence. September 7, 2016. 2nd Place Poster Competition.
    • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Locke, KP, McIntosh, PI, Conklin, DR, Murray, C, Minor, RC, Waterman, JT. 2016. Foam Cell Formation as an Indicator of Inflammation in the Lungs of Indoor Reared Pigs. Emory University STEM Research and Career Symposium. Atlanta, GA. September 18-20, 2016.


    Progress 10/01/14 to 09/30/15

    Outputs
    Target Audience:Target audiences include undergraduate and graduate students that participate in laboratory research and experiential learning opportunities focused on respiratory biology and toxicology in animal production agriculture. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?N.C. A&T researchers partnered with pathologists from the National Toxicology Program located at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (RTP, NC) to develop protocols for processing and scoring respiratory tissue samples. One undergraduate student and one research technician from N.C. A&T spent one day per week for approximately nine months at the NIEHS learning state-of-the-art histopathology and immunohistochemistry techniques. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results of this project were shared through researchers participating in two community engagement activities hosted by N.C. A&T -- Small Farms Week (Educational Forum) and Small Farms Field Day. During Small Farms Week the PD discussed ongoing research activities to an audience of farmers, vendors, community partners and other workshop participants. During Small Farms Field Day, researchers shared research findings and demonstrated proper use and selection of various types of respirators to farmers and field day participants. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

    Impacts
    What was accomplished under these goals? Characterization of microbial populations within swine housing dust and the airways of swine reared indoors and outdoors. Researchers have collected dust samples from one new hog producer from central NC; however, more farms are needed. Experimental assays for identification and characterization of microbes from swine barn dust and pig lung samples have been optimized. Characterize respiratory and immunological responses following chronic exposure to SCF dust. Researchers are in the process of optimizing a procedure for isolation of swine lung macrophages. Investigation of inflammatory mediators from swine lung samples, blood cells and serum has begun. Compare airway morphology of pigs from various farms across North Carolina to determine impact of housing. Researchers have developed a relationship with a major industrial meat producer in the area and this relationship has yielded consistent access to respiratory (and associated) tissues from pigs. Efforts are underway to apply skills learned at the NIEHS to analysis of swine respiratory tissues at the N.C. A&T respiratory biology lab. Researchers have successfully collected pig lung samples and are now developing protocols to isolate, purify and culture lung macrophages. Food animal agriculture is a major contributor to a multi-billion dollar global industry and meat products supplying an ever increasing demand; pork is the number one consumed meat. To meet high consumer demand for pork, U.S. producers have transitioned to sophisticated, high-density housing facilities with animal production systems organized into a series of steps. Consequently, animals within high-density facilities can develop diseases -- chiefly respiratory in nature -- that cause devastating financial losses. Research activities are focused on understanding environmental lung exposures that prime animals for respiratory disease development. Successful completion of this project will identify dust components that deposit within the lungs of pigs that contributed to disease development. This knowledge will provide farmers with helpful information for development of maintenance regimens to improve production environment conditions and in turn, enhance animal health and economic outcome.

    Publications

    • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2016 Citation: McClendon CJ, Gerald CL, Waterman JT. Farm animal models of organic dust exposure and toxicity: insights and implications for respiratory health. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2015, 15:137-144. PMID:25636160. *Invited Expert Review.
    • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Ranabhat R, McClendon CJ, Souza e Silva AA, Pettiford SG, Conklin DR, Waterman JT. 2015. Swine production systems cause differential expression of superoxide dismutase in porcine tracheobronchial tissues. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 191:A1718.
    • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Tatum SD, Ranabhat R, McClendon C, Pallavi M, Conklin DR, Koo Y, Yun Y, Waterman JT. 2015. Exposure to Swine Facility Dust and Metallic Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress in Lung Cells and Macrophages. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 191:A1719