Non Technical Summary
Statement of Issue: The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stal (BMSB) originates from China, Korea and Japan. The first economic damage to crops by the BMSB in the United States occurred in 2009, and it has spread to 40 states (confirmed in all states around Arkansas but not confirmed in Arkansas as yet). Need: In 2010, there was $37 million in yield losses alone when BMSB damage approached 90% loss in tree fruits in Virginia and West Virginia. Since 2010, the BMSB has caused heavy losses in the eastern United States. Justification: The BMSB has caused damage to conventional and organic farms producing brambles, grapes, apples, pears, peaches, peppers, tomatoes, field and sweet corn and soybeans. It has also become a homeowner nuisance (overwinters in residences in large numbers). Caulking of windows and/or the sealing of cracks and voids in exterior walls, eaves, etc. are recommended to minimize entry of BMSB but insecticide treatments are yet to be labeled for use on/in residences. Prior to the BMSB introduction, pyrethroid insecticide use on fruit crops was discouraged due to its negative effects on natural enemies. Current BMSB management relies on weekly applications of a pyrethroid such as bifenthrin thus abandoning 40 years of IPM program development. This use of pyrethroids is causing outbreaks of wooly apple aphid and San Jose scale. Alternative management tactics are needed. Microbial agents or repellents such as Surround kaolin clay or mass trapping may prove to be useful in managing BMSB. In addition, several potential egg parasitoids of BMSB from Asia are currently in quarantine undergoing host specificity testing. Our issue is to determine when and where BMSB arrives in Arkansas and assess annually the damage this new pest inflicts on fruit and vegetable crops listed above or others. The goal is to discuss with growers to identify, adjust research needs and priorities and help manage BMSB. Once it appears in Arkansas, fruit growers will be taught through demonstrations the best monitoring method to determine how the BMSB moves between crops, when fruit damage is occurring (attractive trap catch plus fruit inspections), and the recommended best management practices against this new pest. If a biological control agent of the BMSB is identified, and later permitted for release, then we would request permission to also release it into Arkansas and monitor establishment and impact on local BMSB densities. We plan to test efficacy of several OMRI approved compounds or practices such as microbial agents or Surround kaolin against the BMSB at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Fayetteville in organic tree and bramble fruit plantings. All NEERA-1306regional project findings on detection and best management practices of BMSB will be disseminated at local grower meetings, Horticulture Industry Show annual meeting and annual pest management updates in the MP144 Insecticide Recommendations for Arkansas. Growers will be informed that all information will be made available at three currently existing website dedicated to the BMSB: www.rce.rutgers.edu/stinkbug/; the NE IPM Center's Brown Marmorated Working Group website, http://www.northeastipm.org/working-groups/bmsb-working-group/); and StopBMSB.org.Arkansas entomologists of all crops affected by BMSB will contribute to mapping the current distribution and severity of brown marmorated stink bug damage on a crop by crop basis. Impact: The BMSB management practices adopted by growers will decrease monetary losses to BMSB, reduce pesticide residues on Arkansas crops found to be attacked by BMSB, help growers return to established management programs, and lead to the development of IPM tactics that could be implemented by the non-agricultural sector dealing with BMSB invading and overwintering in structures. Many of the statements above were derived from the outline composed for Multistate Regional Fund (MRF) Project titled NEERA1306: Management of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug.
Animal Health Component
Research Effort Categories
Goals / Objectives
Assess the extent and nature of injury caused brown marmorated stink bug
Develop and compare monitoring methods (light based/pheromone based traps, visual and knockdown assessments) for brown marmorated stink bug that can be used to assess emergence from overwintering sites, conduct population assessments and evaluate movement between different crops.
Determine the potential for biological control of the brown marmorated stink bug
Develop best management practices for the brown marmorated stink bug in field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables
Deliver research based IPM recommendations to growers
Map the current distribution and severity of BMSB damage on a crop by crop basis.
Objective 1. Assess the extent and nature of injury caused brown marmorated stink bug. Depending on individual state priorities we will establish sentinel plots using field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables to evaluate damage caused by the brown marmorated sting bug in these systems. Plots will be maintained using standard practices but without the use of insecticide. Depending on the crop, beginning with the first appearance of adults, eggs or nymphs in these plots, each plot will be monitored on a weekly basis using either timed visual counts or beat sheets assessments. At harvest, yield estimates and damage evaluations from a subsample of plants within each plot will be made. Objective 2. Develop monitoring methods for brown marmorated stink bug. Depending on individual state priorities we will establish research plots in field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables to develop and evaluate monitoring methods in these crops. Plots will be maintained using standard practices but without the use of insecticide. Depending on the crop, adult brown marmorated stink bugs will be monitored using a combination of blacklight traps, pheromone traps, direct visual counts, beat sheet counts or sweep netting. Nymphal populations will be monitored using weekly visual counts only. Data collected for blacklight and pheromone traps will be correlated with the first presence of adults and nymphal BMSB in plots. All other methods will be compared for differences in population estimates between methods. Objective 3. Determine the potential for biological control of the brown marmorated stink bug. This objective will be fulfilled using the plots established in each state for either objective 1 or 2. Sentinel brown marmorated stink bug egg masses will be outsourced on a minimum of eight randomly selected plants within plots. This will be initiated when naturally colonizing adults are observed in the plots and will be repeated every other week throughout the growing season. Each egg mass be examined 24 h later to detect predation. After 48-h, all egg masses will be collected, brought to the laboratory, examined for predation and then, held for emergence of adult parasitoids. The frequency of egg parasitization by a single parasitoid or combination of parasitoids will be calculated for the sentinel egg masses. Objective 4. Develop best management practices for the brown marmorated stink bug. Using the information, developed under objectives 1-3, we will develop crop specific best management plans (BMP s) for the brown marmorated stink bug. This will be done during the projects yearly annual meeting. Objective 5. Deliver research based IPM recommendations to growers. We will incorporate the information and Best Management Practices developed by this project into current grower recommendations. We will also deliver this information via websites, emails, newsletters, grower meetings, etc. Objective 6. Map the current distribution of BMSB and severity of BMSB damage on a crop by crop basis in the in the US. Depending on individual state priorities we will develop a coordinated system to gather occurrence and damage data using current web based reporting systems. NJ, PA and the Southern IPM Center currently have systems designed to track occurrence on a national basis and have recently linked each together in order to combine historical and newly generated data in a single data base. As researchers from other states join the project they will be encouraged to publicize these systems in order to increase data collection. In addition, a system to track damage severity on a crop by crop basis will also be developed.