Source: UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS submitted to
MANAGEMENT OF THE BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1001775
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ARK02433
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
NEERA-1306
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 21, 2013
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2018
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Johnson, D.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
(N/A)
FAYETTEVILLE,AR 72703
Performing Department
Entomology
Non Technical Summary
Statement of Issue: The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stal (BMSB) originates from China, Korea and Japan. The first economic damage to crops by the BMSB in the United States occurred in 2009, and it has spread to 40 states (confirmed in all states around Arkansas but not confirmed in Arkansas as yet). Need: In 2010, there was $37 million in yield losses alone when BMSB damage approached 90% loss in tree fruits in Virginia and West Virginia. Since 2010, the BMSB has caused heavy losses in the eastern United States. Justification: The BMSB has caused damage to conventional and organic farms producing brambles, grapes, apples, pears, peaches, peppers, tomatoes, field and sweet corn and soybeans. It has also become a homeowner nuisance (overwinters in residences in large numbers). Caulking of windows and/or the sealing of cracks and voids in exterior walls, eaves, etc. are recommended to minimize entry of BMSB but insecticide treatments are yet to be labeled for use on/in residences. Prior to the BMSB introduction, pyrethroid insecticide use on fruit crops was discouraged due to its negative effects on natural enemies. Current BMSB management relies on weekly applications of a pyrethroid such as bifenthrin thus abandoning 40 years of IPM program development. This use of pyrethroids is causing outbreaks of wooly apple aphid and San Jose scale. Alternative management tactics are needed. Microbial agents or repellents such as Surround kaolin clay or mass trapping may prove to be useful in managing BMSB. In addition, several potential egg parasitoids of BMSB from Asia are currently in quarantine undergoing host specificity testing. Our issue is to determine when and where BMSB arrives in Arkansas and assess annually the damage this new pest inflicts on fruit and vegetable crops listed above or others. The goal is to discuss with growers to identify, adjust research needs and priorities and help manage BMSB. Once it appears in Arkansas, fruit growers will be taught through demonstrations the best monitoring method to determine how the BMSB moves between crops, when fruit damage is occurring (attractive trap catch plus fruit inspections), and the recommended best management practices against this new pest. If a biological control agent of the BMSB is identified, and later permitted for release, then we would request permission to also release it into Arkansas and monitor establishment and impact on local BMSB densities. We plan to test efficacy of several OMRI approved compounds or practices such as microbial agents or Surround kaolin against the BMSB at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Fayetteville in organic tree and bramble fruit plantings. All NEERA-1306regional project findings on detection and best management practices of BMSB will be disseminated at local grower meetings, Horticulture Industry Show annual meeting and annual pest management updates in the MP144 Insecticide Recommendations for Arkansas. Growers will be informed that all information will be made available at three currently existing website dedicated to the BMSB: www.rce.rutgers.edu/stinkbug/; the NE IPM Center's Brown Marmorated Working Group website, http://www.northeastipm.org/working-groups/bmsb-working-group/); and StopBMSB.org.Arkansas entomologists of all crops affected by BMSB will contribute to mapping the current distribution and severity of brown marmorated stink bug damage on a crop by crop basis. Impact: The BMSB management practices adopted by growers will decrease monetary losses to BMSB, reduce pesticide residues on Arkansas crops found to be attacked by BMSB, help growers return to established management programs, and lead to the development of IPM tactics that could be implemented by the non-agricultural sector dealing with BMSB invading and overwintering in structures. Many of the statements above were derived from the outline composed for Multistate Regional Fund (MRF) Project titled NEERA1306: Management of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2161119113040%
2161199113040%
2161129113020%
Goals / Objectives
Assess the extent and nature of injury caused brown marmorated stink bug Develop and compare monitoring methods (light based/pheromone based traps, visual and knockdown assessments) for brown marmorated stink bug that can be used to assess emergence from overwintering sites, conduct population assessments and evaluate movement between different crops. Determine the potential for biological control of the brown marmorated stink bug Develop best management practices for the brown marmorated stink bug in field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables Deliver research based IPM recommendations to growers Map the current distribution and severity of BMSB damage on a crop by crop basis.
Project Methods
Objective 1. Assess the extent and nature of injury caused brown marmorated stink bug. Depending on individual state priorities we will establish sentinel plots using field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables to evaluate damage caused by the brown marmorated sting bug in these systems. Plots will be maintained using standard practices but without the use of insecticide. Depending on the crop, beginning with the first appearance of adults, eggs or nymphs in these plots, each plot will be monitored on a weekly basis using either timed visual counts or beat sheets assessments. At harvest, yield estimates and damage evaluations from a subsample of plants within each plot will be made. Objective 2. Develop monitoring methods for brown marmorated stink bug. Depending on individual state priorities we will establish research plots in field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables to develop and evaluate monitoring methods in these crops. Plots will be maintained using standard practices but without the use of insecticide. Depending on the crop, adult brown marmorated stink bugs will be monitored using a combination of blacklight traps, pheromone traps, direct visual counts, beat sheet counts or sweep netting. Nymphal populations will be monitored using weekly visual counts only. Data collected for blacklight and pheromone traps will be correlated with the first presence of adults and nymphal BMSB in plots. All other methods will be compared for differences in population estimates between methods. Objective 3. Determine the potential for biological control of the brown marmorated stink bug. This objective will be fulfilled using the plots established in each state for either objective 1 or 2. Sentinel brown marmorated stink bug egg masses will be outsourced on a minimum of eight randomly selected plants within plots. This will be initiated when naturally colonizing adults are observed in the plots and will be repeated every other week throughout the growing season. Each egg mass be examined 24 h later to detect predation. After 48-h, all egg masses will be collected, brought to the laboratory, examined for predation and then, held for emergence of adult parasitoids. The frequency of egg parasitization by a single parasitoid or combination of parasitoids will be calculated for the sentinel egg masses. Objective 4. Develop best management practices for the brown marmorated stink bug. Using the information, developed under objectives 1-3, we will develop crop specific best management plans (BMP s) for the brown marmorated stink bug. This will be done during the projects yearly annual meeting. Objective 5. Deliver research based IPM recommendations to growers. We will incorporate the information and Best Management Practices developed by this project into current grower recommendations. We will also deliver this information via websites, emails, newsletters, grower meetings, etc. Objective 6. Map the current distribution of BMSB and severity of BMSB damage on a crop by crop basis in the in the US. Depending on individual state priorities we will develop a coordinated system to gather occurrence and damage data using current web based reporting systems. NJ, PA and the Southern IPM Center currently have systems designed to track occurrence on a national basis and have recently linked each together in order to combine historical and newly generated data in a single data base. As researchers from other states join the project they will be encouraged to publicize these systems in order to increase data collection. In addition, a system to track damage severity on a crop by crop basis will also be developed.

Progress 10/01/16 to 09/30/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Owners of manmade structures and buildings, and backyard, organic and conventional commercial fruit growers; county Extension agents; and University of Arkansas personnel at Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center-Fayetteville, Fruit Research Station in Clarksville, and Southwest Research and Extension Center in Hope. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Most of the opportunities are derived from my participation in and reading of reports by other participants in the NEERA1036 Multistate Project titled: management of the brown marmorated stink bug. There are also updates about brown marmorated stink bug biology, monitoring, damage potential, outreach methods and management that I access at: http://www.stopbmsb.org/ and research/extension presentations and posters at the annual ESA meeting. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?In 2017, an article titled: "Invasive species of stink bug working its way into Arkansas", was posted on the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture website (Link). This article described: how to identify brown marmorated stink bugs; alerted Arkansas citizens that brown marmorated stink bugs may become a nuisance after entering manmade structures and buildings to overwinter; and in subsequent summers this pest may increase in numbers to levels that may cause damage to several susceptible row and fruit crops. The article also requested and described how Arkansas citizens could photograph, identify, and report sightings of brown marmorated stink bugs to the website titled: Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System (called EDDMapS). These reports are expected to help determine which Arkansas counties have this invasive pest and inform citizens and growers how to manage this new pest. Annually, pest management updates for brown marmorated stink bug are inserted in the Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide and MP144 Insecticide Recommendations for Arkansas. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?In 2018, we will work with our University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service to further disseminate via email or blogs or newspapers the article titled: "Invasive species of stink bug working its way into Arkansas." Hopefully, we will getArkansas citizens to look for and report to EDDMapS any sightings of brown marmorated stink bugs in Arkansas counties.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? In July 2017, several specimens of brown marmorated stink bugs were collected on and ina house in Fayetteville, Arkansas. This allowed us to begin to address project goals5 (recommendations) and 6 (current distribution). Issue: The brown marmorated stink bug is an invasive species of insect that is originally from Asia, but is causing damage in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. and now occurs in very low numbers in northwest Arkansas. This stink bug is a pest that feeds on a number of important vegetable and fruit crops causing major economic damage. This stink bug also seeks shelter during the winter months in manmade buildings, making them a nuisance to home owners. Impact: In spring 2017, I met with two tree fruit growers in Lowell, Arkansas who suspected that the brown marmorated stink bug caused damage to their apples (dimpled fruit) in 2016. I showed these growers specimens of brown marmorated stink bug and gave them a fact sheet on brown marmorated stink bug with management recommendations. In July 2017, several specimens of brown marmorated stink bugs were collected on and ina house in Fayetteville, Arkansas. In July 2017, another objective was added to our 2017 Farm Bill CAPS project titled: Orchard Commodity Survey. The new objective was to monitor eight traps for the brown marmorated stink bug in Arkansas. Monthly from 31 July to 31 October 2017, we checked forbrown marmorated stink bug two Trece sticky panel traps each baited withtwo lures by Trece, Inc.(brown marmorated stink bug lure; and green stink bug lure, TR:GSB 3720-05). Each trap was attached vertically at 1.5 m height toa perimeter apple tree limb. These two traps were set out in each of these four apple orchards: apple and peach orchards in Lowell, AR; apple and plum orchards in Fayetteville (Washington Co.); apple orchards at the University of Arkansas Agricultural Research and Experiment Center (UA AAREC) farm in Fayetteville (Washington Co.); and the apple and peach orchards at the University of Arkansas Fruit Research Station in Clarksville (Johnson Co.). Only the two traps at the UA AAREC location in Fayetteville captured any brown marmorated stink bugs (season total of 24). All 24 suspect specimens of brown marmorated stink bugs collected were hand delivered to the State Survey Coordinator at the Arkansas State Plant Board for species confirmation by USDA-APHIS. These fourapple orchards capturedseason totals of 77 harlequin bugs, 27 green stink bugs and 8 brown stink bugs.

Publications


    Progress 10/01/15 to 09/30/16

    Outputs
    Target Audience: Nothing Reported Changes/Problems:No objectives have been accomplished due to lack of brown marmoratedstink bugs in Arkansas. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?I attend research/extension talks at the 2016 national ESA meeting to learn aboutnew information about brown marmorated stink bug biology, monitoring and management. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?For several years, we have had a University of Arkansas Extension fact sheet on brown marmorated stink bugs available online. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?In 2017, we hope to start monitoring again for BMSB in fruit tree orchards where we plan to conduct orchard commodity survey for invasive species.

    Impacts
    What was accomplished under these goals? No brown marmorated stink bugs have yet been trapped consistently in Arkansas.

    Publications


      Progress 10/01/14 to 09/30/15

      Outputs
      Target Audience:Fruit and pecan growers in Arkansas. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Nothing Reported How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?At grower meetings (blackberry, grape, peach and pecan), it has been reported that no brown marmorated stink bugs have been found causing damage in fruit or pecan plantings or being a nuisance by overwintering in homes in Arkansas. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Plans for 2015-2016 includestaying in contact with the Arkansas State Plant Board regarding in-state sightings of brown marmorated stink bugs. Home owners (citizen scientists), growers and Extension agents will be enlisted to be on the lookout for brown marmorated stink bugs on fruits or vegetables or entering homes to overwinter via the late-summer and fall 2016 issues of the Arkansas Fruit and Nut Newsletter and an article in the local newspapers.It will be recommended that suspect brown marmorated stink bug specimens shouldbe mailed to their county Extension Office for identification by us. Two proposed invasive species survey projectsmay be funded by the USDA/APHIS/Farm Bill: Orchard Commodity Survey; andGrape Commodity Survey for invasive pest species. If funded, we will also monitor for brown marmorated stink bugs at each survey site using two black pyramid traps (pheromone bait placed outside of trap).

      Impacts
      What was accomplished under these goals? In 2014 and 2015, there were no reports of injury bybrown marmorated stink bug. The reason, we surmise, is because there was only one more adult stink bug collected and confirmed to species in Fayetteville, AR.From July to late-October in 2012to 2014, no brown marmorated stink bugs were collected in any of the five to eight pecan orchards from Morrilton to Humphrey, Arkansas.We monitored biweekly at each orchard,nine to 15 yellow pyramid trapseach baited with a rubber septa charged with 40 µl of Euschistus aggregation pheromone methyl (2E, 4Z)-decadienoate.

      Publications


        Progress 10/21/13 to 09/30/14

        Outputs
        Target Audience: Nothing Reported Changes/Problems: We are waiting for additional confirmed sightings of numerous brown marmorated stink bugs overwinteringin homesin Arkansas before assessing damage it causes in Arkansas and reactivatingworkshops on managing brown marmorated stink bugs in row, fruit and vegetable crops growing in Arkansas. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Nothing Reported How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? In2012, twoUniversity of Arkansas fact sheets were printed and made available online titled: Brown marmorated stink bug: potential pest of Arkansas row crops (FSA 7077) and Brown marmorated stink bug: potential pest of Arkansas fruits and vegetables (FSA 7080). Paper copies of these fact sheets have been distributed to all rkansas County Extension Offices and at grower meetings over the last couple years. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? We will talk to producers of row crops, fruits and vegetables at annual meetings and those attending Master Gardener meetings about how to identify brown marmorated stink bug. They will be asked to give stink bug specimens to your county extension office for identification. In the late-summer and late-fall issues of the Mid America Farmer Grower and Fruit and Nut Newsletter, we will republish notices for producers to be on the lookout for brown marmorated stink bugs on fruits or vegetables or overwintering in homes in Arkansas.

        Impacts
        What was accomplished under these goals? In 2013, one adult stink bug was collected in Fayetteville, AR and confirmed to be brown marmorated stink bug but none have been detected or confirmed elsewhere in counties sampled in eastern Arkansas.

        Publications