Source: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE submitted to
FEED INGREDIENTS FROM FISH PROCESSING WASTES
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0405213
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
5341-31410-002-00D
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Dec 7, 2001
Project End Date
Mar 14, 2005
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
BECHTEL P J
Recipient Organization
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
(N/A)
FAIRBANKS,AK 99701
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
5113799101050%
5113799202050%
Goals / Objectives
1)Characterize the waste sources and economics associated with Alaskan fish processing wastes. 2)Characterize individual waste stream components and their products. 3)Develop new aquaculture feed ingredients and products from fish processing wastes.The work will be conducted in cooperation with University of Alaska and other cooperators.FY02 Program Increase. Add 1 SY.
Project Methods
Characterization will include fish processing wastes generated by species, general processing locations, on-shore vs. factory trawl processing,time of year and amounts of individual waste stream components.Current waste disposal methods and waste processing will be characterized. Innovative methods for the collection and storage of the fish processing wastes will be developed. Components of the fish processing waste stream will be used to create a number of new feed ingredients and other products. Processing technologies will be adapted or developed as needed. The new protein feed ingredients and other products will be chemically characterized (amino acid and fatty acid profiles, mineral and contaminant content,proximate analysis and other analysis) and nutritionally valuated (protein digestibility, nutritional value and palatability attributes) in fin fish and shell fish aquaculture systems. Results will be published in scientific and popular press articles, presented at meetings and workshops and disseminated by marine advisory program personnel. Formerly 5341-31410-001-00D (11/01). FY04 Program Increase.

Progress 12/07/01 to 03/14/05

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter? The Alaskan fishing industry produces over one million metric tons of by- product and waste annually. This material has potential value as a protein and natural products source but much by-product is not utilized. This project seeks to characterize the various fish processing by- products and existing secondary products and to develop new and higher valued ingredients for use in animal (agriculture and aquatic) feeds. Currently almost all of the fishery waste from large lane based processors is converted to low value, high ash meal. Meal production is considered a cost of doing business and has not yet become recognized as a significant source of revenue. Much of the waste from smaller processors is disposed using the grind and dump method. Regulatory changes including those requiring 100 % utilization of cod and pollock make the development of best-use end products urgent. 2. List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan. The Project Plan was developed as a partnership between the USDA/ARS and University of Alaska Fairbanks for five year period. The USDA/ARS and University of Alaska Fairbanks worked together to create this new five year aquaculture titled: Converting Alaska fish by-products into value added ingredients and products. As designed, much of the research in the project is done in close collaboration between USDA/ARS and UAF although a separate AD-421 for 5341-31410-002-05S was prepared. This AD-421 encompasses the entire project. Objective 1: Develop new knowledge Subobjective 1.1. Analyze of by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish Subobjective 1.2. Analyze seasonal variation of the by-product stream Subobjective 1.3. Characterize tissue and organ components Subobjective 1.4. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins Subobjective 1.5. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products Subobjective 1.6. Characterize properties of hydrolysates Subobjective 1.7. Characterize stick water properties Objective 2: Examine processes and methods for analysis, collection & storage of raw materials Subobjective 2.1. Evaluate raw material quality and its effect on meals and oils Subobjective 2.2. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components Subobjective 2.3. Evaluate changes in quality during storage of meals and oils Subobjective 2.4. Evaluate stabilization and storage of by-products Objective 3: Make new and improved ingredients & feeds from AK By- products Subobjective 3.1. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients Subobjective 3.2. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients Subobjective 3.3. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties Subobjective 3.4. Aquaculture growth promoters Subobjective 3.5. Aquaculture feed binding ingredients Subobjective 3.6. Quality and sensory attributes of fish and shellfish ingredients Subobjective 3.7. Use of by-product ingredients in livestock feeds Subobjective 3.8. Nutritional ingredients for pet foods Subobjective 3.9. Develop and evaluate novel feed ingredients for ornamental fish 3b List the milestones that you expect to address over the next 3 years (FY 2006, 2007, and 2008). What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years under each milestone? Please see the report for replacement project 5341-31410-003-00D for future milestones. 4a What was the single most significant accomplishment this past year? Pollock viscera and salmon gonad meal contain biologically-active, non-nutrient components that stimulate growth of trout fed soybean meal-based diets; however, generally soy based diets do not result in growth performance equal to fish meal based diets. A study was conducted by a team of ARS, University of Alaska and University of Idaho scientists to enhance the performance of soy base diets by adding meals made from selected fish by-product components. The study was a trout feeding trial in which meals made from different by-products including salmon gonad and pollock viscera were used with a soy protein diet. Results indicated that by-products meals including those from gonad and pollock viscera could enhance the performance of a soy protein trout. These results provide new uses for under utilized fish by-products and have the potential to reduce the cost of aquaculture diets. 4b List other significant accomplishments, if any. Milt meal from pollock and pink salmon Meals made from milt have often been referred to in the past as spawn powder and large volumes of milt are available from the processing of pollock and salmon in Alaska, most of which is utilized in the production of fishmeal or discarded. A study was conducted by a team of University of Alaska and ARS scientists to development an industrial scale extraction method for the production of high quality milt meal from both pollock and salmon. A process was developed to produce high quality milt meal from both pollock and salmon and the products have been characterized. The meals were found to contain relatively high concentrations of nucleic acids and other components. There are a number of potential uses for these meals in diet formulations for fish, farm animals and pets. Gelatin from fish skins Fish skins from the Alaska fish processing industry are currently not used to make gelatin and one reason is that gelatins from cold water fish skin are liquid at room temperature. Studies were conducted by ARS scientist in Albany, California and Fairbanks, Alaska to extract and modify gelatin from pollock and pink salmon for potential use in biomedical applications, such as bioadhesives and microspheres for drug delivery. Gelatins were cross-linked using glutaraldehyde and genipin, a gardenia extract and the cross-linking reaction evaluated using dynamic rheology. Results indicated that glutaraldehyde was a more effective cross-linker for pollock gelatin than genipin. This study indicated the potential of modifying the properties of cold water fish gelatins to enhance their utilization. Salmon liver meal In Alaska, salmon livers and other viscera are not utilized in the production of human food and often discarded. A team of scientist from the University of Alaska, ARS, University of Idaho, and the Oceanic Institute developed an industrial scale method for processing fish livers into meals. A process was developed to produce fish liver and the meals were characterized. The meals had high concentrations of cholesterol that will be helpful in dietary formulations for shrimp and possibly as a feed augmentation ingredient for younger fish. Alaska pollock and salmon oils in shrimp diets Standard fish oil sources are projected to be unable to meet increasing demand, and so identification of alternatives oil sources from Alaska fish by-products can have a significant commercial impact. Scientist from the University of Alaska and the Oceanic Institute evaluated pollock and salmon oils as replacements for menhaden oil in diets for shrimp. Three shrimp growth diets were manufactured incorporating each of these oils in complete replacement of menhaden oil, which served as a control. After eight weeks, the shrimp fed the control and experimental diets exhibited similar excellent growth, feed efficiency and survival. This finding will be useful to feed manufacturers who are looking for high quality replacements for standard sources of fish oil for aquaculture feeds. Attractant properties of hydrolysates from Alaska by-product for shrimp Protein hydrolysate meals made from by-products of the Alaskan fishing industry exhibited positive attractant properties in diets for shrimp. Scientist from the University of Alaska, ARS, and the Oceanic Institute produced hydrolysates from fish processing byptoducts and then made a series of shrimp diets. The voluntary consumption rates of the shrimp of all hydrolysates except one were significantly higher than the control. For most of the hydrolysates, the consumption rate was similar to that of menhaden fishmeal used in shrimp feeds. This finding is useful to feed manufacturers who are looking for alternatives to traditional sources of fishmeal. Films from fish skin gelatins. Currently in Alaska fish skins are either used to make fish meal or discarded. Studies were conducted by ARS scientist in Albany, California and Fairbanks, Alaska to evaluate unique permeability and tensile properties of films made from cold-water fish gelatins. In addition the feasibility of extracting gelatin from dried pollock skins with ultrasound was evaluated. This study identified unique permeability properties of the fish gelatin films and furthered the development of technologies to increase the yield of gelatin from dried skins. There are potential food applications for gelatin films from cold water marine fish. Protein powders from fish by-products. Currently in Alaska, protein from fish by-products is utilized to make fish meal or discarded; however, there is the potential to extract protein from by-products that would have superior physical properties and a greater value in the market place. A study was initiated by University of Alaska and ARS scientist to evaluate extraction of protein from Alaska fish by-products at high pH followed by isoelectric precipitation. Protein was extracted from pollock heads, whole fish, viscera, and frames and pink salmon heads and viscera collected from commercial processing lines. Results indicated protein powders made from pollock head and frame and salmon heads had good functional characteristics and nutritional characteristics. These soluble protein powders have potential uses as food and feed ingredients. Fish by-products from black cod and Pacific ocean perch Little known about the properties of by-products from other species that are commercially harvested. A team of ARS, University of Alaska, University of Idaho, and the Oceanic Institute scientist have evaluated the chemical and nutritional properties of by-products including heads, frames, viscera and skin from some of these major species of fish harvested in Alaska. Properties of the oils and protein for black cod heads and frames and Pacific ocean perch by-products were determined. The oil extracted from black cod by-products was unique when compared to most other cold water fish and contained lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Protein from the by-products of these two species was of high quality. This study identified unique properties of these by-products, which can be used as ingredients in aquaculture diets. 4d Progress report. 1. This report serves to document research conducted with Drs. McKeith, Ellis and Fahey of the University of Illinois titled Nutritional value of fish oil on reproductive performance in gilts and sows and effects of fish protein hydrolysates on immune indices in geriatric dog (SCA 5341- 31410-002-06S). One use of proteins and peptides from fish processing by- products is as feed ingredients for early weaning pigs. The initial study indicate that young pigs fed the spray-dried animal plasma grew faster; however, there was no effect of dietary treatment on gain:feed ratio suggesting that most of the reduction in overall growth rate with a number of the fish meal based diets resulted from reduced feed intake rather than any reduction in efficiency of nutrient utilization. A second trial was initiated in which included a digestibility study and a growth performance study using different levels of the best performing hydrolysate ingredients. After the study was initiated a number of the animals became ill and the trial was stopped and another trials initiated. This trial is progressing as planned and will be completed in September. Other trials involving the use of salmon oil were designed to determine the effect of fish oil on reproductive performance postweaning and its components in gilts and subsequent growth of piglets after birth through weaning. The trails are currently being conducted at the University of Illinois swine farm and on a farms. The results are eagerly anticipated. When these studies are completed the livestock feeding component of this project will be completed. Uses of Alaska fish processing by-products in pet diets is being explored by Dr. Fahey at he University of Illinois. A broad range ingredients made from fish processing by-products were evaluated as part of the Masters of Science thesis of Juliana Folador. From this work a trial was initiated using selected ingredients including fish meal, milt meal, and pink salmon hydrolysate. This study, evaluates the effects of selected ingredients in a high quality dog diet on total tract nutrient digestibilities and immune indices. The trial using senior dogs at the University of Illinois companion animal facilities is in progress, and will be completed in September and then the data analyzed. 2. This report serves to document research conducted with Drs. Sathivel and Oliveira of the University of Alaska titled Properties of Protein Hydrolysates and lipids extracted from fish processing byproducts (SCA 5341-31410-002-07S). The total harvest in 2003 of pollock, cod and salmon was estimated at 2.1 million metric tons. Large land based processors utilize fish processing by-products to make fish meals and oils for the feed industry; however, much of the by-product is not utilized. Fish byproducts are rich in proteins and oils and there is an opportunity for utilizing more fish processing byproducts as protein and oil ingredients for food and feed ingredients and in industrial applications. Although the levels of cholesterol have been determined in the muscle of many species of fish, there is limited data on other sterol compounds. Depending on the fish species, high levels of lipid are found in the head and liver. There is little data on the content of sterols in fish processing by-products, and the sterols fraction from most cold water fish by-products has not been characterized. Five replicate samples of liver were obtained from pollock, cod, rock fish and, flat fish, arrowtooth flounder, black cod and dog fish and heads from these species. Pink, red and chum salmon samples are currently being collected as they are only harvested during the summer. All tissue samples were analyzed in duplicate for protein, ash, moisture and lipid content. Lipids were extracted using dichloromethane and analyzed for lipid classes, fatty acid methyl esters and proximate analysis except pollock, cod, pink salmon, flat fish and arrowtooth livers and pollock and cod heads where this data was already obtained. A number of methods for the determination of sterols in seafood are available; however, most are not readily applicable to modern gas chromatographic conditions so a modification of the Kovacs method was developed and standardized. The concentration of sterols in the samples have been completed except for the salmon samples which will be completed in September. Data is being analyzed for presentation and publication in 2006. Proteins from fish processing byproducts can be modified to improve their quality and functional characteristics by enzymatic hydrolysis. Utilizing proteolytic enzymes, fish protein hydrolysates can be prepared with the peptides having new and/or improved properties. Antioxidant properties of fish protein hydrolysates produced from herring byproducts have been reported; however, there is a lack of information on these properties from pollock and salmon by-products, optimization of antioxidant activity, and application of these hydrolysates in reducing oxidation of fish products. The three tissues chosen for this study were pollock trim, pollock skin, and salmon heads, which were collected and hydrolyzed using a commercial proteolytic enzyme with continuously stirred for 0, 10, and 45 min at 50oC. The soluble aqueous fractions were obtained after centrifugation and are currently being further fractionated using a membrane filtration unit with a 10,000 MW membrane cutoff. The three fractions (total soluble fraction and the two fractions separated by the 10,000 MW membrane) are currently being freeze dried and their physical and chemical properties determined, which include antioxidant properties, solubility, emulsifying capacity, emulsifying stability, fat adsorption capacity, water holding capacity, color, water activity, bulk density, molecular weight, proximate, amino acid, and mineral compositions. This component of the study will be completed in September. The antioxidant properties of a selected sample will then be further analyzed when added to salmon mince in a storage stability study. Reports describing a new method of extracting protein with excellent physical properties from fish muscle have appeared in the literature. The method solubilizes protein using high pH followed by isoelectric precipitation of the protein. A study was initiated to evaluate this method for protein extraction from Alaska fish by-products. This method was used to extract protein from pollock heads, whole fish, viscera, and frames and pink salmon heads and viscera collected from commercial processing lines. The byproducts were frozen until the protein was solubilized at pH 11. The insoluble protein fraction were separated from the soluble protein fraction, which was then precipitated at pH 5.5. The precipitated soluble protein was freeze dried and then yields determined and samples analyzed for proximate composition, mineral and amino acid contents, lipid oxidation, FAMES, solubility, emulsion stability and fat adsorption properties, and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Protein powders with good functional characteristics and nutritional characteristics were made from pollock head and frame and salmon heads. These soluble protein powders have potential uses as food and feed ingredients. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. A. The addition of stickwater to presscake was demonstrated to improve the nutritional quality of whitefish meals made from by-products of the Alaska fish processing industry for rainbow trout, Pacific threadfin and Pacific white shrimp. B. Selected fishmeals made from by-products of the Alaska fish processing industry were found not to contain detectable levels of pesticides and PCBs. C. Alaskan fish meal, made under standard conditions from the by- products of seafood processing, are as good as or better nutritionally than the best meals currently available to aquaculturists. D. Meals made from the individual organs such as male gonad meals, fish processing by- product tissues such as viscera and heads, and hydrolysates can be used as minor ingredients to enhance the palatability, attraction and feed performance. E. Processes are being devised to utilize fish skins to make gelatin and other industrial uses of fish oil, and other products are being devised. E. We are continuing to develop an array of production options to convert seafood waste into various products, at varying costs and with varying values to the producer. These products are designed for use in aquaculture and agriculture. Our chemical characterizations, coupled with the nutritional characterizations document the efficacy of Alaskan fish meals compared to meals made from whole industrial fish, and also contribute to the development of higher value proteins from components of the fish processing by-product waste stream. 6. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? A. Numerous options are being considered to convert seafood waste into products, at varying costs and with varying values to the producer. The ultimate value of fish oil will likely depend on the amounts of omega 3 or other relatively unique fatty acids in the oil. If fish proteins or hydrolysates are to compete with other plant and animal proteins, desirable functional and nutritional properties need to be identified and marketed. This research has characterized oils, protein hydrolysates, extracted proteins and meals made from organs and parts of Alaska by- products. Research results are presented during meetings attended by the Alaskan seafood industry, and by the Alaska Marine Advisory Program. In addition, theses studies are published in peer reviewed journals. This information will significantly contribute to higher recovery and utilization of landed catch of Alaskan fish, and increase the economic return to the seafood industry by better utilization of the by-products. B. The chemical and nutritional analysis of different by-product components, oils, extracted proteins and hydrolysates have been presented at national and international meetings and published in scientific journals. This information has also been made available to processors, consultants, and those further processing by-products. C. Several companies that manufacture products from by-product have expressed interest in using pollock and cod skins. There is interest in other intact and hydrolyzed protein ingredients from fish by-products such as viscera and liver for aquaculture, farm animal and pet diets. D. A CRADA has been established to conduct research and develop new and improved processing technologies to add-value to fish protein hydrolysates. E. Use of low-ash fish meal from Alaskan seafood processing waste is now being produced by BioOregon and successfully marketed to the US trout feed manufacturing industry for use in low-pollution trout feeds. Clear Springs Foods, Inc., purchases this product. F. The high nutritional quality of Alaskan whitefish meals and salmon meals, established using scientific research trials in rainbow trout, Pacific threadfin and shrimp, has been disseminated to industry. G. Chemical properties of oils derived from the production of fish meals from different species and production has been disseminated to industry and consultants. 7. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below). Ambardekar, A., Sathivel, S. & Prinyawiwatkul, W., 2005. Effects of chitosan and protein coatings on moisture loss and lipid oxidation of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fillets during frozen storage. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Avena-Bustillos, RD., Olsen, CW., Olson, DA., Chiou B.-S., Yee, E. &. McHugh TH. 2005.Water vapor permeability of mammalian and fish gelatin films Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #54D-4. Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Nutritional properties of protein solubles from fish processing byproducts. Aquaculture America 2005. Abstract # 302. Bechtel, PJ. Sathivel, S. & Oliveira, A.C.M. 2005. Alkali extracted protein fractions from salmon byproducts. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #89B-21. Bechtel, PJ. 2005 Chemical and nutritional properties of pollock viscera and liver meals. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #89B-6. Bechtel, PJ., Reppond, K. & Oliveira, A. 2005. Recovery and characterization of lipids from enzymatic digestion of salmon eye tissue. World Aqauculture Society annual meeting. Bali, Indonesia. Bower, CK., Avena-Bustillos, RJ., Olsen, CW., McHugh, TH. & Bechtel PJ. 2005. Characterization of fish skin gelatin gels and films containing the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #89D-15. Chantarachoti, J., Bechtel, PJ., Oliveira, ACM. & Sathivel, S. 2005. Characterization of soluble and insoluble protein fractions from immature Alaska walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) roe. Technical Poster Session in Aquatic Food Products. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting. New Orleans (LA), July 16-20. Chiou, B, Avena, R., Bechtel, P., Shey, J., Imam, S., Glenn, G. & Orts, W. 2005. Rheology of cross-linking fish gelatins. 2005 Pacificchem Meeting. Finstad, G., Bechtel, P. Wiklund E. & Long, K. 2005. Sensory and technological properties of meat from free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) or reindeer fed soybean meal or fishmeal-based rations. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #89F-29. Forster, I. Germano, N., Pearce, M., Plante, S., Oliveira, ACM., Smiley, S. & Bechtel, P. 2005. Attractant properties of protein meals for pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Oral presentation. World Aquaculture Society, Nusa Dua, Bali (Indonesia). May 9-13, 2005. McHugh, TH., Avena-Bustillos, RJ., Pan, Z., Olson, DA., Olsen, CW., Chiou, B., Yee, E., Bechtel, PJ., Bower CK. & Pantoja A. 2005. Dehydration as a stabilization method for Alaskan pollock skins prior to gelatin extraction. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #99C-24. Obaldo, LG., Kamarei, R. & Huang, A.S. 2005. Nutritional composition and sensory qualities of aquacultured amberjack. Aquaculture America 2005. Abstract. Oliveira, ACM., Brener, K., Chantarachoti, J., Voholt, C., Bechtel, PJ. & Crapo, CA. 2005. A comparison of lipid recoveries from fish muscle samples using an accelerated solvent extraction system and the Folch methodology. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #89A-27. Oliveira, ACM., Stone, DAJ., Plante, S., Smiley, S., Bechtel, PJ. & Hardy, RW. 2005. Fish oils from Alaskan seafood processing by-products: an un-exploited sustainable resource for aquaculture. 30th Fish Feed and Nutrition Workshop. September 1st -3rd , 2005; Ensenada, B.C., Mexico liveira, ACM., Stephan, K. & Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Composition and total carotenoid content of Alaska big mouth sculpin (Hemitripterus bolini) livers. Poster session. World Aquaculture Society Meeting. Bali (Indonesia). May 9-11. lsen, CW., Avena-Bustillos, RD., Olson, DA., Chiou, B.-S., Yee, E. &. McHugh, TH. 2005. Tensile and puncture properties of mammalian and fish gelatin films. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #109-5. Olson, D.A., Avena-Bustillos, R.J., Olsen, C.W., Chiou, B. Yee, E. Bower, C.K., Bechtel, P.J, Pan, Z. & McHugh, T.H. 2005. Evaluation of power ultrasound as a processing aid for fish gelatin extraction. Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. #71C-26. Plante, S., Bechtel, PJ., Oliveira, ACM. & Smiley, S. 2005. Characterization of protein hydrolysate from Alaska flatfish processing by-products. Poster presentation. World Aquaculture Society, Nusa Dua, Bali-Indonesia. May 9-13, 2005. Plante, S., Oliveira, ACM., Bechtel, PJ., & Smiley, S. 2005. Gonad meals from Alaskan seafood by-product: potential for growth promoting and immuno-stimulation in fish. Poster presentation. Pacific Fisheries Technologists, Vancouver, Canada, February 20-23, 2005. Plante S, Oliveira, ACM, Bechtel, PJ. & Smiley S. 2005. Methods for making dried powders from the solutes in stickwater. Poster session. Pacific Fisheries Technologists Meeting. Vancouver (Canada). Feb. 21-23. Plante, S., Oliveira, ACM., Smiley, S. & Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Production and characterization of a sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) liver meal and of dried powders from fish solubles. Oral presentation. Western European Fish Technologists Association, September 19-22, 2005. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J. & Babbitt, J. 2005. Alaska white fish meal: functional and rheological properties. Aquaculture America 2005. Abstract # 310. Sathivel. S. & Bechtel, P.J. 2005. Fish protein powders as food ingredients. Aquaculture America 2005. Abstract # 309. Sathivel, S. Rheological properties of emulsion containing salmon protein powders and salmon oils. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Sathivel, S. 2005. Applications of chitosan in seafood and other food products. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Sathivel, S. & Bechtel, PJ., 2005. Fish Protein Powders as food ingredients. Aquaculture America Conf., New Orleans, LA, Jan. 2005. Sathivel, S. & Bechtel, PJ., 2005. A comparison of functional and nutritional properties of arrowtooth flounder protein made using three different processes. IFT Annual conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Sathivel, S. & Bechtel, PJ., 2005. Characterization of alkali extracted protein isolates from pollock byproducts. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, PJ. & Babbitt, J. 2005. Alaska White Fish Meal: Functional and Rheological Properties. Aquaculture America Conf., New Orleans, LA, Jan. 2005. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, PJ. & Smiley, S. 2005. Physical properties of Alaskan salmon meal. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Sathivel, S., Himelbloom, BH., Crapo, C. & Prinyawiwatkul, W., 2005. Effects of chitosan coating on quality of pink salmon fillets stored at different conditions. IFT Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 2005. Smiley, S., Plante, S., Oliveira, ACM, & Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Hydrolysate meals from Alaskan pollock, salmon & flatfish processing by-products. Oral presentation. Pacific Fisheries Technologists, Vancouver, Canada, February 20-23, 2005. Scientific Publications Oliveira ACM & Becthel, PJ. 2005. Lipid composition of Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaska walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) byproducts. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Tech. 14(1): 73-91. Sathivel, S., 2005. Thermal and Flow Properties of Oils from Salmon Head. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82: 147151. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, PJ., Babbitt, J., Prinyawiwatkul, W., & Patterson, M. 2005. Functional, Nutritional, and Rheological Properties of Protein Powders from Arrowtooth Flounder and their Application in Mayonnaise. J. Food Sci. 70:57-63. Hardy, RW., Sealey, WM., & Gatlin, DM. III. 2005. Fisheries By-Catch and By-Product Meals as Protein Sources for Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, September (Volume 36, Number 3) athivel, S., Smiley, S., Prinyawiwatkul, W. & Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Functional and nutritional properties of red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) enzymatic hydrolysates. J. Food Sci. 70: 401-406. Sathivel, S, Bechtel, PJ., Babbitt, J., Prinyawiwatkul, W. & Negulescu, II. 2005. Functional, Thermal, and Rheological Properties of Alaska White Fish Meal Made from Processing Byproducts. J. Aquatic Food Technology (In Press) Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Properties of Stick Water from Fish Processing Byproducts. J. Aquatic Food Technology (In Press). Thesis Folador, Juliana F. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as poteintial ingredients in pet foods. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of Master of Science in Animal Sciences in the Graduate College of the University off the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2005.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Sathivel, S., Smiley, S., Prinyawiwatkul, W., Bechtel, P.J. 2005. Functional and nutritional properties of red salmon (oncorhynchus nerka) enzymatic hydrolysates. Journal of Food Science. Vol. 70, NR.6, 2005
  • Bechtel, P.J. 2004. Properties of stick water from fish processing byproducts. Food Technologists Institute. 14(2):25-38


Progress 10/01/03 to 09/30/04

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter? More than 60% of the total fish harvested in the United States comes from Alaska and the three major species harvested are Alaskan pollock, Pacific cod, and salmon. Processing of these fish generates over one million metric tones of fish by-products most of which could be utilized as aquaculture and animal feeds. Currently the major by-products (heads, viscera, skin and frames) are underutilized and often create disposal problems and environmental concerns. Simultaneously, there is a need for fish protein feed ingredients and palatability enhancing agents for use in aquaculture systems. Sources of fish processing waste include land based processing plants, catcher processor ships and large factory ships. Much of the fish processing is done in and around the coasts of the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska. More than a third of the processing waste is made into fish meal and fish oil but much fish waste is disposed of in the sea. For some land based processing plants by-product disposal is a problem due to environmental issues and disposal costs. Successful research efforts can result in the utilization of more fish waste as aquaculture and animal feed ingredients. This would reduce waste and environmental concerns, lead to new income sources for processors and harvesters, and provide additional feed ingredients for the aquaculture and livestock industries. This project seeks to improve the utilization of Alaska fish processing wastes by creating by-products for use in livestock and aquaculture diets. This will be accomplished by analysis and processing of the various by- product components using both new and existing technologies. Methods will be developed for the collection, segregation, processing, stabilization, storage, and formulation of the feed ingredients. 2. List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan. There are currently no official milestones pending OSQR review of the proposed project plan. Milestones from previous annual reports are listed: A Complete the study to improve the accuracy of estimates of Alaskan by- products and by product components. B. Complete analysis of waste stream components from processing Alaska Pollock, pacific cod, and/or pink salmon. C. Complete feeding studies in trout and other farm animals of commercially available fish waste stream components; including, heads, viscera, frames, skins and hydrolyzed by-products from pollock, cod and salmon. D. Develop and evaluate feed ingredients made from underutilized pollock and cod skins and viscera, and viscera components. E. Evaluate the properties of hydrolyzed by-products and stick water fractions as feed ingredients. 3. Milestones: A. Chemical, physical and nutritional properties of pollock, cod and salmon by-products was published. By-products analyzed included heads, viscera, frames and skin from pollock and cod, and heads and viscera from pink salmon. B. Pollock by-products including heads, viscera, frames, skin and salmon by-products including viscera and heads were evaluated as feed ingredients with trout in collaboration with Dr. Hardy. Both digestibility and growth trials were completed and data has been statistically analyzed. C. 1. A feed binding ingredient has been made from pollock skin. An assay has been developed to evaluated the feed binding characteristics of the skin product. The skin binding ingredient is being evaluated in aquaculture feeds. 2. A lower fat viscera product has been developed from pollock and cod viscera. The product dries as a powder and has potential as an ingredient that can be utilized with plant protein based aquaculture diets. 3. The chemical and nutritional properties of liver protein from a number of marine cold water fish spies have been evaluated in collaboration with Dr. Oliveira. In addition, a lower fat liver protein material from whitefish has been prepared for evaluation as an aquaculture feed ingredient. D. 1. Studies on the chemical and nutritional properties of pollock and salmon stickwater protein have been completed and published. These studies focused on the stickwater that was not hydrolyzed prior to concentration. 2. Both protein powders and hydrolysates have been made from pollock and salmon by-products. These protein materials have been chemically and nutritionally characterized in collaboration with Dr. Sathivel. Other studies are underway to evaluate protein extracted from pollock and salmon by-products using alkali extraction procedures. b. List the milestones (from the list in Question #2) that you expect to address over the next 3 years (FY 2005, 2006, & 2007). What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years under each milestone? There are currently no official milestones pending OSQR review of the proposed project plan. Objectives and three year milestones in the proposed project follow: 1. Elucidate the chemical, biological, and physical properties of underutilized Alaska fish by-products and their biochemical constituents to identify properties/compounds that can be used to make new and improved aquaculture and agriculture feed ingredients, and other high value products. A. Analyze of by-product from flat, rock, cartilaginous fish (05, 06) B. Analyze seasonal variation of the by-product stream (07) C. Characterize tissue and organ components (05, 06, 07) D. Characterize protein from organs and extracted proteins (05,06,07) E. Characterize lipid from organs and by-products (05,06,07) F. Characterize properties of hydrolysates (05,06,07) G. Characterize stick water properties (05,06) 2. Improve processes and methods for analysis, collection, and storage of raw materials, to retain the chemical, biological, and physical qualities of Alaska fish processing raw materials for developing new and improved ingredients/biochemicals. A. Evaluate raw material quality and its effect on meals and oils (05,06, 07) B. Effects of storage time and temp. on by-product components (05,06,07) 3. Make and evaluate the value of new and improved aquaculture and agriculture ingredients and feeds from underutilized Alaska seafood by- products and their constituents. A. Aquaculture nutritional value of protein ingredients (05,06,07) B. Aquaculture nutritional value of lipid ingredients (05,06,07) C. Aquaculture palatability and attractant properties (05,06,07) D. Feed binding ingredients (06) E. Use of by-product ingredients in livestock feeds (05,06,07) F. Nutritional ingredients for early stages of pet growth (05,06,07) G. By-product ingredients for ornamental fish (06, 07) 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Over one million metric tons of fish processing by-products is produced each year from fish harvested in Alaska; however, much of this protein is not utilized and during the manufacturing of fish meal the soluble protein fraction, called stickwater, is often discarded. Scientists in the Subarctic Agriculture research Unit, Fairbanks, AK. evaluated the composition and properties of the large amount of soluble protein generated during the production of fish meal and chemically and nutritionally chracterized the stick water obtained from a commercial fish meal plant. Dried samples had high protein contents of which approximately 25 % was connective tissue protein. This study indicated that proteins in stick water have interesting chemical and nutritional properties, which could be utilized in both food and non-food applications. B. Viscera, a major by-product of fish waste, contains substantial quantities of liver, and in Alaska most fish liver is made into fish meal and oil or discarded. Efforts to separate liver from other by-products during fish processing and utilizing them in high value products are lacking. Research examined the properties of liver protein isolated from the livers' of six different species of cold water marine fish including Arrowtooth Flounder, Pacific Halibut , Alaska Pollock, Pink Salmon, Flathead Sole and Spiny Head Rock Fish. Liver protein was of high nutritional quality and ranged from 18 to 7% of the fish weight. Liver protein from the six different species of fish were found to have many similar chemical properties as well as useful nutrition properties that can be exploited for commercial application. Pink salmon is harvested in large volumes in Alaska and the major fish processing by-products are heads and viscera, which are good raw ingredients for making hydrolysates. Research conducted in the Subarctic Agriculture Research Unit, Fairbanks, AK. yielded hydrolysates that contain all of the protein and fat from both salmon heads and viscera. Dried hydrolysate powders with good flow characteristic were made from both pink salmon heads and viscera without removal of fat. These protein ingredients had a number of desirable chemical, physical and nutritional properties. C. Significant activities that support special target populations. None D. Progress report. This report serves to document research conducted with Drs. McKeith and Ellis of the University of Illinois titled A Nutritional Value of Processed Fish Byproducts for Young Pigs (SCA 58-5341-2-845). One use of proteins and peptides from fish processing by-products is as feed ingredients for early weaning pigs. Early weaned pigs have less developed immune and digestive systems, which has created an opportunity for new feed ingredients. Currently dried plasma porcine is one of the expensive minor feed ingredients fed early weaned pigs. This project evaluated the use of fish meal and hydrolyzed fish proteins as a substituted for animal plasma in the ration of early weaned pigs thus creating a potential new market for these fish processing by-products. Trials include a digestibility study and a growth performance study. The apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids from the different fish by-products were measured in piglets fitted with T-cannulas in the terminal ileum. Results showed that overall the hydrolyzed salmon heads, hydrolyzed salmon viscera and white fish meal were not different (p>0.05) for the average apparent ileal amino acid digestibility compared to spray-dried animal plasma. The growth performance of young pigs weaned at 20.5 days of age and fed diets containing the test fish protein products or spray-dried porcine plasma were compared. Results indicate the pigs fed the spray- dried animal plasma grew faster; however, there was no effect of dietary treatment on gain:feed ratio suggesting that most of the reduction in overall growth rate with a number of the fish meal based diets resulted from reduced feed intake rather than any reduction in efficiency of nutrient utilization. These studies were the basis of the Masters of Science thesis of S. R. Tuftedal (see #7 below). A follow up study is in progress utilizing hydrolyzed pollock and salmon by-product meals with partial substitutions for freeze dried animal plasma and an evaluation of ingredient palatability characteristics. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. This project was requested by Congress in 1999 and the staffing of the ARS vacancy was completed in May 2000. Acquisition of the necessary instruments, equipment and facilities at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks and Kodiak were completed in FY 2001. A. Analysis of the amounts, types, location, and further processing of fish processing by-products in Alaska has been completed and used to identify important areas for future studies. B. Characterization of the chemical and nutritional properties of fish processing by-product components that are produced in large quantity has been completed, including skin, frames, heads and viscera from pollock and cod, and heads and viscera from salmon has been completed. Meals made from individual pollock by-products including heads, viscera, frames, skin and salmon by-products were evaluated in digestibility and growth trials as potential aquaculture feed ingredients. It would appear possible to create products to fit niche markets by using different by- products or by combining selected by-products. If all by-products cannot be saved or processed it may be possible to use selected by-products to make higher valued products. C. Specialized feed ingredients have been made from stickwater, fish skin, fish viscera components such as liver, and are being evaluated as feed ingredients. D. The chemical and nutritional properties of liver protein and fat from a number of marine cold water fish spies have been evaluated in collaboration with Dr. Oliveira. E. In collaboration with Dr. Sathivel both protein powders and hydrolysates have been made from pollock and salmon by-products. These protein materials have been chemically and nutritionally characterized and have potential as high quality feed ingredients. 6. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? Studies from this project have been presented to interested parties within Alaska and at national and international meetings and published. These studies provide new knowledge about selected by-product components, which is being used to create new and improved feed and food products A. Analysis of the amounts and sources of individual fish by-product components in Alaska have been given to processors and state government employees and presented and made available to interested individuals and groups. B. The chemical and nutritional analysis of different by-product components has been presented at national and international meetings and published in scientific journals. This information has also been made available to processors and those further processing by-products. C. Several companies that manufacture products from by-product have expressed interest in using pollock and cod skins. There is interest in other intact and hydrolyzed protein ingredients from fish by-products such as viscera and liver for aquaculture, farm animal and pet diets. 7. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. Presentations and Articles: Other joint authorship presentations and proceedings are listed under project 5341-31410-002-02G, and 5341-31410-002-01S P. J. Bechtel. 2004. Properties of stick water protein from fish processing by-products. 2004 Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. P. J. Bechtel and A. C. M. Oliveira. 2004. Properties of liver protein from different fish species. 2004 Institute of Food Technologist Meeting Book of Abstracts. P. J. Bechtel, S. Sathivel, A.C.M. Oliveira, S. Smiley, and J. Babbitt. 2004. Nutritional Properties of Dried Hydrolysates from Pink Salmon Heads and Viscera. World Aquaculture Society meeting 2004 ' Hawaii. P. J. Bechtel. 2004. Nutritional Properties of White Fish Processing Byproducts: Heads, Frames, Viscera and Skin. World Aquaculture Society meeting 2004 ' Hawaii.. Bechtel, P.J. 2003. Aquaculture and Livestock Feed Supplements from Alaska Fish Processing Byproducts. Feedinfo News Service. 8 Dec 2003. Scientific Reviews section. Pp. 1-5. http:www.feedinfo.com/Console/PageViewer.aspx?page=35804. Publications: Other joint authorship publications are listed under project 5341-31410- 002-02G, and 5341-31410-002-01S Thesis: S.R. Tuftedal 2004. The effect of feeding various fish meals compared to spray-dried animal plasma on the growth performance and amino acid digestion of newly weaned pigs. Thesis. Masters of Science in Animal Sciences. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Bluhm, Bodil A. and Peter J. Bechtel. 2003. The Potential Fate and Effects of Seafood Processing Wastes Dumped at Sea: A Review. In: Advances in seafood byproducts: 2002 Conference Proceedings. Bechtel, P.J. (ed.) Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks. Pp 121-140.
  • Crapo, Chuck and P.J. Bechtel 2003. Utilization of Alaska's Seafood Processing Byproducts. In: Advances in seafood byproducts: 2002 conference proceedings. Bechtel, P.J. (ed.) Alaska Sea Grant COllege Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks. Pp. 105-119.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? More than 60% of the total fish harvested in the United States comes from Alaska. The three major species harvested are Alaskan Pollock, Pacific cod, and salmon. Processing of these fish generates more than one million metric tons of fish wastes most of which could be utilized as aquaculture and animal feeds. Currently, the major wastes (heads, viscera, skin and frames) are underutilized and often create disposal problems and environmental concerns. Simultaneously, there is a need for fish protein feed ingredients and palatability enhancing agents for use in aquaculture systems. This project seeks to improve the utilization of Alaska fish processing wastes by creating by-products for use in livestock and aquaculture diets. This will be accomplished by analysis and processing of the various waste components using both new and existing technologies. Methods will be developed for the collection, segregation, processing, stabilization, storage, and formulation of the feed ingredients. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Over one million metric tons of fish processing waste is produced annually from Alaska Fisheries. Sources of fish processing waste include land-based processing plants, catcher-processor ships, and large factory ships. Much of the fish processing is done in and around the coasts of the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska. More than a third of the processing waste is made into fishmeal and fish oil, but much fish waste is disposed of in the sea. For some land based processing plants waste disposal is a problem due to environmental issues and disposal costs. Successful research efforts can result in the utilization of more fish waste as aquaculture and animal feed ingredients. This would reduce waste and environmental concerns, lead to new income sources for processors and harvesters, and provide additional feed ingredients for the aquaculture and livestock industries. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This project is assigned to National Program 106 (100%) Aquaculture. The research seeks to solve waste problems resulting from the processing of pelagic fish and at the same time to improve the performance of aquaculture and livestock production systems. Aquaculture and livestock production is expected to benefit from the development of high quality feed ingredients from these wastes by application of innovative processing approaches and technologies for collection, segregation, separation, formulation, stabilization, and storage. This research could benefit fisheries worldwide by increasing fish waste utilization and reducing use of fish suitable for human consumption as animal feed. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? 4A. An understanding of the chemical content and properties of fish byproducts is needed for the development of value-added products. This project analyzed the chemical and nutritional properties of pollock, cod and salmon fish processing byproducts(heads, viscera, frames, and skins) and the work was done at the USDA/ARS laboratory in Fairbanks, Alaska and involved collaborators' from the University of Alaska, National Marine Fisheries Service, and the University of Idaho. Analysis included product composition, connective tissue content, amino acid profile, calculated rat protein efficiency ratio, pepsin digestibility, mineral content, and percent soluble protein as altered by pH and temperature. Results indicate the potential to create feed ingredients to fit niche markets by using different byproducts or by combining selected byproducts to create higher valued products. 4B. None 4C. None 4D.Large amounts of high quality pollock skin and viscera are available from fish processing operations to make aquaculture feed ingredient. Several potential feed binding agents have been made from pollock skin and the binding properties of these products are being determined. Pollock viscera, and selected viscera components have been used to make feed ingredients. The chemical and nutritional properties of the viscera derived byproducts are being determined. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. This project was requested by Congress in 1999 and the staffing of the ARS vacancy was completed in May 2000. Acquisition of the necessary instruments, equipment, and facilities at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks and Kodiak were completed in FY 2001. The project has three objectives. Analysis of the amounts, types, location, and further processing of fish processing wastes in Alaska has been completed and used to identify important areas for future studies(objective #1). Chemical and nutritional properties of fish processing waste components that are produced in large quantity have been determined including the skin, frames, heads and viscera from pollock, cod, and salmon (objective #2). Feeding trials are being completed using trout and other animals. Specialized feed ingredients have been made from fish skin and fish viscera components and are being characterized and evaluated (objective #3). 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? Year 1: -Complete feeding studies in trout and other farm animals of commercially available fish waste stream components; including, heads, viscera, frames, skins, and hydrolyzed byproducts from Pollock, cod, and salmon. -Develop and evaluate feed ingredients made from underutilized Pollock and cod skins and viscera components. Year 2: -Optimize ingredients for potential commercial utilization. -Develop other specialized feed ingredients from byproduct components such as male reproductive tracks and liver and fish skin collagen. Year 3: -Develop value-added feed ingredients from other fish waste components such as fish heads, bone, and other viscera components. -Evaluate hydrolyzed byproducts and stick water fractions as unique feed ingredients. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? Analyses of the amounts and sources of individual fish waste components in Alaska have been given to processors and state government employees and presented and made available to interested individuals and groups. The chemical and nutritional analysis of waste stream components has been presented at several national and international meetings and published in scientific journals. Several byproduct companies have expressed interest in utilization of fish skin and properties of other byproducts. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: This does not replace your peer-reviewed publications listed below). Abstracts and Presentations: Bechtel, P.J. 2003. Developing Unique Feed Ingredients from Fish Byproduct Components. Bechtel, P.J., editor. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks. Advances In Seafood Byproducts: 2002 Conference Proceedings. Bechtel, P.J. (ed.) 2003. Advances in seafood byproducts: 2002 Conference Proceedings. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. Bechtel, P.J. Nutritional Properties of Protein from Alaska Pollock and Pacific Cod Processing Byproducts. Proceedings of the TAFT 2003 Conference. Published by The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratory. 2003. p. 361-362. Bechtel, P.J., Subramaniam, S., Oliveira, A.C.M., Smiley, S., Babbitt, J. 2003. Properties of Hydrolysates from Pink Salmon Heads and Viscera. Proceedings of the TAFT 2003 Conference. Published by The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratory. p. 284-285. Bechtel, P.J. 2003. Protein solubility of Alaska Pollock fish processing byproducts. 2003 IFT Annual Meeting Book of Abstracts # 76A-14, p. 181. Bechtel, P.J. 2003. Developing Unique Feed Ingredients from Fish Byproduct Components. In; Bechtel, P.J., editor. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks. Advances In Seafood Byproducts: 2002 Conference Proceedings. Bechtel, P.J. 2003. Nutritional properties of protein from Alaska Pollock processing byproducts. 2003 IFT Annual Meeting Book of Abstracts # 45I-18, p. 128-129. Bechtel, P.J. Developing Unique Feed Ingredients from Fish Byproduct Components. 2002. 2nd International Seafood Byproduct Conference: Abstract Book. p. 13. Bechtel, P.J. 2002Properties of Pacific Cod Fish Processing Byproducts. 2003 Pacific Fisheries Technologist 54th Annual Meeting. p. 8. Bucki, C., Finstad, G., Moore, K., Bechtel, P.J. 2003. Animal performance and palatability of an Alaskan produced reindeer diet. 11th Arctic Ungulate Conference in Saariselk', Finland; August 24-28. Abstract Published in Rangifer Report. Crapo, C.A., Bechtel, P.J. 2002. Utilization of Alaska Fish Processing Byproducts. 2002. 2nd International Seafood Byproduct Conference: Abstract Book. p. 9. Crapo, C., Bechtel, P.J. 2003. Utilization of Alaskas Seafood Processing Byproducts. Bechtel, P.J., editor. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks. Advances In Seafood Byproducts: 2002 Conference Proceedings. Hardy, R.W. 2003. Marine byproducts for aquaculture use. In: Bechtel, P.J., editor. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks. Advances In Seafood Byproducts: 2002 conference proceedings Oliveira, A.C.M., Bechtel, P.J. 2003. Alaska Pollock Byproducts: Lipid Content and Composition. Proceedings of the TAFT 2003 Conference. Published by The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratory. p. 358-360. Oliveria, A.C.M., Hoffert, J.N., Bechtel, P.J. 2003. Lipid composition of Alaskan Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) by-products. 2003. 2003 IFT Annual Meeting Book of Abstracts #76A-20, p. 182. Oliveria, A.C.M., Hoffert, J.N., Bechtel, P.J. Lipid analysis of fillets from Giant Grenadier (Albatrossia pectoralis), Arrow Tooth Flounder (Atherestes stomias), Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). 2003 IFT Annual Meeting Book of Abstracts #76A-19, p. 182. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J., Babbitt, J., Coen, S. 2003. Antioxidant Properties of Fish Protein Hydrolysates. 2003 IFT Annual Meeting Book of Abstracts #14E-9, p. 31. Sathivel, S., Crapo, C., Bechtel, P.J., Negulescu, I.I., Prinyawiwatkul, W. 2003. Thermal denaturation of herring (Clupea harengus) protein and protein hydrolysates. 2003 IFT Annual Meeting Book of Abstracts #29D-23, p. 71-72. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J., Babbitt, J., Smiley, S., 2003. Reppond, K.D., Prinyawiwatkul, W. Functional and Nutritional Properties of Protein Hydrolysates from Herring (Clupea harengus). 2003 IFT Annual Meeting Book of Abstracts # 60B-9, p. 152. Sathivel, S., Babbitt, J., Bechtel, P.J., Crapo, C., Smiley, S., Reppond, K.D., Prinyawiwatkul, W. 2003. Functional and Nutritional-Enhancing Protein Isolates from Arrowtooth Flounder (Atheresthes stomias). 2003 IFT Annual Meeting Book of Abstracts #76A-12, p. 181. Sathivel, S., Fish Oils: Properties and Processing. Utilization of Alaskas Seafood Processing Byproducts. Bechtel, P.J., editor. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks. Advances In Seafood Byproducts: 2002 Conference Proceedings. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J., Babbitt, J., Crapo, C., Coen,S., Pfutzenreuter, B., Prinyawiwatkul, W. 2003. Development and Evaluation of Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Protein Powders from Herring (Clupea harengus).2003 IFT Annual Meeting Book of Abstracts 76A-17, p. 182. Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J., Babbitt, J., Smiley, S., Crapo, C. 2003. Development of protein powders from underutilized fish in Alaska and evaluation of physicochemical and functional properties. 2003. Pacific Fisheries Technologist 54th Annual Meeting. p. 7. Smiley, S. Oliveira, A.C.M. Subramaniam, S., Becthel P.J., Babbitt, J. 2003. Characterization of Lipids from Pink Salmon Heads and Viscera and their Hydrolysates. Proceedings of the TAFT 2003 Conference. Published by The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratory. p. 325-327. Subramaniam, S., Bechtel, P.J., Babbitt, J., Smiley, S., Crapo, C. 2003. Biochemical and Functional Properties of Hydrolysates from Herring (Clupea harengus) Byproducts. Proceedings of the TAFT 2003 Conference. Published by The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratory. p. 305-306.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Bluhm, Bodil A. and Peter J. Bechtel. 2003. The Potential Fate and Effects of Seafood Processing Wastes Dumped at Sea: A Review. In: Advances in seafood byproducts: 2002 Conference Proceedings. Bechtel, P.J. (ed.) Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks. Pp 121-140.
  • Crapo, Chuck and P.J. Bechtel 2003. Utilization of Alaska's Seafood Processing Byproducts. In: Advances in seafood byproducts: 2002 conference proceedings. Bechtel, P.J. (ed.) Alaska Sea Grant COllege Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks. Pp. 105-119.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? More than 60% of the total fish harvested in the United States comes from Alaska and the three major species harvested are Alaskan pollock, Pacific cod, and salmon. Processing of these fish generates over one million metric tones of fish wastes most of which could be utilized as aquaculture and animal feeds. Currently the major wastes (heads, viscera, skin and frames) are underutilized and often create disposal problems and environmental concerns. Simultaneously, there is a need for fish protein feed ingredients and palatability enhancing agents for use in aquaculture systems. This project seeks to improve the utilization of Alaska fish processing wastes by creating by-products for use in livestock and aquaculture diets. This will be accomplished by analysis and processing of the various waste components using both new and existing technologies. Methods will be developed for the collection, segregation, processing, stabilization, storage, and formulation of the feed ingredients. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Over one million metric tons of fish processing waste are produced annually from Alaska Fisheries. Sources of fish processing waste include land based processing plants, catcher processor ships and large factory ships. Much of the fish processing is done in and around the coasts of the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska. More than a third of the processing waste is made into fish meal and fish oil but most fish waste is disposed of in the sea. For some land based processing plants waste disposal is a problem due to environmental issues and disposal costs. Successful research efforts can result in the utilization of more fish waste as aquaculture and animal feed ingredients. This would reduce waste and environmental concerns, lead to new income sources for processors and harvesters, and provide additional feed ingredients for the aquaculture and livestock industries. 3. How does it relate to the national Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This project is assigned to National Program 106 (100%) Aquaculture. The research seeks to solve waste problems resulting from the processing of pelagic fish and at the same time to improve the performance of aquaculture and livestock production systems. Aquaculture and livestock production is expected to benefit from the development of high quality feed ingredients from these wastes by application of innovative processing approaches and technologies for collection, segregation, separation, formulation, stabilization, and storage. This research could benefit fisheries worldwide by increasing fish waste utilization and reducing use of fish suitable for human consumption as animal feed. 4. What was your most significant accomplishment this past year? A. Over 1 million metric tons of fish processing waste are generated annually in Alaska; however, there has been no analysis of the amounts of wastes generated from the different fish species, where the wastes are generated (at sea processors or land based processing facilities, Bering sea and Gulf of Alaska)or how much of the wastes from these locations are processed in to meals and oils. This study was initiated in the previous project (5341-31410-001-00D) and was conducted at the Subarctic Agriculture Research Center fish processing laboratory in collaboration with Dr. Crapo of the Alaska Marine Advisory Program/Professor. The 2000 Alaska fish processing wastes were analyzed by species, processing sector, geographic location, and components of the wastes (heads, viscera, frames and skin). In 2002 this data has been presented at several national meetings and made available to interested individuals and groups. It is possible to use individual fish processing waste components such as skins, heads, frames and viscera to make new animal feed ingredients and other products. However, the chemical and nutritional properties of the most abundant fish processing waste components have not been reported. This study was conducted at the Subarctic Agriculture Research Center fish processing laboratory in Alaska and analyzed the chemical properties of pollock, cod and salmon fish processing wastes. These data have been presented at several national meetings and are being published in scientific journals. This study provides new knowledge about selected waste stream components which is being used to create new and improved feed and food products. B. Other significant accomplishments include participating in the organization of the "2nd International Seafood By-Product Conference" to be held in Anchorage Alaska from November 11-13, 2002. C. None 5. Describe your major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact? This project was requested by Congress in 1999 and the staffing of the ARS vacancy was completed in May 2000. Acquisition of the necessary instruments, equipment and facilities at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks and Kodiak were completed in FY 2001. Analysis of the amounts, types, location, and further processing of fish processing wastes in Alaska has been completed and used to identify important areas for future studies. Chemical properties of fish processing waste components that are produced in large quantity have been analyzed including the skin, frames, heads and viscera from Pollock and cod, and heads and viscera from salmon. Current studies are focusing on the nutritional properties of these components and making new animal feed ingredients from individual waste stream components. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? This project is replacing 5341-31410-001-00D including the research plans. Year 1: -Complete the chemical and nutritional analysis of commercially available fish waste stream components; including, heads, viscera, frames and skins from Alaskan pollock, Pacific cod and pink salmon. -Initiate development of an aquaculture feed binding agent from underutilized from Pollock and cod skins. Year 2: -Initiate development of unique high quality feed ingredients and aquaculture palatability enhancing factors from the viscera of salmon and pollock. -Complete the chemical and nutritional analysis and evaluation of the fish skin feed binding agents. Work with the feed industry to utilize the newly developed binding agents. Year 3: -Complete the development of several unique high quality feed ingredients and palatability enhancing agents from the viscera of salmon and pollock. Evaluate the use of the new ingredients in aquaculture systems. -Devise unique uses for other fish waste components such as fish heads, frames, bone, and viscera components. 7. What technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer other scientist)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption durability of the technology? Technologies developed during the course of this project to increase the utilization of fish waste should start to become available in two to and four years. Analysis of the amounts and sources of individual fish waste components in Alaska has been presented at several national meetings and made available to interested individuals and groups. The chemical and nutritional analysis of waste stream components has been presented at several national meetings and is being published in scientific journals and the results are being used in formulation of new feed ingredients.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Bechtel, P.J. Protein solubility of Pacific Cod fish processing waste components. 2002. Institute of Food Technologist Annual Meeting. Abstract 99-3
  • Bechtel, P.J.. Crapo, C.A. Estimates of Alaska Fish Processing Waste stream Components. 2002. Pacific Fishery Technologist Annual Meeting . Abstract 35.