Source: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE submitted to
OAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT FOR FOOD, FEED, AND VALUE-ADDED APPLICATIONS
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0404767
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
5442-21440-003-00D
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jun 30, 2001
Project End Date
Sep 11, 2004
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
DOEHLERT D C
Recipient Organization
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
(N/A)
FARGO,ND 58102-2765
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
80%
Applied
20%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2031560108040%
2041560108040%
2121560102020%
Goals / Objectives
Characterize genetic, environmental and pathological factors affecting oat grain quality and provide technology and germplasm necessary for the improvement of oat quality for food, feed and value-added applications
Project Methods
To determine genetic variability in oat oil composition and anti-oxidant activity among oat cultivars; to investigate factors affecting oat kernel size uniformity; to determine genotypic and environmental effects on oat quality, where detailed environmental data are collected along with crown rust infestation levels; to determine physiological mechanisms of crown rust resistance in oats; and to cooperate with the oat breeding project at North Dakota State University to produce improved quality oats for food, feed and value-added applications.

Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Oats are a nutritious and healthful food. They are high in protein and contain high levels of soluble fiber, known as beta-glucan that has a physiological effect on humans of lowering blood cholesterol. Thus, the consumption of oats or oat products can lower the chance of heart disease. Oats are also an important animal feed, and are particularly important in regions where corn and soybeans cannot be grown, or where horses are raised extensively. Finally, oats are being processed to make value-added products. Quality of oats grown in the United States needs improvement to enhance their milling and nutritional value for food, feed and value- added applications. This project evaluates factors affecting oat quality, generates new and improved means to evaluate oat quality, and interacts with a breeding program to generate improved oat cultivars. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Improvement of American oat quality is particularly important in light of eroding American oat production being replaced by Canadian oat imports during a time of increasing American oat demand. Improved quality of American grown oats over the Canadian imports may contribute to the recapture of the American oat market by American grown grain, and will contribute to agricultural economic stability by providing a more diverse commodity base. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This program is assigned to National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products (70%) and to National Program 301, Plant, Microbial, and Insect Genetic Resources, Genomics, and Genetic Improvement (30%). It is dedicated to the characterization of oat quality traits and the incorporation of these traits into new cultivars to enhance the market value of American grown oats. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment: Oat kernel size uniformity is important to the oat milling industry because it affects milling yield and it has been suggested that a single percentage improvement in milling yield is worth $1 million dollars per year for an oat milling company. ARS at the Fargo Wheat Quality Laboratory in collaboration with North Dakota State University and Iowa State University has developed two methods for kernel size uniformity analysis, namely sequential sieving and digital image analysis. Results indicated that both methods can be used to evaluate kernel size uniformity, and that oat kernel size distributions fit a bimodal model much better than they do a normal Gaussian distribution. This work has validated methods that can be used to select for kernel size distributions best suited to the oat milling process in an effort to improve the value of the oat crop. B. Other Significant Accomplishments: Test weight (bulk density) is probably the most important factor affecting the value of an oat crop and it has been suggested to be heavily influenced by kernel size and shape in a way independent of kernel density, through what is called a packing effect. ARS at the Fargo Wheat Quality Laboratory in collaboration with North Dakota State University and Iowa State University tested the influence of kernel size and shape on test weight by comparing test weights of oat samples fractionated according to kernel size with that of the original samples. Although smaller kernels were found to be denser than larger kernels, and thus had higher test weights, smaller kernels did not improve test weight because of a packing effect. Kernels with sizes and shapes associated with improved test weight do so because they are more dense. It is hoped that these results will allay fears that selection for high test weight may result in oat lines with poor milling quality. C. Significant Accomplishments that Support Special Target Populations: Most oat producers fit the target population of small level farmers. Oats are best produced as part of a rotation of crops, which is rarely practiced in the US, except by the smaller producers. Organic farmers and farms interested in sustainable farming also produce oats. The research produced by this program is designed to provide a higher value product to these producers. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact. ARS has characterized how various oat processing treatments affect the viscosity of beta-glucans in solution so that food processors can optimize the health-benefiting effects of oats. For example, we have found that steaming of the grain greatly enhances the viscosity of oat flour slurries, apparently by affecting the configuration of the beta- glucan molecule. Roasting decreases the viscosity of oat flour slurries. The dry heat apparently strips water away from the beta-glucan molecule, which inhibits its interaction with water in a slurry and reduces its viscosity. This information has led to a low-tech method for estimating beta-glucan in oats, by measuring the viscosity of oat flour slurries. This procedure required no chemistry expertise and involves simply the addition of water to oat flour, and the subsequent measurement of the viscosity with a relatively inexpensive and easily operated spindle-type viscometer. This project has also characterized conditions to extract beta-glucans with optimal health-benefiting properties, which is being used by a company to develop a beta-glucan as a diet supplement. Other companies have used the information to optimize their processes for other value added products, where extract viscosity was an issue. Oat bran is value-added product with enhanced protein and beta-glucan concentration, derived from the dry-milling of oat. ARS has characterized conditions of dry milling to optimize the extraction and purification of protein and beta-glucans. This data has already contributed to oat processors trying to produce a more highly beta-glucan enriched oat bran. This study also redefined oat bran. Previously it was thought that oat bran is derived from the outer most layers of the oat endosperm, called the aleurone, as is wheat bran. These results indicated that oat bran is derived from cell wall material distributed throughout the oat endosperm. ARS has contributed to the release of nine new oat cultivars by the North Dakota Agricultural Research Station. The cultivars are named Ebeltoft, HiFi, Jerry, Jud, Killdeer, Morton, Paul, Whitestone, and Youngs. Of these releases, Youngs and Hifi are of particular interest because they are particularly high in beta-glucan, as well as possessing superior agronomic traits. The release of these cultivars will answer a need in the American oat industry for a high beta-glucan oat. ARS has characterized genotypic and environmental effects on oat grain yield, quality and milling characteristics. ARS has shown physical characteristics of oats that are associated with groat hardness, which can lead to the development of oat cultivars that break less during milling. ARS has characterized the effects of sprout damage on oats and validated tests to be used in the evaluation of sprout damage in oats. The results indicated that sprout damage results in enormous increases in groat breakage during dehulling and decreased soluble fiber. This translates into poorer nutritional quality to the consumer and lower mill yields to the processor. This work has served a guide for oat buyers and millers in the United States, Canada and Finland to prevent sprout-damaged oats from entering the food supply. ARS research has characterized the sources of variation in oat kernel size as part of as first step in developing protocols for evaluating oat kernel size uniformity. It was found that the position of a kernel within an individual spikelet had the most profound effect of oat kernel size, but genotype, environment and position of the kernel within the panicle also had significant effects. This was a prelude to current efforts to optimize oat kernel size distributions for the highest milling efficiencies. ARS, in collaboration with North Dakota State University has developed durum wheat lines with the waxy starch trait. Although these lines appear to be unsuitable for pasta production, they have been shown to have an interesting potential application in bread. Fat (in the form of shortening) is commonly added to white bread to make the bread softer and to lengthen shelf life. We have found that a bread flour blended with 20% waxy durum flour with no fat added produces a loaf of bread that is just as soft and with a shelf life just as good as a loaf made with 3% shortening. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? In FY2004, We will evaluate oat germplasm for variation in oil composition and antioxidant activity. This will allow for selection of oat cultivars more adapted for value-added applications. In FY2005, We will complete studies on factors affecting oat kernel size uniformity. In FY2006, We will complete studies on the influence of oat kernel size and shape on dehulling efficiencies in relation to rotor speed in impact dehullers. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end- user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products? We have cooperated with organic farmers in their efforts to identify oat cultivars best suited for organic culture. We have provided consultation with a major oat milling company about dry milling to produce oat bran highly enriched in oat bran. We have cooperated with a small business in their efforts to chemically characterize a value-added product from oat oil. We have also cooperated with several oat producers to develop a means to extract oil from oats by pressing. We have provided consulting to a number of companies about potential applications of waxy durum wheat. There are no known constraints to the adoption of technology developed by this project. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: This does not replace your peer-reviewed publications listed below). Popular articles about work. 'Waxy Wheat Cuts Fast in Bread' Agricultural Research, Oct. 2002 Presentations. 'North Dakota Oat Cultivars Suitable for Organic Farming' Annual meeting of the Northern Plains Sustainable Agriculture Society, Aberdeen, SD, Feb 2003.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • THRONE,J.E., DOEHLERT,D.C., MCMULLEN,M.S., SUSCEPTIBILITY OF COMMERCIAL OAT CULTIVARS TO STORAGE INSECT PESTS, JOURNAL OF STORED PRODUCTS RESEARCH. 2003. V. 39: p. 213-223.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Oats are a nutritious and healthful food. They are high in protein and contain high levels of soluble fiber, known as beta-glucan, that has a physiological effect on humans of lowering blood cholesterol. Thus, the consumption of oats or oat products can lower the chance of heart disease. Oats are also an important animal feed, and are particularly important in regions where corn and soybeans cannot be grown, or where horses are raised extensively. Finally, oats are being processed to make value-added products. Quality of oats grown in the United States needs improvement to enhance milling and nutritional value for food, feed and value-added applications. This project evaluates factors affecting oat quality, generates new and improved means to evaluate oat quality, and interacts with a breeding program to generate improved oat cultivars. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Improvement of American oat quality is particularly important in light of eroding American oat production being replaced by Canadian oat imports during a time of increasing American oat demand. Improved quality of American grown oats over the Canadian imports may contribute to the recapture of the American oat market by American grown grain, and will contribute to agricultural economic stability by providing a more diverse commodity base. 3. How does it relate to the national Program(s) and National Program Component(s) to which it has been assigned? This program is assigned to National Program 306, Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products (60%) and to National Program 301, Plant, Microbial, and Insect Genetic Resources, Genomics, and Genetic Improvement (40%). It is dedicated to the characterization of oat quality traits and the incorporation of these traits into new cultivars to enhance the market value of American grown oats. 4. What was your most significant accomplishment this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment: Oat kernel size uniformity is important to the oat milling industry because oats are separated by size prior to milling to achieve the best milling yields. We have determined the environmental influences on tertiary kernel frequency in oats. Our results suggest that higher frequencies of tertiary kernels are associated with larger mean kernel size, higher test weights, and higher groat percentages. These results may convince the milling industry to drop it's requirements for low tertiary kernel frequency in its cultivars and concentrate instead on other, more important characteristics. B. Other Significant Accomplishments: Sprout damage has only recently been recognized as a problem in oats. Because no work had yet been published on the characteristics of sprout damage in oats, we attempted to determine ways to evaluate sprout damage in oats and attempted to evaluate how sprout damage affects oat quality. We have determined that the falling number value or the stirring number value is very effective at determining the extent of sprout damage in an oat sample and that increased groat breakage is the most significant quality characteristic affected by sprout damage. As a results of our research, oat milling companies in the US, Canada and Finland are now requiring that oats that they buy pass a sprout damage test before they are purchased. Groat percentage is an important quality characteristic in oats because it indicates the proportion of the whole oat which is groat and can be used for food and feed. Recently, ARS completed work optimizing experimental oat dehulling. The work offers mathematical treatments for improved precision in calculating groat percentage, defines how different parameters affect the measurement of groat percentage and offers a definition for dehulling efficiency. The work can allow oat breeders to evaluate groat percentage in the most accurate and reproducible way possible. C. Significant Accomplishments that Support Special Target Populations: Most oat producers fit the target population of small level farmers. Oats are best produced as part of a rotation of crops, which is rarely practiced in the US, except by the smaller producers. Organic farmers and farms interested in sustainable farming also produce oats. The research produced by this program is designed to provide a higher value product to these producers. 5. Describe your major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact? ARS has characterized how various oat processing treatments affect the viscosity of beta-glucans in solution so that food processors can optimize the health-benefiting effects of oats. For example, we have found that steaming the grain greatly enhances the viscosity of oat flour slurries, apparently by affecting the configuration of the beta-glucan molecule. Roasting decreases the viscosity of oat flour slurries. The dry heat apparently strips water away from the beta-glucan molecule, which inhibits its interaction with water in a slurry and reduces its viscosity. This information has led to a low-tech method for estimating beta-glucan in oats, by measuring the viscosity of oat flour slurries. This procedure required no chemistry expertise and involves simply the addition of water to oat flour, and the subsequent measurement of the viscosity with a relatively inexpensive and easily operated spindle-type viscometer. This project has also characterized conditions to extract beta-glucans with optimal health-benefiting properties, which is being used by a company to develop a beta-glucan as a diet supplement. Other companies have used the information to optimize their processes for other value added products, where extract viscosity was an issue. Oat bran is value-added product with enhanced protein and beta-glucan concentration, derived from the dry-milling of oat. ARS has characterized conditions of dry milling to optimize the extraction and purification of protein and beta-glucans. These data have already contributed to oat processors trying to produce a more highly beta-glucan enriched oat bran. This study also redefined oat bran. Previously it was thought that oat bran is derived from the outer most layers of the oat endosperm, called the aleurone, as is wheat bran. These results indicated that oat bran is derived from cell wall material distributed throughout the oat endosperm. ARS has contributed to the release of nine new oat cultivars by the North Dakota Agricultural Research Station. The cultivars are named Ebeltoft, HiFi, Jerry, Jud, Killdeer, Morton, Paul, Whitestone, and Youngs. Of these releases, Youngs and Hifi are of particular interest because they are particularly high in beta-glucan, as well as possessing superior agronomic traits. The release of these cultivars will answer a need in the American oat industry for a high beta-glucan oat. ARS has characterized genotypic and environmental effects on oat grain yield, quality and milling characteristics. ARS has shown physical characteristics of oats that are associated groat hardness, which can lead to the development of oat cultivars that break less during milling. ARS has developed durum wheat lines with the waxy starch trait. Although these lines appear to be unsuitable for pasta production, they have been shown to have an interesting potential application in bread. Fat (in the form of shortening) is commonly added to white bread to make the bread softer and to lengthen shelf life. We have found that a bread flour blended with 20% waxy durum flour with no fat added produces a loaf of bread that is just as soft and with a shelf life just as good as a loaf made with 3% shortening. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? FY2003, will evaluate oat germplasm for variation in oil composition and antioxidant activity. This will allow for selection of oat cultivars more adapted for value-added applications. FY2004-2005, will complete studies on factors affecting oat kernel size uniformity. FY2004-2005, will complete studies on environmental effects on oat beta- glucan concentrations. 7. What technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer other scientist)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption durability of the technology? We have provided information on oat sprout damage and oat size uniformity to major oat milling companies. We have provided information on oat oil composition to several developing small companies to help their R&D efforts. We have provided information on high beta-glucan oats to an oat milling company in Finland, who may license the oat cultivars for production in Europe. We have met extensively with organic oat growers to help them optimize their yields and the quality of their oat production. We have advised scientists in New Zealand as to oat milling technology in the production of oat bran. We have advised scientist in the United Kingdom as to oat dehulling technology and the scientific basis of variations in groat percentage. We have advised scientists in Canada and a US oat milling company as to methodologies in evaluating trichome abundance in oats. We have advised a cosmetic company as to the composition of oat oils, which they found most effective in cosmetic formulations. We have advised oat breeders in China as to methodologies to evaluate beta-glucan content in naked oats, and have arranged germplasm exchanges with these scientists. We have advised a major oat milling company in the United States as to the chemical composition of alkali soluble polymers found in oat hulls, in cooperation with their efforts to find new industrial applications with waste oat hulls. We have advised ten or fifteen companies as to potential applications of waxy durum flour in food applications. There are no known constraints to the adoption of technology developed by this project. 8. List your most important publications and presentations, and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your review publications which are listed below) "Oats as an Oil Seed?" Wheat, Oats and Barley Magazine, February 2002 "USDA-ARS, NDSU Researchers Develop New Waxy Durum Replacing Vegetable Shortening, the wheat flour Can Help Cut Fat, Keep Bread Fresh" Prairie Grains, March 2002 "Waxy Durum Wheat: The new variety being developed in North Dakota may enable reduced-fat bread" Seeds Today, April 2002 "ARS scientists say new wheat flour helps reduce fat, keep bread fresh" Milling and Baking News, April 23, 2002. Presentations: "Sources of variation in oat kernel size" Invited oral presentation to the North American Oat Workers Conference, Wilmington, NC, May 2002 Characteristics of Sprout Damage in Oats" Poster session presented at the North American Oat Worker's Conference, Wilmington, NC, May 2002.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Wu, Y.V., Doehlert, D.C. Enrichment of beta-glucan in oat bran by fine grinding and air classification. Food Science and Technology . 2002. v. 35. p. 30-33.
  • Doehlert, D.C. Quality improvement in oats. Journal of Crop Production. 2002. v. 5. p. 165-189.
  • Doehlert D.C. Quality improvement in oats. In: Basara, A.S. (ed.) Quality Improvement in Field Crops. Haworth Press, Bingham, NY. 2002. pp 165-189.
  • Doehlert, D.C. McMullen, M.S. Sources of variation in kernel size in oats. Cereal Chemistry. 2002. v. 79. p. 528-534.
  • Grant, L.A., Vignaux, N., Doehlert, D.C., McMullen, M.S., Elias, E., and Kianian, S. Starch characteristics of waxy and nonwaxy tetraploid (Triticum turgidum var. durum) wheats. Cereal Chemistry. 2001. v. 78. p. 590-595.
  • Doehlert, D.C., McMullen, M.S. Optimizing conditions for experimental oat dehulling. Cereal Chemistry. 2001. v. 78. p. 675-679.
  • Bhattacharya, M., Erazo-Castrejon, S.V., Doehlert, D.C., McMullen, M.S. Staling of bread as affected by waxy wheat flour blends. Cereal Chemistry. 2002. v. 79. p. 178-182.
  • Doehlert, D.C., McMullen, M.S., and Hammond, J.J. Genotypic and environmental effects on grain yield and quality of oat grown in North Dakota. Crop Science. 2001. v. 41. p. 1066-1072.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
1. What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it? Oats are a nutritious and healthful food. They are high in protein and contain high levels of soluble fiber, known as beta-glucan that has a physiological effect on humans of lowering blood cholesterol. Thus, the consumption of oats or oat products can lower the chance of heart disease. Oats are also an important animal feed, and are particularly important in regions where corn and soybeans cannot be grown, or where horses are raised extensively. Finally, oats are being processed to make value-added products. Quality of oats grown in the United States needs improvement to enhance their milling and nutritional value for food, feed and value-added applications. This project evaluates factors affecting oat quality, generates new and improved means to evaluate oat quality, and interacts with a breeding program to generate improved oat cultivars. 2. How serious is the problem? Why does it matter? Improvement of American oat quality is particularly important in light of eroding American oat production being replaced by Canadian oat imports during a time of increasing American oat demand. Improved quality of American grown oats over the Canadian imports may contribute to the recapture of the American oat market by American grown grain, and will contribute to agricultural economic stability by providing a more diverse commodity base. 3. How does it relate to the National Program(s) and National Component(s)? This program is assigned to National Program 306, New Uses, Quality and Marketability of Plant Products (60%) and to National Program 301, Plant, Microbial, and Insect Genetic Resources, Genomics, and Genetic Improvement (40%). It is dedicated to the characterization of oat quality traits and the incorporation of these traits into new cultivars to enhance the market value of American grown oats. 4. What were the most significant accomplishments this past year? A. Single Most Significant Accomplishment during FY-2001: This is a new project replacing CRIS 5442-21440-001-00D. Please refer to that report for more information. B. Other Significant Accomplishments: Please see the annual report for project 5442-21440-001-00D for details of accomplishments. C. Significant Accomplishments that Support Special Target Populations: None. 5. Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project including their predicted or actual impact. This is a new project - implemented on 6/29/01, it replaces project #5442-21440-001-00D. The following summarizes accomplishments of that project. We have characterized how various oat processing treatments affect the viscosity of beta-glucans in solution so that food processors can optimize the health-benefitting effects of oats. For example, we have found that steaming of the grain greatly enhances the viscosity of oat flour slurries, apparently by affecting the configuration of the beta-glucan molecule. Roasting decreases the viscosity of oat flour slurries. The dry heat apparently strips water away from the beta-glucan molecule, which inhibits its interaction with water in a slurry and reduces its viscosity. This information has led to a low-tech method for estimating beta-glucan in oats, by measuring the viscosity ofoat flour slurries. This procedure required no chemistry expertise and involves simply the addition of water to oat flour, and the subsequent measurement of the viscosity with an relatively inexpensive and easily operated spindle-type viscometer. This project has also characterized conditions to extract beta-glucans with optimal health-benefitting properties, which is being used by a company to develop a beta-glucan as a diet supplement. Other companies have used the information to optimize their processes for other value added products, where extract viscosity was an issue. Oat bran is value-added product with enhanced protein and beta-glucan concentration, derived from the dry-milling of oat. We have characterized conditions of dry milling to optimize the extraction and purification of protein and beta-glucans. This data has already contributed to oat processors trying to produce a more highly beta-glucan enriched oat bran. This study also redefined oat bran. Previously it was thought that oat bran is derived from the outer most layers of the oat endosperm, called the aleurone, as is wheat bran. These results indicated that oat bran is derived from cell wall material distributed throughout the oat endosperm. We have contributed to the release of seven new oat cultivars by the North Dakota Agricultural Research Station. The cultivars are named Ebeltoft, Jerry, Jud, Killdeer, Paul, Whitestone, and Youngs. Of these releases, Youngs, which was released in 1999, is of particular interest because it is particularly high in beta-glucan, as well as possessing superior agronomic traits. The release of this cultivar will answer a need in the American oat industry for a high beta-glucan oat. Genotypic and environmental effects on oat grain yield, quality and milling characteristics have been characterized . We have identified physical characteristics of oats that are associated groat with hardness, which can lead to the development of oat cultivars that break less during milling. We have developed durum wheat lines with the waxy starch trait. Because pasta cooking quality is adversely affected by amylose leaching out during cooking, we will determine if waxy durum, which contains little or no amylose, has superior cooking quality. ARS currently has experimental waxy durum lines in production that are being increased so that milling and pasta quality characteristics can be evaluated. 6. What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years? In FY2002, we will characterize environmental factors that influence oat groat beta-glucan concentration and groat breakage during dehulling. In FY2003, we will evaluate oat germplasm for variation in oil composition and antioxidant activity. This will allow for selection of oat cultivars more adapted for value-added applications. In FY2004, we will investigate physiological mechanisms of crown rust resistance in oat. Crown rust infection is perhaps the greatest problem affecting oat quality and yield. Discovery of physiological mechanisms by which oat defeat this pathogen may assist efforts to find new forms of resistance for this plant disease. 7. What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints if known, to the adoption & durability of the technology product? We have provided information on oat sprout damage and oat size uniformity to major oat milling companies. We have provided information on oat oil composition to several developing small companies to help their R&D efforts have provided information on high beta-glucan oats to large milling companies and to developing milling companies hoping to market these new, more healthful oats to the American public. We have met extensively with organic oat growers to help them optimize their yields and the quality of their oat production. We are supplying waxy durum grain to a major cereal company interested in using it for a new product. There are no known constraints to the adoption of technology developed by this project. 8. List your most important publications in the popular press (no abstracts) and presentations to non-scientific organizations and articles written about your work (NOTE: this does not replace your peer-reviewed publications which are listed below) Listed under project 5442-21440-001-00D.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Doehlert, D.C., McMullen, M.S., Hammond, J.J. Genotypic and environmental effects on grain yield and quality of oat grown in North Dakota. Crop Science. 2001. v. 41. p. 1066-1072