Source: UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE submitted to
SOUTHEAST QUALITY MILK INITIATIVE: CONTROLLING MASTITIS AND IMPROVING MILK QUALITY
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0231797
Grant No.
2013-68004-20424
Project No.
TEN02012-02309
Proposal No.
2012-02309
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
A5113
Project Start Date
Feb 1, 2013
Project End Date
Jan 1, 2019
Grant Year
2017
Project Director
Oliver, S.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE
2621 MORGAN CIR
KNOXVILLE,TN 37996-4540
Performing Department
Animal Science
Non Technical Summary
The dairy industry in the Southeast (SE) is in serious jeopardy. A significant decline in the number of dairy farms coupled with lower milk yields and production of lower quality milk poses serious problems for the vitality of dairy farms in the SE and sustainability of the SE dairy industry. Our approach for improving the sustainability of the SE dairy industry is the development of a multi-state collaborative outreach, educational, and research program on production of quality milk assembled by milk quality professionals from 6 Land-Grant Universities in the SE that targets challenged dairy farms and uses farms producing superior quality milk as demonstration herds. We will identify economic, social and psychological factors affecting limited adoption of practices known to control mastitis, and develop strategies to counter the rationale for non-adoption. This knowledge will lead to more effective strategies to overcome these issues and facilitate adoption of practices for enhancing milk quality. We will conduct applied research and on-farm demonstrations including implementation strategies for controlling mastitis and enhancing milk quality and work directly with producers to assess on-farm practices. The program's applied research-based and demonstration farm information will be packaged for educational and outreach delivery to stakeholders including dairy producers, veterinary practitioners, university students, extension personnel, and other agri-industries serving the dairy community. We will train dairy producers and employees to utilize current and newly developed tools to make on-farm decisions that improve milk quality. We also plan to develop continuing education programs to create human resources needed to serve the dairy industry by targeting practicing veterinarians and personnel serving the industry for providing more immediate help, and undergraduate/graduate students to provide long-term solutions. Continuing education courses taught using traditional venues and provided through DAIReXNET webinars and directed internships will provide real world experiences on milk quality, and result in a more knowledgeable work force to promote the sustainability of the SE dairy industry. We envision that the impact from this study will be enormous. Potential outcomes include: 1) dairy producers in the SE with an improved understanding of the economic impact of mastitis, leading to increased motivation to change management practices and improve animal health and well-being; 2) implementation of cost effective science-based mastitis prevention and control strategies resulting in higher quality milk, increased production, and improved profitability to enhance sustainability; 3) meeting human food and fiber needs while enhancing environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agriculture economy depends; 4) making the most efficient use of nonrenewable and on-farm resources and integrate natural biological cycles and controls; 5) sustaining the economic viability of SE dairy farm operations; and finally, 6) enhancing the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3073410110025%
3073450110025%
3113410110025%
3113450110025%
Goals / Objectives
This proposal addresses USDA AFRI Program A5113 Extension-Driven Disease Prevention and Control in Animals focusing on dairy cattle mastitis. The dairy industry in the Southeast (SE) is in serious jeopardy. A significant decline in the number of dairy farms coupled with lower milk yields and production of lower quality milk poses serious problems for the vitality of dairy farms in the SE and sustainability of the SE dairy industry. Our approach for improving the sustainability of the SE dairy industry is development of a collaborative outreach, educational, and applied research program on mastitis control assembled by milk quality professionals from six Land-Grant Universities in the SE. Objectives of this proposal are as follows: Objective 1) Identify economic, social and psychological factors affecting limited adoption of practices known to control mastitis and develop strategies to counter the rationale for non-adoption. Objective 2) Conduct applied research and on-farm demonstrations to evaluate management practices, including implementation strategies, required to control mastitis and enhance milk quality. Objective 3) Provide producers with decision-support tools and services needed to make informed decisions regarding milk quality. Objective 4) Develop continuing education programs to create human resources needed to serve the dairy industry. We will identify economic and social factors affecting limited adoption of practices known to control mastitis, and develop strategies to counter the rationale for non-adoption. Information from applied research and on-farm demonstrations will be packaged for educational and outreach delivery to stakeholders including dairy producers, veterinarians, university students, and extension personnel using innovative methods of delivery including DAIReXNET and Spanish translations. We will train producers and employees to utilize current and newly developed tools to make on-farm decisions that improve milk quality and increase production. We will develop continuing education programs to create human resources needed for a more knowledgeable work force to promote milk quality. Implementation of cost effective mastitis prevention and control strategies for the SE region will result in higher milk quality, increased milk production, and improved profitability, all of which will benefit dairy producers in the SE and enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry in this region.
Project Methods
For Objective 1, an assessment of biological/clinical, economic, sociological and psychological factors involved in management decisions at all levels will be conducted in 4 phases: 1. Gather and evaluate existing milk quality data in the SE and map (using GIS) to determine if there are geographic patterns. 2. Conduct a qualitative, comprehensive assessment of factors influencing the adoption of practices known to control mastitis and related dairy sustainability issues. 3.Conduct a survey of producers in the SE who have gone out of business in the last 5 yr. 4.Conduct a survey of existing dairy producers in the SE region. The survey will include questions encompassing both economic and non-economic factors, such as individual and farm goals and sources of information that may influence decision-making and implementation. Respondents will be asked to explain how they would make decisions about different scenarios (e.g., relating to mastitis management and innovations for improving milk quality). Engaging operators of different sized dairies and with a range of operating structures will help identify the diversity of factors that contribute to the complexity of management decisions. For Objective 2, we will work directly with producers to assess on-farm practices that enhance milk quality. Extension programs and educational resources relevant to SE dairy producers will be developed and published for improving milk quality using input obtained from on-site personnel and results from management practices analyses. For Objective 3, we will provide dairy producers with decision support tools, on-farm analytics, and educational support materials needed to make more informed decisions related to milk quality. Through a combination of print, face-to-face, and electronic delivery vehicles including DAIReXNET webinars and Spanish translations, we will train dairy producers, employees, and industry professionals to use current and newly developed tools to make on-farm decisions to improve milk quality, emphasize prudent use of antibiotics, and ensure long-term farm profitability and sustainability. Specifically, we aim to: 1) develop a suite of multifaceted and user-friendly decision support tools related to animal health economics; 2) integrate developed tools into existing dairy management software and/or hand-held devices; and 3) develop educational programs to train and provide support to producers and farm advisory professionals. For Objective 4, we will provide educational sessions and materials, a combination of one-on-one training sessions, printed material, and web-based resources, including Spanish resources to milk quality professionals. Such professionals include veterinarians, allied industry support personnel, and extension educators. This group needs continuing education regarding new advances and reinforcement of key concepts in mastitis control and milk quality. Educational materials and decision support tools for use with local clientele will help in the dissemination, implementation and improvement of on-farm milk quality.

Progress 02/01/13 to 01/01/19

Outputs
Target Audience:Target audiences for this project include dairy producers, farm personnel, Extension agents, dairy consultants, veterinarians, academicians, allied support personnel, industry personnel focusing on dairy management and milk quality, and undergraduate, graduate and DVM students. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?This project focused on development of educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students, with the goal of training the next generation of milk quality professionals. Several undergraduate and graduate students were involved and four graduate students (3MS and 1 PhD) were trained specifically in milk quality. Activities included development of numerous teaching modules on milk quality and mastitis control, internships involving laboratory/field experiences, and data from the SQMI grant were used by several MS and PhD student theses/dissertations. In addition, a variety of other training programs that cover basic concepts as well as new advances in mastitis control and milk quality for dairy producers, veterinarians, allied industry support personnel, and extension educators were developed as follows: training modules on milk quality and mastitis control,3 webinars developed through DAIReXNET, scholarships provided to dairy veterinarians to attend 2-day Preconference Quality Milk Production Seminars as part of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners annual meeting, published SQMI Quarterly Newsletters in English & Spanish, and held 2-day SQMI Annual meetings in states participating in the project. SQMI partnered with land-grant universities and local Extension groups in TN, VA, KY and NC to bring Dr. Roger Thomson, Dairy Veterinarian and milk quality consultant, to the southeast for a series of workshops in July, 2018.The Mobile Teaching Parlor connects experts in milking system analysis with students who want to leave a training session with the confidence to start testing milking systems correctly. Professional development activities include seminars and presentations about SQMI at various state, regional, and national meetings to varied audiences. In addition, the PD and co-PD"S on this grant have had the opportunity to attend national, regional and state meetings and learn about dairy related issues in the SE and throughout the US. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results from our study have been presented regularly to scientists, extension specialists, extension agents, dairy producers, veterinarians, dairy consultants, pharmaceutical companies and other members of the dairy community. The SQMI Team has presented numerous abstracts and presentations at professional organizations such as the National Mastitis Council and the American Dairy Science Association Annual Meetings. We also publish our results in the popular press such as Hoard's Dairyman and the Progressive Dairyman. The two day SQMI Annual Meetings focused on educational presentations for dairy producers, extension personnel, veterinarians and members of agri-industries serving the dairy community, and many of the presentations were based on findings from the SQMI project. The final day of the SQMI Annual Meeting was dedicated to discussions with our Advisory Committee discussing our progress during the last year, our plans for next year and listening to their comments about our activities and potential ways of enhancing our outreach efforts. We developed educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students. This project has impacted a large number of undergraduate and graduate students, and has played an important role in training the next generation of milk quality professionals. All of the decision support tools and dashboards, videos, SQMI Newsletters (in English and Spanish), PowerPoint presentations from SQMI Annual Meetings, and other relevent links are available on the SQMI website (www.sequalitymilk.com). A compilation of all SQMI Quarterly Newsletters was assembled and available via hard copy and/or electronically. The SQMI Team appreciates all of the dairy producers that participated in this project, to those who attended our SQMI Annual Meetings, to meeting sponsors for helping to make our meetings a success, and to USDA-NIFA for funding this effort! We are indebted to the SQMI Advisory Committee for the commitment, feedback, and encouragement throughout this project. We encourage you to visit the SQMI website (www.sequalitymilk.com) to learn more about the results from this project and to access useful on-farm decision support tools. We are hopeful that information resulting from this project will be used to better enable dairy producers in the SE, the United States, and throughout the world to enhance the quantity and quality of milk, and thus reduce the economic impact of mastitis on dairy farm profitability. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? OBJECTIVE 1. This objective focused on identifying factors that influence dairy farmers' decisions about mastitis management and building an understanding of farmers' perceptions of mastitis and mastitis management practices. We also examined dairy closures and compared them to open dairy farms to determine whether challenges with mastitis and bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) management were contributing to dairy closures in the SE. This involved using both qualitative and quantitative research methods to identify economic, farm operational, social, and other factors that contribute to producers' perspectives and decisions about mastitis management. Information from Objective 1 underpinned the direction and production of Extension programs and educational resources relevant to SE dairy producers to improve milk quality. Analysis of our survey of operating dairies found that proactive producers - those who perceive they can control BTSCC, seek information from reliable sources, and take mastitis management actions before BTSCC exceeds 300,000 - have lower BTSCCs. We further found that producers' confidence in knowing how to manage BTSCC was correlated to their perception of the affordability of mastitis management actions. Findings highlighted the important role of veterinarians as an information source about mastitis management and confirmed the utility of economic decision making tools for dairy farmers to assess their BTSCC goals. The SQMI team released findings in popular farm magazines and delivered presentations at meetings of co-op representatives and Extension professionals. To address the question of the relationship between dairy cow mastitis management and dairy farms' continued operation or closure, we surveyed recently closed dairy farms and compared them to operating dairy farms. Factors relating to mastitis management and production of quality milk were related to dairy farms' operational status. Factors more positively correlated with operational dairies were number of cows, milk production, farmers' perception of ability to control mastitis, and the opportunity to incur penalties and incentives for BTSCC. Factors negatively associated with operational status were age of operator, operator working in the parlor consistently, taking action at higher BTSCC, and acting on bacterial culturing and using antibiotic therapy for clinical mastitis. The last two factors suggest farms that were likely addressing high rates of clinical mastitis. Objective 2.1. The assessment of milk quality in the SE has been done annually since 2012. Bulk tank milk quality records were provided by state regulatory agencies for dairies with Grade A milk permits. Data from dairies in GA (n=193), KY (n=678), MS (n=61), TN (n=293), and VA (n=594) were evaluated. Monthly mean BTSCC in 2016 decreased 7% continuing the downward trend from 2012. Mean BTSCC by individual states decreased between 5,000 to 37,000 cells/ml. SCC improved 25% across all states with MS and TN having the greatest gains. Summer continues to be a challenge; percentage of bulk tank milk with SCC >400,000 was <20% during winter, spring, and fall months but increased 25-38% during summer months. Objective 2.2. Evaluate milk quality practices on farms producing low, average, and high quality milk. From June, 2014 through June, 2015, we evaluated 286 dairies in KY (n=96), MS (n=7), TN (n=87), and VA (n=96). Accomplishments include: 1) Completed housing and milking system evaluation of 286 farms. 2) Evaluation results and recommendations were reported to producers/herd managers following farm visits (n=286). 3) Completed survey evaluations of 286 farms across the four participating states. 4) Survey data (n=246) were entered into a centralized database and analyses have been initiated. 5) Housing and parlor evaluations entered into a centralized database. 6) Data from Objective 2.2 contributed to three MS theses. Objective 2.3. Demonstrate & assess producers adopting practices that promote milk quality. In Year 4, farms from KY, TN, and VA (n=9 each) with low to average quality milk were enrolled in an on-farm assessment and modification program that involved 4 phases: 1) pre-trial evaluation of dairy farm management practices; 2) development of an objective mastitis control and milk quality plan; 3) implementation of the mastitis control and milk quality plan; and 4) evaluation of the mastitis control and milk quality plan. Pre-trial evaluation was completed in March 2016 and consisted of a survey, full parlor evaluation, culturing of high SCC cows, full housing evaluation, udder cleanliness, body condition scoring, and locomotion scoring. During March 2016 - Fall 2016, monthly visits were made to monitor implementation and make needed adjustments. In Fall 2016, a full evaluation was conducted for each participating farm. In late spring, a one-year follow up with a full assessment was conducted. Data from these farms were entered into a centralized database to analyze impact of implementing recommended programs. OBJECTIVE 3. This objective provided dairy producers with decision support tools, on-farm analytics, and educational support materials to make more informed decisions related to milk quality. We achieved this through a combination of print, face-to-face, and electronic delivery vehicles including DAIReXNET webinars and Spanish translations, training sessions with dairy producers, employees, and industry professionals on how to use the current and newly developed tools to make on-farm decisions to improve milk quality, emphasized prudent use of antibiotics, and ensure long-term farm profitability and sustainability. These tools were made available via the internet on the SQMI website (www.sequalitymilk.com) and a YouTube video channel, printed and bound copies, and on USB storage devices. Milk Quality Dashboard:http://sequalitymilk.com/calculator/,Hotsheet Dashboard:http://afsdairy.ca.uky.edu/extension/ decisiontools/hotsheetMastitis Treatment Decision Support Tool, anOptimum Milk Quality Economic Model,aReference Guide for Mastitis-Causing Pathogens,SQMI Optimal Mastitis Treatment Calculator,SQMI Inflation Change Dashboard,SQMI Towel Investment Dashboard, and theSQMI Optimal Dry-off Dashboardwere developed during the course of this study. All of this information is available on the SQMI website (www.sequalitymilk.com). OBJECTIVE 4.This objective focused on training programs on basic concepts as well as new advances in mastitis control and milk quality for veterinarians, allied industry support personnel, and extension educators so that they could extend their expertise to stakeholders (Objective 4.1).Accomplishments include development of numerous training modules on milk quality and mastitis control, three webinars developed through DaireXNET, development and distribution of quarterly SQMI Newsletters in English and Spanish throughout the project duration, and 2-day SQMI Annual Meetings for stakeholders and the SQMI Advisory Committee. Objective 4.2: Focused on training the next generation of milk quality professionals; namely undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at Land-Grant Universities in the SE. It is particularly noteworthy that 150 to 200 students - potentially the next generation of milk quality professionals - were involved in the SQMI project. Student numbers overlapped from year to year, as some students continued their undergraduate or graduate programs from one year to the next, so the actual total is difficult to determine, but yearly enrollment is provided below: Year 2: 8 MS, 5 PhD = 13 graduate students; 32 undergraduate students; total 45. Year 3: 11 MS, 7 PhD = 18 graduate students; 26 undergraduate students; 4 DVM students; total 48. Year 4: 17 MS, 12 PhD, 1 MPH = 30 graduate students; 42 undergraduate students; total 72. Year 5+: 16 MS, 6 PhD = 22 graduate students; 37 undergraduate students; total 59.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Lee, A.R., S.M. Schexnayder, S.P. Oliver, G.M. Pighetti, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, and P.D. Krawczel. 2018. Producer opinions of suffering cause by mastitis and management goals associated with bulk tank somatic cell count from dairy herds in the southeastern United States. NMC Milano: The 2018 International Bovine Mastitis Conference, Milan, Italy. June 11-13, 2018.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2019 Citation: Lee, A.R., S.M. Schexnayder, S.P. Oliver, G.M. Pighetti, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, and P.D. Krawczel. 2019. Producer opinions of suffering caused by mastitis and management goals associated with bulk tank somatic cell count from dairy herds in the southeastern United States. J. Dairy Res.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Schexnayder, Susan. Country Folks Magazine featured SQMI DaireXnet webinar New insights into the people side of milk quality.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Enger, K.M. 2018. The impact of milking practices and equipment on milk quality in the Southeast United States. M.S. Thesis.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Blakely, C.M. 2017. Relationship of observed parlor practices and producer attitudes with bulk tank somatic cell counts in the Southeast. USA. M.S. Thesis.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nolan, D.T. 2017. An examination of milk quality effects on milk yield and dairy production economics in the southeastern United States. M.S. Thesis.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2019 Citation: Enger, K.M., C. Blakely, P. Krawczel, J. Bewley, A. Stone, S.H. Ward, S. Oliver, G. Pighetti, and C. Petersson-Wolfe. The impact of milking practices and equipment on milk quality in the Southeast United States. J. Dairy Sci.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2019 Citation: Ellis, J., K.L. DeLong, D.M. Lambert, S.M. Schexnayder, P.D. Krawczel, and S.P. Oliver. 2019. Farmer and farm management variables associated with milk quality and farm closure. J. Dairy Sci.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Ellis, J., K.L. DeLong, D.M. Lambert, S.M. Schexnayder, P.D. Krawczel, and S.P. Oliver. 2019. Analysis of closed versus operating dairies in the Southeastern United States. Southern Agricultural Economics Association Conference, Feb 2-5, 2019. Birmingham, AL.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Ellis, J., K.L. DeLong, D.M. Lambert, S.M. Schexnayder, P.D. Krawczel, and S.P. Oliver. 2018. Analysis of closed versus operating dairies in the Southeastern United States. UT Beef and Forage Center Conference, Dec. 18, 2018, Greeneville, TN.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2019 Citation: Nolan, D., C. Blakely, P. Krawczel, C. Petersson-Wolfe, G. Pighetti, A. Stone, S.H. Ward, and J. Bewley. Costs of mastitis and milk quality management practices perceived by dairy producers in the Southeast United States. J. Dairy Sci
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2019 Citation: Guinn, J. M., D. Nolan, A. E. Stone, G. M. Pighetti, P. D. Krawczel, S. H. Ward, C. S. Petersson-Wolfe, J. M. Bewley, and J. Costa. Comparing summer to winter ratios of DHI milk production and SCS among states in the Southeast United States. J. Dairy Sci.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Untch, Michelle. Pathogens isolated form clinical and subclinical mastitis in Tennessee dairy cattle. Honors Thesis, May 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Abdi, R.D., B.E. Gillespie, S. Headrick, G.M. Pighetti, R.A. Almeida, S.P. Oliver, and O. Kerro Dego. 2018. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from cases of mastitis in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. Vol 101 Suppl. 2. p179.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Enger, K., C. Petersson-Wolfe, R. A. Almeida, D. T. Nolan, P. D. Krawczel, J. Bewley, A. E. Stone, S. H. Ward, S. P. Oliver, and G. M. Pighetti. 2018. Microorganisms isolated from subclinical intramammary infections present in dairy cattle from the southeast United States. #T201. J. Dairy Sci. Vol 101 Suppl. 2. p285.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Nolan, Derek T. 2018. Cow comfort key to high-quality milk, award-winning dairy producers say. Progressive Dairyman.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: DeVries, A. 2018. More choices for direct genetic selection against mastitis. Page 4 in The SQMI Quarterly, Spring 2018.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Enger, B.D., C.E. Crutchfield, T.T. Yohe, K.M. Enger, S.C. Nickerson, C.L.M. Parsons, and R.M. Akers. 2018. Intramammary infection in rapidly growing, non-lactating mammary glands. Staphylococcus aureus intramammary challenge in non-lactating mammary glands stimulated to rapidly grow and develop with estradiol and progesterone. Veterinary Research. 49:47.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Enger, B.D., S.C. Nickerson, H. Tucker, C.L. M. Parsons, and R.M. Akers. 2018. Apoptosis and proliferation in Staphylococcus aureus challenged, non-lactating mammary glands, stimulated to rapidly grow and develop with estradiol and progesterone. J. Dairy Sci. Accepted.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Enger, K.M., C. Blakely, G.M. Pighetti, P.D. Krawczel, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, J.M. Bewley, S.H. Ward, A. Stone and S.P. Oliver. 2018. The impact of parlor equipment function and parlor procedures on milk quality in the Southeast US. Pages 166-167 in National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings. Tuscon, AZ, Natl. Mastitis Council Inc., New Prague, MN.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Nolan, Derek T. 2018. Co-ops on milk quality: We must continue to decrease SCC. Progressive Dairyman.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Nolan, Derek T. and Jeffrey M. Bewley. 2018. Make better milk quality management decisions with more data. Progressive Dairyman.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Krawcel. P. 2018. Transition to automatic milking systems can improve milk quality. Page 2 in The SQMI Quarterly, Spring 2018.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Nickerson, S.C. and F.M. Kautz. 2018. Using selective dry cow therapy to cure mastitis in heifers. Page 3 in The SQMI Quarterly, Winter 2018. 76.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Nolan, D.T. 2018. Cow comfort and attention to detail help Southeast dairy farmers produce high quality milk. 2018. Page 1 in The SQMI Quarterly, Winter 2018.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Oliver, S.P. 2018. 5th Annual Southeast Quality Milk Initiative Conference in Nashville a great success. Page 1 in The SQMI Quarterly, Winter 2018.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Oliver, S.P. 2018. Southeast Quality Milk Initiative (SQMI): Implementing science-based recommendations to control mastitis and improve milk quality. Page 1 in The SQMI Quarterly, Spring 2018.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Stone, A.E. 2018. Dont forget the dry cows. Page 4 in SQMI Quarterly, Spring 2018.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Submitted Year Published: 2019 Citation: Schexnayder, S.M., K.L. DeLong, D.M. Lambert, J. Ellis, P. Krawczel, and S. Oliver. Insights into the Relationships among Dairy Farmers, Milk Quality, and Farm Closure in the Southeastern U.S. Invited Presentation. American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. June 23-26, 2019. Cincinnati, OH.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2019 Citation: Ellis, J., K.L. DeLong, D.M. Lambert, S. Schexnayder, P. Krawczel, and S. Oliver. Analysis of Closed Versus Operating Dairies in the Southeastern United States. J. Dairy Sci.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Under Review Year Published: 2019 Citation: Ellis, Jade. Analysis of Producer and Consumer Cattle Surveys. University of Tennessee, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, M.S. Thesis.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Pighetti, G. The Southeast Quality Milk Initiative. Controlling mastitis and improving milk quality. National Mastitis Council 58th Annual Meeting. Savannah, GA. Feb 1, 2019.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2019 Citation: Pighetti G. M., S. P. Oliver, R. A. Almeida, P. D. Krawczel, S. M. Schexnayder, J. M. Fly, C. S. Petersson-Wolfe, J. Costa, L. Garkovich, M. Arnold, S. C. Nickerson, A. Stone, A. DeVries, S. Ward, and J. M. Bewley. 2019. The Southeast Quality Milk Initiative. In Proc. National Mastitis Council, pp 96-100.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2018 Citation: Swartz, T., and C. Petersson-Wolfe. 2018. Does administration of an anti-inflammatory drug around the time of calving improve animal behavior and milk yield? Page 2 in SQMI Quarterly, Winter 2018.


Progress 02/01/17 to 01/31/18

Outputs
Target Audience:Target audiences for this project include dairy producers, farm personnel, Extension agents, dairy consultants, veterinarians, academicians, allied support personnel, industry personnel focusing on dairy management and milk quality, and undergraduate and graduate students. Changes/Problems:The original SQMI co-PD from Mississippi State University, Dr. Stephanie Ward, accepted a faculty position at North Carolina State University in the Department of Animal Science in 2016. Dr. Ward will continue to be involved with the SQMI project while at NC State. Dr. Amanda Stone was hired as an Assistant Professor and Dairy Extension Specialist at Mississippi State University to replace Dr. Ward. Late lasy year, we requested that Dr. Stone be added as the new co-PD at Mississippi State University and this request was approved by USDA NIFA. Dr. Stone has been involved with the SQMI project from its start and is highly qualified to be added to the project as a co-PD. She managed the day-to-day activities of the project at the University of Kentucky as a Graduate Extension Assistant while working on her PhD. She is aware of all aspects of the project, has worked closely with the collaborators from the beginning, and has worked with the previous co-PD from Mississippi State University in order to transfer all information to be successful. Dr. Stone will ensure that the project goals and objectives are carried out for the remainder of the project. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?The current project involves several graduate students and to date includes four graduate students (3MS and 1 PhD) trained specifically in milk quality. This project focuses on development of educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students, with the goal of training the next generation of milk quality professionals and activities in Year 5 include the following: Development of 5 teaching modules on milk quality and mastitis control 23 undergraduate internships involving laboratory/field experience Data from SQMI grant used by 19 MS and PhD student theses/dissertations 43 undergraduate and graduate students involved in SQMI programs In addition, a variety of other training programs that cover basic concepts as well as new advances in mastitis control and milk quality for veterinarians, allied industry support personnel, and extension educators were developed as follows: Development of 11 training modules on milk quality and mastitis control 3 webinars developed through DAIReXNET Scholarships provided to dairy veterinarians to attend 2-day Preconference Quality Milk Production Seminar Published 4 issues of SQMI Quarterly Newsletter (English & Spanish) 2 day SQMI Annual meeting Professional development activities include seminars and presentations about SQMI at various state, regional, and national meetings to varied audiences. In addition, the PD and co-PD"S on this grant have had the opportunity to attend meetings and learn about dairy related issues in the SE and throughout the US that will be helpful as this study progresses. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results from our study are presented regularly to scientists, extension specialists, extension agents, dairy producers, veterinarians, dairy consultants, pharmaceutical companies and other members of the dairy community. The SQMI Team has presented numerous abstracts and presentations at professional organizations such as the National Mastitis Council and the American Dairy Science Association Annual Meetings. We also publish our results in the popular press such as Hoard's Dairyman and the Progressive Dairyman. The two day 2017 SQMI Annual Meeting held in Nashville, TN focused on educational presentations for dairy producers, extension personnel, veterinarians and members of agri-industries serving the dairy community, and many of the presentations were based on findings from the SQMI project. The final day of the SQMI Annual Meeting was dedicated to discussions with our Advisory Committee discussing our progress during the last year, our plans for next year and listening to their comments about our activities and potential ways of enhancing our outreach efforts. We will continue to develop educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students. This project has already impacted numerous undergraduate and graduate students, and has played an important role in training the next generation of milk quality professionals. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Objective 1. Expected Outputs & Outcomes Beyond 2017. The planned, re-survey of dairy farmers in the SE US began in October. The timing was selected to match the time-of-year of the first survey in 2013. The current survey includes a subset of questions included in the 2013 survey and will produce data to assess changes in farms and the SE dairy industry as a whole, as well as to assess outcomes of this project. One measure of outcomes is the survey assessment of access to and use of SQMI resources. A second measure is potential associations between bulk tank SCC and/or change in bulk tank SCC with engagement in SQMI through outreach and Extension events and products, including web resources, trainings provided through the SQMI annual meeting, farm decision tools, and on-farm assessments and technical assistance. We expect a project report and an Extension publication to be derived from this assessment. If data produce findings of importance to Extension or science, we also will seek appropriate publication outlets. Objective 2.1. Expected Outputs & Outcomes Beyond 2017. In order to encompass the full time frame of the USDA-NIFA award, data representing 2017 will be collected in early 2018. Data from 2012- 2017 will be used to develop a manuscript that overviews the current state of bulk tank milk quality in the SE over the past five years in relation to environmental conditions, herds leaving and entering individual states, etc. Objective 2.2. Expected Outputs & Outcomes Beyond 2017. Data from Objective 2 have been extensive and we are only beginning to scratch the surface of knowledge that we can extract. At least five publications associated with graduate student theses are expected to be submitted by the end of 2017. Four additional manuscripts are currently being prepared and are expected to be submitted in early 2018. Data in six additional publications will continue to be analyzed and reported in 2018-2019. Theses - expected to be submitted for publication by 12/31/2017 to the Journal of Dairy Science. (*Graduate or undergraduate students) *Blakely, C., *K. Enger, C. Petersson-Wolfe, P. Krawczel, J. Bewley, A. Stone, S.H. Ward, S.P. Oliver, and G. Pighetti. The impact of milking practices on milk quality in the Southeast United States. *Enger, K., G. Pighetti, *C. Blakely, P. Krawczel, J. Bewley, A. Stone, S.H. Ward, S.P. Oliver, and C. Petersson-Wolfe. The impact of parlor equipment function and maintenance on milk quality in the Southeast United States. Siebert, L.J., C. Petersson-Wolfe, P. Krawczel, J. Bewley, A. Stone, S.H. Ward, S. P. Oliver, and G. Pighetti. Factors of the NMC 10 point plan and their association with bulk tank milk quality in the Southeast United States. *Nolan D., *C. Blakely, P. Krawczel, C. Petersson-Wolfe, G. Pighetti, A. Stone, S.H. Ward, and J.M. Bewley. Costs of mastitis and milk quality management practices perceived by dairy producers in the Southeast United States. *Guinn. J.M., *D. Nolan, A.E. Stone, G.M. Pighetti, P.D. Krawczel, S.H. Ward, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, and J.M. Bewley. Comparing summer to winter ratios of DHI milk production and SCS among states in the Southeast United States. Data analysis and publications in development and expected to be submitted in 2018. *Marcum A., *D. Nolan, A.E. Stone, *C.L. Blakely, G.M. Pighetti, P.D. Krawczel, S.H. Ward, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, and J.M. Bewley. Dry cow management practices in relation to DHI SCS in Southeast United States. *Stone, A.E., *D. Nolan, *C.L. Blakely, G.M. Pighetti, P.D. Krawczel, S.H. Ward, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, and J.M. Bewley. Demographic relationships with bulk tank milk quality in the Southeast United States. *Stone, A.E., *D. Nolan, *C.L. Blakely, G.M. Pighetti, P.D. Krawczel, S.H. Ward, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, and J.M. Bewley. Housing related influences on bulk tank milk quality in the Southeast United States. *Mason, Z., *D. Nolan, P.D. Krawczel, G.M. Pighetti, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, A.E. Stone, J.M. Bewley, and S.H. Ward. Significance of cow cooling practices and bulk tank milk quality parameters in southeastern United States dairy farms. Data analysis and publications identified for analysis and submitted for publication by Dec 2018 or later. Influence of producer perceptions on antibiotic use and BTSCC Management practices associated with BTSCC - Housing facilities, animal factors, management Management practices associated with BTSCC - Preventive practices Management practices associated with BTSCC - Nutrition and grazing management Relative usage of antibiotics on farm Pathogen prevalence Objective 2.3. Expected Outputs & Outcomes Beyond 2017. The 18-month evaluation will be completed fall/winter 2017. Data from these farms will be entered into a centralized data base to analyze impact of implementing recommended programs. Objective 3. Expected Outputs & Outcomes Beyond 2017. The Optimum Milk Quality Economic Model. Survey data from Objective 2.1 are being used to develop an economic model to determining how mastitis prevention and treatment costs compare when trying to reach a goal SCC. Researchers collected intramammary antibiotic costs ($/CM case), pre- and post-milking teat disinfectants ($/cow/day), and costs of vaccinations against environmental pathogens ($/vaccination protocol). Preliminary results from Objective 2.1 data show that SCS and intramammary antibiotic costs are positively related. With an increase in one point of SCS producers spend an additional $1.17/mastitis case, suggesting that farms with a higher SCS are trying to manage mastitis with additional antibiotic treatment. The goal of the economic analysis is to inform dairy producers that money spent on prevention management is more economically beneficial than managing mastitis through antibiotic treatment. The final goal for the economic model is to provide a decision support tool allowing producers to determine if a goal SCC is economically viable. All data from Objective 2.1 have been analyzed and separated for inclusion in the model being built. The base model is in current development with current estimated completion in 2nd quarter 2018 and a decision support tool to follow in the 3rd quarter 2018. Blanket vs. Selective Dry-cow Treatment Cost-Benefit Analysis Model. Survey data from Objectives 2.1 and 2.2 along with peer-reviewed published literature are being used to compare and contrast differences in economic opportunities of total and selective dry-cow treatment. Use of antibiotics is under increasing scrutiny throughout all of animal agriculture and many countries limit/restrict use of antibiotics following the last milking of lactation at dry off. Antibiotic dry cow therapy is a proven mastitis control procedure that has been recommended to dairy producers for decades. The cost-benefit model has two objectives: 1) to determine differences and break even points when investing in total or selective dry cow therapies, and 2) to determine what selection criteria leads to both increased and decreased cost compared to total dry cow treatment. A decision support tool will then be created from the model where producers can input farm specific data to help determine which dry cow treatment protocol may be right for their dairy. Data from Objective 2.1 have been analyzed to determine costs spent on dry cow treatments and the relationship between dry cow treatment protocol and overall herd milk quality. Data from peer-reviewed published literature examining differences between dry treatment protocols, selection criteria, and new cases of clinical mastitis at calving have also been collected. These data will be combined and entered into a base model with an estimated completion date of 3rd quarter of 2018 and decision support tool to follow in the 4th quarter of 2018.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1. We have looked to survey data to examine use and perceptions of various information sources. Segregating the population into two groups, >40 years or <40 years old, we see surprisingly few differences in their use of information sources. More of the younger group (p=.039) use information from other dairy producers, perhaps because younger farmers are seeking information from their more senior and experienced counterparts. The younger group rated this information more reliable than the older group (p=.016) and easy to act upon (p=.047). More of the older group used drug company representatives as information sources (p=.014), but both groups evaluate this information source similarly. Although the younger group might be expected to use online information, we found this mode of information delivery to be very slight (.11 and .08 for the older and younger groups, p=.350). Year 5 accomplishments: Published results of survey of SE dairy farms that identified determinants of BTSCC in J Dairy Sci Presented findings about producer characteristics and perceptions and their association with BTSCC at ADSA meeting Recorded a presentation for DAIReXNET in August 2017 Reached out to industry press and featured survey results in Hoard's Dairyman Produced and distributed a follow-up survey to SE dairy farms to assess changes in the industry, mastitis and BTSCC, and association between BTSCC and engagement with outreach and educational resources produced by SQMI. Indexed SQMI newsletters to produce a reference resource for veterinarians, SQMI-participating farms, and others. Objective 2.1 Evaluate current status of SE milk quality. This assessment has been done annually since 2012. Bulk tank milk quality records were provided by state regulatory agencies for dairies with Grade A milk permits for 2016. Data from dairies in GA (n=193), KY (n=678), MS (n=61), TN (n=293), and VA (n=594) were evaluated. Monthly mean BTSCC in 2016 decreased 7% continuing the downward trend from 2012. Mean BTSCC by individual states decreased between 5,000 to 37,000 cells/ml. SCC improved 25% across all states with MS and TN having the greatest gains. Summer continues to be a challenge; percentage of bulk tank milk with SCC >400,000 was <20% during winter, spring, and fall months but increased 25-38% during summer months. Objective 2.2. Evaluate milk quality practices on farms producing low, average, and high quality milk. From June, 2014 through June, 2015 (months 18 to 30), we evaluated 286 dairies in KY (n=96), MS (n=7), TN (n=87), and VA (n=96). Year 5 accomplishments: 1) Completed housing and milking system evaluation of 286 farms. 2) Evaluation results and recommendations were reported to producers/herd managers following farm visits (n=286). 3) Completed survey evaluations of 286 farms across the four participating states. 4) Survey data (n=246) were entered into a centralized database and analyses have been initiated. 5) Housing and parlor evaluations entered into a centralized database. 6) Data from Objective 2.2 have contributed to three MS candidate theses thus far. Objective 2.3. Demonstrate & assess producers adopting practices that promote milk quality. In Year 4, farms from KY, TN, and VA (n=9 each) with low to average quality milk were enrolled in an on-farm assessment and modification program that involved 4 phases: 1) pre-trial evaluation of dairy farm management practices; 2) development of an objective mastitis control and milk quality plan; 3) implementation of the mastitis control and milk quality plan; and 4) evaluation of the mastitis control and milk quality plan. Pre-trial evaluation was completed in March 2016 and consisted of a survey, full parlor evaluation, culturing of high SCC cows, full housing evaluation, udder cleanliness, body condition scoring, and locomotion scoring. During March 2016 - Fall 2016, monthly visits were made to monitor implementation and make needed adjustments. In Fall 2016, a full evaluation was conducted for each participating farm. In late spring, a one-year follow up with a full assessment was conducted. We are now completing the 18-month evaluation. Data from these farms will be entered into a centralized database to analyze impact of implementing recommended programs. Objective 3. The purpose of this objective is to provide dairy producers with decision support tools, on-farm analytics, and educational support materials needed to make more informed decisions related to milk quality. Decision Support Tools Developed for Objective 3.1 SQMI Hot Sheet Dashboard. The objective is to provide producers with an economic value of how a cow or group of cows affects BTSCC. http://www.uky.edu/Ag/ AnimalSciences/dairy/ decisiontools/HotSheet/HotSheet.html SQMI Optimal Mastitis Treatment Calculator. This was developed to inform dairy producers of the cost of a case of mastitis to their operation and how treatment decisions and knowing the infecting pathogen through culturing will affect them economically. https://afs.ca.uky.edu/ dairy/decisiontools/mastitistreatment SQMI Inflation Change Dashboard. This allows producers to determine the date that inflations need to be changed. SQMI Towel Investment Dashboard. This dashboard was developed: 1) to educate dairy producers of the importance of using only one towel/cow in pre-milking procedures, and 2) to determine the difference in cost of investing in paper or cloth towels. SQMI Optimal Dry-Off Dashboard. The objective is to determine whether a cow should be dried off when the cost of feeding the cow per day is more than income generated from milk sales. Educational Materials for Producers. A series of publications were designed to give producers pertinent information about common mastitis-causing pathogens. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/ uploads/2016/12/SQMI-Bacterial-Reference-Guide-linked.pdf Decision Support Tools in Development Optimum Milk Quality Economic Model. Survey data from Objective 2.1 are being used to develop an economic model to determine how mastitis prevention and treatment costs compare when trying to reach a goal SCC. Blanket vs. Selective Dry-cow Treatment Cost-Benefit Analysis Model. The cost-benefit model has two objectives: 1) to determine differences and break even points when investing in total or selective dry cow therapies, and 2) to determine what selection criteria leads to both increased and decreased cost compared to total dry cow treatment. Objective 4.1 focuses on training programs that cover basic concepts as well as new advances in mastitis control and milk quality for veterinarians, allied industry support personnel, and extension educators. Year 5 accomplishments include: Development of 11 training modules on milk quality and mastitis control 3 webinars developed through DAIReXNET Scholarships for veterinarians to attend 2-day Preconference Quality Milk Production Seminar 4 issues of SQMI Quarterly Newsletter (English & Spanish) 2 day SQMI Annual meeting Objective 4.2 focuses on development of educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students, with the goal of training the next generation of milk quality professionals. Year 5 accomplishments include: Development of 5 teaching modules on milk quality and mastitis control 23 undergraduate internships involving laboratory/field experience Data from SQMI grant used by 19 MS and PhD student theses/dissertations 43 undergraduate and graduate students involved in SQMI programs

Publications

  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nolan, D.T. An examination of milk quality effects on milk yield and dairy production economics in the southeastern United States. 2017. Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences. 71. http://uknowledge.uky.edu/animalsci_etds/71
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nolan, D.T., and J.M. Bewley. 2017. The development of a decision support tool to determine optimal economic treatment decisions by causative mastitis pathogen. American Dairy Science Association Meeting. Masters Oral Competition  3rd place finish.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nolan, D.T., C. Blakley, P. Krawczel, C. Petersson-Wolfe, G. Pighetti, A. Stone, S. Ward, and J.M. Bewley. 2017. Costs of mastitis and milk quality management practices perceived by dairy producers in the Southeastern United States. National Mastitis Council Meeting. Research and Developments Session.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Dahl, M. O., F. P. Maunsell, A. De Vries, K. N. Galvao, C. A. Risco, and J. A. Hernandez. 2017. Evidence that mastitis can cause pregnancy loss in dairy cows: A systematic review of observational studies. J. Dairy Sci. (in press).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nolan, D.T., and J.M. Bewley. 2017. Data, decisions, and mastitis. Invited talk, Brazilian Congress of Milk Quality (CBQL).
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nolan, D.T. 2017. Improving milk quality by training the trainers. Progressive Dairyman.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nolan, D.T. 2017. Southeastern producers discuss SCC and high-quality milk. Progressive Dairyman.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Guinn, J. M., D. T. Nolan, P. D. Krawczel, C. S. Petersson-Wolfe, G. M. Pighetti, A. E. Stone, S. H. Ward, and J. M. Bewley. 2017. Comparing summer to winter ratios of milk production and SCS among states in the Southeast United States. Abstract 71150. Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. Pittsburgh, PA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Guinn, J. M, and J. M. Bewley. 2017. Comparing summer: winter ratios of milk production and SCS among states in the Southeast United States. Kentucky Milk Quality Conference. Cadiz, KY.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: DeVries. A. 2017. Lowering your bulk tank somatic cell count: Lessons learned from dairy herds in the Eastern United States. Page 3 in the SQMI Quarterly, Fall 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/FALL-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: 6. DeVries, A. and P. Pattamanont. 2017. Does the length of the dry period affect milk quality? Page 1 in the SQMI Quarterly, Spring 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/SPRING-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Guinn, J. M, and J. M. Bewley. 2017. SQMI Producer Success Story.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Kaniyamattam, K., A. De Vries, L. W. Tauer, and Y. T. Grohn. 2017. Impact of culling for SCC, milk revenue, and estimated breeding values on herd performance. J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 100, Suppl. 2:241 (abstract T41).
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2017 Citation: Kaniyamattam, K., A. De Vries, L. Tauer, and Y. Grohn. Genetic, technical and financial performance of dairy herds achieving optimal milk bulk tank somatic cell count reductions through various voluntary culling strategies. J. Dairy Sci. (in review).
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Almeida, R. A. and S. P. Oliver. 2017. How safe is the consumption of raw milk? Page 2 in the SQMI Quarterly, spring 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2017 /05/SPRING-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Bentley, J. M. and S. C. Nickerson. 2017. Mammary gland response to the infusion of mastitis remedies in dairy heifers. Animal and Dairy Science Departmental Report. 2017. http://www.caes.uga.edu/content/dam/caes-website/departments/animal-and-dairy-science/documents/departmental-reports/2017-departmental-reports/Mammary-gland-response.pdf.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Bewley, J. M. 2017. When it comes to solving SCC crimes, if you dont culture, you dont know. Page 2 in the SQMI Quarterly, winter 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Winter-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf. 4.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2017 Citation: 7. Enger, B.D., C.E. Crutchfield, T.T. Yohe, K.M. Enger, S.C. Nickerson, C.L.M. Parsons, and R.M. Akers. 2017. Intramammary infection in rapidly growing, non-lactating mammary glands. J. Dairy Sci. Submitted.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: 8. Enger, B.D, R.R. White, S.C. Nickerson, and L.K. Fox. 2016. Meta-analysis of factors influencing teat dip efficacy trial results in reducing the development of new intramammary infections. J. Dairy Sci. 99:99009911. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168 /jds.2016-11359.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: 9. Enger, B.D., C.E. Crutchfield, C.L.M. Parsons, S.C. Nickerson, and R.M. Akers. 2017. Preliminary evaluation of the DeLaval Cell Counters ability to quantify somatic cell counts in non-lactating mammary secretions. Abstract. ADSA 2017 #70693.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: 10. Enger, K. M. and C. S. Petersson-Wolfe. 2017. The impact of parlor equipment function and maintenance on milk quality in the Southeast US. Page 1 in the SQMI Quarterly, Winter 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Winter-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Submitted Year Published: 2018 Citation: Enger, K.M., G.M. Pighetti, C. Blakely, P.D. Krawczel, J.M. Bewley, A. Stone, S.H., Ward, S.P. Oliver, and C. S. Petersson-Wolfe. 2018. The impact of parlor equipment function and parlor procedures on milk quality in the Southeast US. Abstract. National Mastitis Council 2018 Annual Meeting. Submitted.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: 14. Kimbrell, C. A., S. C. Nickerson, F. M. Kautz, D. J. Hurley, and L. O. Ely. 2017. Investigating the role of teat seal in mastitis control: In addition to its effectiveness in preventing mastitis, why is teat seal effective in curing existing cases of mastitis? Animal and Dairy Science Departmental Report. 2017. http://www.caes.uga.edu/content/dam/caes-website/departments/animal-and-dairy-science/documents/departmental-reports/2017-departmental-reports/Investigating-the-role-of-teat-seal-in-mastitis.pdf.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Krawczel, P. 2017. The role of milk flow and take-off level in milk quality. Page 2 in The SQMI Quarterly, Fall 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/FALL-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nickerson, S. C. 2017. Whats the best method for drying cows off? Page 3 in the SQMI Quarterly, Winter 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Winter-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nickerson, S. C., F. M. Kautz, and L. O. Ely. 2017. Feeding a nutritional supplement to late lactation cows decreased mastitis and lowered SCC in a herd experiencing major health issues Page 3 in the SQMI Quarterly, Summer 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/SUMMER-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nickerson, S.C. and F. M. Kautz. 2017. Wet spring and summer weather conditions are ideal for Prototheca mastitis. Page 8-11 in Georgia Dairyfax, Animal and Dairy Science Dept., April May June, 2017, Athens, GA. http://www.caes.uga.edu/content/dam/caes-website/departments/animal-and-dairy-science/documents/DairyFax/April-May-June-2017-DairyFax-Newsletter.pdf. 19.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nickerson, S. C. 2017. Horn fly control can increase productivity in dairy heifers. UGA Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1474. http://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.cfm? number=B1474.
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: 20. Nickerson, S.C. and L.M. Sordillo. 2017. Book Chapter: Modulation of the bovine mammary gland. In Large Dairy Herd Management. Pp. 907-921. 3rd ed. D. K. Beede, ed. American Dairy Science Association, Champaign, IL. http://ldhm.adsa.org.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nickerson, S.C. and L.M. Sordillo. 2017. Modulation of the bovine mammary gland. Animal and Dairy Science Departmental Report. 2017. http://www.caes.uga.edu/content/dam/caes-website/departments/animal-and-dairy-science/documents/departmental-reports/2017-departmental-reports/Modulation-of-the-bovine-mammary-gland.pdf.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nickerson, S.C. 2016. The 4th Annual Southern Quality Milk Initiative Conference in Tifton a great success. Page 2-3 in Georgia Dairyfax, Animal and Dairy Science Dept., October November December 2016, Athens, GA. http://www.ads.uga.edu/extension /documents /DairyfaxAMJ16.pdf.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nickerson, S.C., F. M. Kautz, L. O. Ely, D. J. Hurley, A. D. Rowson, J. D. Chapman, S. A. Armstrong, and D. J. McLean. 2017. Effects of feeding Omnigen-AF� beginning 60 days prior to dry-off on mastitis prevalence and somatic cell counts in a herd experiencing major health issues. 5 pp. White Paper. Phibro Animal Health Corporation, Teaneck, NJ.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nolan, D. T. and J. W. Bewley. 2017. Lowering mastitis costs by making optimum treatment decisions. Page 1 in the SQMI Quarterly, Summer 2017. http://sequalitymilk. com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/SUMMER-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf.
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Oliver, S. P. 2017. Book Chapter. Milk quality and safety. In: Large Dairy Herd Management 3rd edition, D. Beede, Ed., American Dairy Science Association, Champaign, IL. http://ldhm.adsa.org.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Petersson-Wolfe, C. S. 2017. On-farm culturing: Understanding the basics. Page 2 in the SQMI Quarterly, Summer 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/ SUMMER-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nickerson, S. C., F. M. Kautz, L. O. Ely, and G. V. Resnick. 2017. Is antibiotic therapy a gamble? Improve your odds for curing a mastitic quarter! Page 13-14 in Georgia Dairyfax, Animal and Dairy Science Dept., July August September 2017, Athens, GA. http://www.caes.uga.edu/departments/animal-dairy-science/about/newsletters.html.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nickerson, S. C., F. M. Kautz, L. O. Ely, and G. V. Resnick. 2017. Improve your chances for curing mastitis. Hoards Dairyman. October 2017.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Nickerson, S. C., F. M. Kautz, A. E. Harding, J. R. Booth, L. O. Ely, and D. J. Hurley. 2016. Mastitis control in bred heifers: Use of dry cow therapy and teat sealant for curing existing intramammary infections and preventing new ones. Animal and Dairy Science Departmental Report. 2016. http://www.ads.uga.edu/DepartmentReports/documents /MastitisPreventionandCureRates2.pdf.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: 26. Nickerson, S.C., C. L. Hall, L. O. Ely, F. M. Kautz, and D. J. Hurley. 2017. Review Article. Use of a Mycobacterium adjuvant to enhance the antibody response to vaccination against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy heifers. Journal of Vaccines, Immunology & Immunopathology. Volume 2017, Issue 2:1-3. http://gavinpublishers.com/use-of-amycobacterium-adjuvant-to-enhance-the-antibody-response-to-vaccination-against-staphylococcus-aureusmastitis-in-dairy-heifers/. 27.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nickerson, S.C., F.M. Kautz, and L.O. Ely. 2017. Feeding a nutritional supplement to late lactation cows decreased mastitis and lowered SCC in a herd experiencing major health issues. The SQMI Quarterly, Summer 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Summer-2015-SQMI-Newsletter-English.pdf. 28.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Resnick, G. V. and S. C. Nickerson. 2017. Use of label vs. extended antibiotic therapy for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Animal and Dairy Science Departmental Report. 2017. http://www.caes.uga.edu/content/dam/caes-website/departments/animal-and-dairy-science/documents/departmental-reports/2017-departmental-reports/Use-of-label-vs-extended-antibiotic.pdf.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Stone, A. E. 2017. Minimize heat stress to maximize milk production and quality. Page 3 in the SQMI Quarterly, Spring 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads /2017 /05/SPRING-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Stone, A. E. 2017. What does somatic cell count really tell us? Page 1 in the SQMI Quarterly, Fall 2017. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/FALL-2017-SQMI-Newsletter.pdf.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: DeLong, K.E., D.M. Lambert, S.M. Schexnayder, P.D. Krawczel, J.M. Fly, L. Garkovich, and S.P. Oliver. 2017. Farm business and operator variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count from dairy herds in the Southeastern United States. J Dairy Sci 100: 9298  9310.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Schexnayder, S.M. and P.D. Krawczel. 2017. New insights into the people side of milk quality. American Dairy Science Association Conference, 26 June March 2017. Pittsburg, PA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Almeida, R.A., R.D. Abdi, S.M. Cantwell, S.I. Headrick, B.E. Gillespie, G.M. Pighetti, P. Krawczel, J. Klefot, J.M. Bewley, S. Allen, S. Ward, O. Kerro Dego, and S.P. Oliver. 2017. Antibiotic microbial resistance in mastitis bacterial pathogens. NMC Annual Meeting Proceedings, pp. 141-142.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Enger, K., G. Pighetti, C. Blakely, P. Krawczel, J. Bewley, A. Stone, S.H. Ward, S. Oliver, and C. Petersson-Wolfe. 2017. The impact of parlor equipment function and maintenance on milk quality in the Southeast United States. NMC Annual Meeting Proceedings, pp. 159-160.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Kerro Dego, O., R.D. Abdi, J. Vaughn, C. Merrill, S.M. Cantwell, B.E. Gillespie, R.A. Almeida, S.I. Headrick, G.M. Pighetti, P. Krawczel, J. Klefot, J.M. Bewley, and S.P. Oliver. 2017. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cases of bovine mastitis. NMC Annual Meeting Proceedings, pp. 149-150.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Mason, Z., D.T. Nolan, P.D. Krawczel, G.M. Pighetti, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, A.E. Stone, J.M. Bewley, and S.H. Ward. 2017. Significance of cow cooling practices and bulk tank milk quality parameters in southeastern United States dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci. 100 (Suppl 2): 134.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Mazon, G., J. Guinn, D. Nolan, P. Krawczel, C. Petersson-Wolfe, G. Pighetti, A. Stone, S. Ward, M. Marcondes, and J. Bewley. 2017. Relationship between cow cleanliness, locomotion, and bulk tank somatic cell count in southeastern United States dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci. 100 (Suppl 2): 296.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nolan, D., C. Blakely, P. Krawczel, C. Petersson-Wolfe, G. Pighetti, A. Stone, S.H. Ward, and J. Bewley. 2017. Costs of mastitis and milk quality management practices perceived by dairy producers in the Southeastern United States. NMC Annual Meeting Proceedings, pp. 107-108.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nolan, D., A.E. Stone, C.L. Blakely, G.M. Pighetti, P.D. Krawczel, S.H. Ward, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, and J.M. Bewley. 2017. Comparing summer to winter ratios of milk production and SCS among states in the Southeast United States. J. Dairy Sci. 100 (Suppl 2): 136.


Progress 02/01/16 to 01/31/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Target audiences for this study include dairy producers, farm personnel, Extension agents, Extension Specialists, dairy consultants veterinarians, academicians, allied support personnel and undergraduarte and graduate students. Changes/Problems:The original SQMI co-PD from Mississippi State University, Dr. Stephanie Hill-Ward, recently accepted a faculty position at North Carolina State University in the Department of Animal Science. Dr. Hill-Ward will continue to be involved with the SQMI project and we thank her for all of her efforts on the SQMI project while at Mississippi State University. Dr. Amanda Stone has recently been hired as an Assistant Professor and Dairy Extension Specialist at Mississippi State University. We have requested that Dr. Stone be added as the new co-PD at Mississippi State University. Dr. Stone has been involved with the SQMI project from its start and is highly qualified to be added to the project as a co-PD. She managed the day-to-day activities of the project at the University of Kentucky as a Graduate Extension Assistant while working on her PhD. She is aware of all aspects of the project, has worked closely with the collaborators from the beginning, and has worked with the previous co-PD from Mississippi State University in order to transfer all information to be successful. Dr. Stone will ensure that the project goals and objectives are carried out for the remainder of the project. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Professional development activities include seminars and presentations about SQMI at various local, state, regional, and national meetings to varied audiences. In addition, the PD and co-PD"S on this grant have had the opportunity to attend meetings and learn about dairy related issues in the SE and throughout the US that will be helpful as this study progresses. Objective 4.2: Focuses on training the next generation of milk quality professionals; namely undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at Land-Grant Universities in the SE. Another goal is to continue to develop modules for undergraduate/graduate students in the area of mastitis and milk quality, test them in the classroom, and distribute them to other institutions as requested.Teaching Modules for undergraduate/graduate students in the area of mastitis and milk quality over year 4 by SQMI institutions include: How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results from our study are presented regularly to scientists, extension specialists, extension agents, dairy producers, veterinarians, dairy consultants, pharmaceutical companies and other members of the dairy community. The SQMI Team has presented numerous abstracts and presentations at professional organizations such as the National Mastitis Council and the American Dairy Science Association Annual Meetings. We also publish our results in the popular press such as Hoard's Dairyman and the Progressive Dairyman. The two day 2016 SQMI Annual Meeting held in Tifton, GA focused on educational presentations for dairy producers, extension personnel, veterinarians and members of agri-industries serving the dairy community, and many of the presentations were based on findings from the SQMI project. The finald day of the SQMI Annual Meeting was dedicated to discussions with our Advisory Committee discussing our progress during the last year, our plans for next year and listening to their comments about our activities and potential ways of enhancing our outreach efforts. We will continue to develop educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students. This project has already impacted numerous undergraduate and graduate students, and has played an important role in training the next generation of milk quality professionals. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Objective 1. We are working to identify factors that influence decisions about mastitis management. From this information, extension programs and educational resources relevant to SE dairy producers will be developed and published for improving milk quality. The research effort involves using both qualitative and quantitative research methods to identify economic, social, and psychological factors that work directly with producers to assess on-farm practices that enhance milk quality. A few manuscripts have been prepared and in review and additional manuscripts will be prepared. The research focuses on the following: Attitudes: What does the farmer believe about mastitis, bulk tank SCC, and his actions? Questions address the farmer's attitude about mastitis relative to his farm management. Specific questions assess the farmer's attitude about the effectiveness and practicality/cost of various approaches to mastitis management. Perceived control: How does the farmer perceive the ease or difficulty of tasks related to mastitis and SCC management? How does the farmer perceive factors that facilitate or control mastitis? How does the farmer perceive his effectiveness? Focus is on the farmers' perceptions of their ability (including willingness, preparedness, and resources) to perform activities that control mastitis. The farmers' perceptions of effectiveness are also related to their perceptions of the information and guidance available to them. Subjective norms: What social pressures, opinions, and judgments of others does the farmer perceive and how do they affect his actions to manage mastitis? Questions seek to identify the role of incentives, penalties, and the judgment and input of others (e.g., veterinarians, other farmers, extension, and family), and to what extent these social pressures affect the farmer's behavior. Objective 2.1. Develop a manuscript that overviews the current state of bulk tank milk quality in the SE over the past three years in relation to environmental conditions. These data will be submitted to a peer-reviewed scientific journal, and also published as an Extension bulletin and a popular press article. Developed a series of publications that will be targeted in the future. A listing of these publications and lead states are provided below. We expect three to four publications to be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and developed into extension-based materials for the SE in the upcoming year. This information will also be prepared and submitted to popular press outlets. Topics that have been considered and progress on these publication is indicated below. • Management practices associated with BTSCC - Milking practices (TN, VA) - Received final draft from graduate student. Expect submission by 12/31/2016. • Management practices associated with BTSCC - Equipment (VA, TN) - In progress. • Management practices associated with BTSCC - Heat stress (MS, TN) - In progress. • Influence of producer perceptions on antibiotic use and BTSCC (VA, TN) • Management practices associated with BTSCC - Housing facilities, animal factors, management (TN, KY) • Management practices associated with BTSCC - Housing type and management (KY) • Management practices associated with BTSCC - Preventive practices (TN, VA) • Management practices associated with BTSCC - Nutrition and grazing management (MS) • Management practices associated with BTSCC - Heifer and dry cow management (TN, MS) • Economic descriptive analysis/economic optimization analysis (KY) • Usage of antibiotics on farm (TN) • Factors influencing milk quality and status of dairy industry (TN, MS) • Human resources (KY) • Housing factors that affect cow locomotion in the SE (TN) • Mastitis pathogen prevalence (TN) • DHIA data impact on milk quality (KY) Objective 2.3. We are evaluating demonstration farms after 6 months of involvement to determine improvements in milk quality and use of antibiotics. The evaluation process will continue every 6 months until completion of the grant. Objective 3. Will continue development of Mastitis Treatment Decision Support Tool, the Optimum Milk Quality Economic Model, and the Reference Guide for Mastitis-Causing Pathogens. Goals of these tools are to educate dairy producers to practice responsible antibiotic use, benefits of microbiological culturing of mastitis cases, to provide a decision support tool allowing producers to determine if a goal SCC is economically viable, and to provide an easy-to-understand document about mastitis-causing bacteria for use on-farm. We will continue collaborating with Dairy Quality Inc. who has been working with the SQMI team evaluating opportunities and challenges of working with Wi-Fi capable hand held testing devices in the milking parlor of 27 farms in KY, TN and VA. Objective 4 will continue training the next generation of milk quality professionals. We will continue to develop modules for undergraduate/graduate students in the area of mastitis and milk quality, test them in the classroom, and distribute them to other institutions as requested. You-Tube videos continue to be developed that focus on procedures and/or principles for mastitis control that are followed by successful dairy operations. The YouTube channel has been set up as Southeast Quality Milk at https://www.youtube.com/channel/ UCJCWBuzj78G-LS1Ika--2Q/feed?filter=2. A video: "Proper milking procedures" is in progress for 2017. Educational materials (i.e., PowerPoint presentations) will continue to be developed and disseminated for veterinarians to use at locally-sponsored producer meetings in order to provide training for extension agents and producers. Members of the SQMI Team will present a Short Course titled "Facility management in hot and humid climates "at the Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council to be held in St. Pete, FL in Jan 2017. Topics to be covered include: 1) How housing systems affect milk quality (results from the Southeast Quality Milk Initiative Project); 2) Compost bedded pack barn management techniques; 3) How heat stress affects milk quality (results from the Southeast Quality Milk Initiative Project); and 4) Heat abatement strategies. The SQMI Newsletter will continue to be prepared and distributed to dairy personnel. The quarterly 4-page electronic newsletter is released in English as well as in Spanish. This medium was developed by SQMI project participants for dairy veterinarians, Extension agents, dairy consultants, etc. to 1) update them on the latest information on udder health, such as recent regulatory changes in medications and residue testing, as well as 2) emphasize key concepts on milk quality and mastitis control. This newsletter has been well-received by our audience, and beginning in the Summer issue of 2016, we have included a herd profile article that features one of the producers that collaborates with SQMI team members in the research/demonstration phase of the SQMI Project.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1.... (1) Drafted manuscript capturing regression analysis of determinants of bulk tank SCC based on survey results (will be submitted to the Journal of Dairy Science). (2) Drafted manuscript focused on producers' perceptions and use of various sources of information and their correlation with SCC (in preparation; targeted Journal of Extension). (3) Conducted single-state analyses of survey data to allow states to compare their situations with the southeast as a whole as well as with the U.S. (technical reports in draft). (4) Presented results of regression analysis of bulk tank SCC at the National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting (Feb 2016). (5) Presented results of surveys and focus groups, "New Insights into the People Side of Milk Quality," to more than 100 dairy farmers, extension agents, industry reps, and dairy co-op field representatives at the Southern Dairy Conference. (6) Trained two undergraduates students in data entry, data management practices for QA/QC, and analysis (descriptive and correlations) via Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results of surveys of active and closed dairies showed that.... Dairy closures in SE contributing to regional decline in BTSCC and will likely continue to do so as farms with higher SCC close Operators of closed dairies assessed their ability to afford actions to decrease SCC more negatively than did operators of active dairies Operators of closed dairies more frequently evaluated milk quality premiums as inadequate for covering costs of milk production Financial circumstances rather than other socio-cultural motivations (e.g., taking good care of cows, continuing farming, making choices the family is proud of, improving milk quality, or reducing antibiotic use) are not significantly different between operators of closed and active dairies Objective 2.1. We are currently analyzing data for the 2015 calendar year and these data will be presented at the 2016 SQMI Annual Meeting. This assessment has been conducted annually since 2013. Objective 2.2. 1) Completed housing and milking system evaluation of 286 farms across KY (n=96), MS (n=7), TN (n=87), and VA (n=96); 2) Evaluated results and recommendations reported to the producers/herd managers during the evaluation including a written report following the farm visit (n=286); 3) Completed survey evaluations of 286 farms across the 4 participating states; 4) Survey data entered into a centralized database and is currently being processed for in-depth analyses; 5) Centralized database for housing and milking system evaluations completed and is currently being processed for in-depth analyses; and 6) Several peer-reviewed, popular press, Extension and popular press articles will we developed from data obtained in Objective 2.2. Summary of practices in the southeast US revealed.... 88% of milking personnel wore gloves while milking Pre-wiping to remove debris before udder preparation occurred in only 13% of herds Water with or without disinfectant used to wash udders on almost 17% of operations Fore-stripping performed on 64% of dairies Prep lag-time < 120 sec in 74% of herds; 25% > 120 sec Majority of producers performed pre-milking disinfection using a commercial product, with a dip cup (52%); sprayer (13%); 15% performed task with foam Most common disinfectant: iodine (41%), hydrogen peroxide (29%) & lactic acid (15%) Pre-milking disinfectant removed with either cloth (55%) or paper (45%) towels Kill time for pre-milking teat disinfection was at least 30 sec on 75% of dairies Post-milking disinfectant commonly (79%) applied using a dip cup with a commercial product such as iodine (67%) or lactic acid (22%) Only 10% of herds applied post-dip as a spray or foam Objective 2.3. Demonstrate & assess producers adopting practices that promote milk quality. In Years 4 and 5, farms with low to average quality milk were/will be enrolled in an on-farm assessment and modification program that will involve 4 phases: 1) pre-trial evaluation of dairy farm management practices; 2) development of an objective mastitis control and milk quality plan; 3) implementation of the mastitis control and milk quality plan; and 4) evaluation of the mastitis control and milk quality plan. In November 2015, the SQMI Team met to discuss initiation of Objective 2.3. In February and March 2016, we initiated Objective 2.3 with 30 demonstration farms across KY (n=9), MS (n=3), TN (n=9), and VA (n=9). We completed an initial full assessment of equipment, parlor practices, and housing, in addition to an evaluation of microorganisms associated with subclinical and clinical mastitis on participating farms. The SQMI team met in March 2016 in Knoxville, TN to discuss these evaluations, agree on key issues on individual farms, and develop relevant plans to address those issues. Individual states then worked with enrolled farms for the next 6 months to provide guidance on recommended changes. We are in the process of re-evaluating these farms after the 6 month consulting process to determine improvements in milk quality and use of antibiotics. The evaluation process will continue every 6 months until completion of the grant. These farms also will be used to demonstrate practices that promote milk quality in extension-related events. Objective 3) Provide producers with decision-support tools needed to make informed decisions regarding milk quality.... Developed web-based decision support tools to help dairy producers understand economic impact of increased SCC & economics of removing high SCC cows from bulk tank (Milk Quality Dashboard: http://sequalitymilk.com/calculator/ & Hotsheet Dashboard: http://afsdairy.ca.uky.edu/extension/decisiontools/hotsheet) that are available on SQMI website (www.sequalitymilk.com) Mastitis Treatment Decision Support Tool, an Optimum Milk Quality Economic Model, and a Reference Guide for Mastitis-Causing Pathogens being developed to educate dairy producers to practice responsible antibiotic use, benefits of microbiological culturing of mastitis cases, to provide a decision support tool allowing producers to determine if a goal SCC is economically viable & to provide an easy-to-understand document about mastitis-causing bacteria for use on-farm Dairy Quality Inc. working with SQMI team evaluating opportunities & challenges of using Wi-Fi capable hand-held testing devices in milking parlor of 27 farms in KY, TN & VA Objective 4 focuses on developing and disseminating educational materials and training programs that cover basic concepts as well as new advances in mastitis control. Several documents have been prepared and many of these have been translated into Spanish for Hispanic dairy personnel including an SQMI Newsletter distributed quarterly. In 2015-2016, five SQMI participants were invited by the American Dairy Science Association Foundation to prepare a chapter for the 3rd edition of Large Dairy Herd Management and to present this information at a Large Dairy Herd Management Conference in Oakbrook, IL. SQMI presented 11 continuing education awards to Southeastern dairy veterinarians (nominated by producers and extension personnel) to attend the American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) preconference Quality Milk Production seminars. A new incentive to increase veterinary attendance at SQMI meetings is the availability of continuing education credits. Another important goal of Objective 4 is to develop educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students. The SQMI project has impacted numerous students, and has played an important role in training the next generation of milk quality professionals. In Year 4, 31 graduate & 56 undergraduate students were involved in SQMI activities.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Schexnayder, S.M., K.E. Lewis, D.M. Lambert, L.E. Garkovich, J.M. Fly, P.D. Krawczel, and S.P. Oliver. 2016. Farmer and farm characteristics associated with bulk tank SCC. In: Proc. 55th Annual Meeting, National Mastitis Council. Pighetti G.M., C.P. Petersson-Wolfe, J.M. Bewley, S.C. Nickerson, S. Hill Ward, A. DeVries, S.P. Oliver. 2016. Southeast Quality Milk Initiative: Milk Quality in the Southeast USA, 2012-2014. National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings, pp 188-189. (Poster presentation) Blakely, C., G.M. Pighetti, P. Krawczel, R. Almeida, C. Petersson-Wolfe, K. Enger, J. Bewley, S. Ward, A. Stone, and S.P. Oliver. 2016. Practices surveyed in the Southeast USA that impact milk quality. NMC Annual Meeting Proceedings, pp 114-115. (Oral and poster presentation) Nolan, D. and J. Bewley. 2016. Somatic cell score effects on dairy cattle milk production in the Southeastern United States. In Proc. National Mastitis Council. Nolan, D. T., C. L. Blakely, P. D. Krawczel, C. S. Petersson-Wolfe, G. M. Pighetti, A. E. Stone, S. H. Ward, and J. M. Bewley. July 2016. Perceived mastitis costs and milk quality management practices among Southeastern United States dairy producers  Joint Annual Meeting Conference Abstract. Enger, B., R.R. White, S.C. Nickerson, and L.K. Fox. 2016. Factors influencing new intramammary infection rate in teat dip efficacy trials by meta-analysis. Poster presentation. NMC Technology Transfer Session. NMC 55th Annual Meeting, January 31-February 2, 2016, Glendale, AZ. Enger, B.D., R.R. White, S.C. Nickerson, and L.K. Fox. 2016. Meta-analysis of factors Influencing new intramammary infection rate in experimental challenge teat dip efficacy trials. ADSA. Page 57 in: J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 94, E-Suppl. 5/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 99, E-Suppl. 1. Enger, B.D., R.R. White, S. C. Nickerson, and L.K. Fox. 2016. Meta-analysis of factors influencing new intramammary infection rate in natural exposure teat dip efficacy trials. ADSA. Page 355 in: J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 94, E-Suppl. 5/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 99, E-Suppl. 1. Alward, K.J. and S.C. Nickerson. 2016. Correlation between teat end scores and presence of mastitis in the UGA dairy herd. Proceedings of the 2016 CURO Symposium. Classic Center, Athens, GA. April 4-5. Pages 36-37. Alward, K.J., J.F. Bohlen, L.O. Ely, and S.C. Nickerson. 2016. Assessing the correlation between teat end scores and the presence of mastitis in lactating Holstein cows. Abstract. Page 22 in: J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 94, E-Suppl. 5/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 99, E-Suppl. 1. Nickerson, S.C. 2016. Benefits of fly control in dairy heifers. Symposium: Strategies for managing heifers in the southeast. ADSA Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT. July 20, 2016. Page 26 in: J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 94, E-Suppl. 5/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 99, E-Suppl. 1. Oliver, S.P. 2016. Judicious use of antibiotics for the control of mastitis in dairy cows. In: Proc. National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ, February, 2016. Oliver, S.P., R.A. Almeida, G.M. Pighetti, P. D. Krawczel, M.J. Fly, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, J. M. Bewley, L. Garkovich, M. Arnold, S.C. Nickerson, S. Hill-Ward, and A. DeVries. 2015. Southeast Quality Milk Initiative: Implementing science-based recommendations to control mastitis and improve milk quality in the Southeast. Presented at the USDA NIFA Project Directors Meeting, Chicago, IL.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Pighetti G.M., C. Blakely, P. Krawczel, S. Hill-Ward, A. Stone, S. Schexnayder, and M. Fly. June 30, 2016. Positive attitudes can yield positive results. Progressive Dairyman. (Popular press trade magazine) Stone A. 2016. Milk quality observations from 300 farm visits. Progressive Dairyman April 18, 2016. (Popular press trade magazine) Nolan, D. and J. Bewley, October 1, 2016. Five steps to mastitis treatment decisions that will save you money, Progressive Dairyman Magazine. Booth, J.R., F.M. Kautz, L.O. Ely, and S.C. Nickerson. 2016. Mastitis prevention and cure rates in heifers treated with Spectramast dry cow therapy and/or Orbeseal dry cow teat sealant. Animal and Dairy Science Departmental Report. 2016. http://www.ads.uga.edu/ DepartmentReports/documents/MastitisPreventionandCureRates2.pdf. Lyles, D.D., F.M. Kautz, and S.C. Nickerson. 2016. Prevalence and management of mastitis in the UGA sheep herd. Animal and Dairy Science Departmental Report. 2016. http://www.ads.uga.edu/DepartmentReports/documents/PrevalenceandControlofMastitisinDairyEwes.pdf. Nickerson, S.C. 2016. How much is clinical mastitis costing you? Pages 6-7 in Georgia Dairyfax, Animal and Dairy Science Dept., January February March, 2016 Athens, GA. http://www.ads.uga.edu/extension/documents/DAIRYFAXJFM2016.pdf. 26. Nickerson, S.C. 2016. Pasteurized vs. raw milk consumption: The controversy continues. Georgia Dairyfax, Animal and Dairy Science Dept., April May June, 2016 Athens, GA. Nickerson, S.C. 2016. Whats the best method for drying cows off? Pages 8-9 in Georgia Dairyfax, Animal and Dairy Science Dept., July August September 2016, Athens, GA.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Nolan, D. and J. Bewley. Management practices associated with milk quality: https://afs.ca.uky.edu/files/management_practices_associated_with_milk_quality.pdf Nolan, D. and J. Bewley. Assessment of dairy farm profitability under a variety of management techniques: https://afs.ca.uky.edu/dairy/extension/assessment-profitability-variety-management-techniques Petersson-Wolfe, C. and M. Arnold. Reference guide for mastitis-causing bacteria. http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/SQMI-Bacterial-Reference-Guide.pdf Petersson-Wolfe, C. and T. Swartz. Yeast and Molds: A practical summary for controlling mastitis. https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-72/DASC-72.html Petersson-Wolfe, C. and T. Swartz. Trueperella pyogenes: A practical summary for controlling mastitis. https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-71/DASC-71.html Petersson-Wolfe, C. and T. Swartz. Proteus spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis. https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-68/DASC-68.html Petersson-Wolfe, C. and T. Swartz. Pasteurella spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis. https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-67/DASC-67.html Petersson-Wolfe, C. and T. Swartz. Mycoplasma spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis. https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-66/DASC-66.html Petersson-Wolfe, C. and T. Swartz. Enterobacter spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis. https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-65/DASC-65.html Petersson-Wolfe, C. and T. Swartz. Corynebacterium bovis: A practical summary for controlling mastitis. https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-64/DASC-64.html Petersson-Wolfe, C. and T. Swartz. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus hyicus: A practical summary for controlling mastitis. https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-63/DASC-63.html Petersson-Wolfe, C. and T. Swartz. Bacillus spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis. https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-62/DASC-62.html
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Treating heifer mastitis has been posted at: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=ON5lrya0Hmo, and 2) Collecting milk samples for the diagnosis of mastitis has been posted at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SSjVIDNjRYU.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Fall 2015: 1) Behavioral Changes: Useful in Identifying Cows with Mastitis (P. Krawczel, KY). 2) Cost of Mastitis: Not All Mastitis Costs the Same (F.C. Ferreira and A. De Vries, FL). 3) Controlling Mastitis in Grazing Dairy Operations (S.H. Ward, MS). Winter 2016: 1) Managing Mastitis in Heifers (S.C. Nickerson, GA). 2) Using DHIA Records for Somatic Cell Count Management (J.M. Bewley and D. Amaral-Phillips, KY). 3) Raw Milk: Risk or Reward? (C.S. Petersson-Wolfe and R. Boyer, VA). Spring 2016: 1) Role of Bedding in Milk Quality: Lessons from large herds in Wisconsin (P. Krawczel, TN). 2) Milking to Milking Variation in Somatic Cell Counts: Dont Jump to Conclusions Too Quickly (A. De Vries, FL). 3) Stress and Nutrition Affect Milk Quality (S.H. Ward, MS). PLUS a special bonus insert: Mastitis Reference Guide (C.S. Petersson-Wolfe (VA) and M. Arnold KY). Summer 2016: 1) Herd Lameness Can Be Affecting Your SCC! (J.M. Bewley, KY). 2) Featured Farm: Richlands Dairy in Blackstone, Virginia (C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, VA). 3) How to Permanently Dry Off Quarters That Dont Cure (S.C. Nickerson, GA). Fall 2016: 1) Why We Cant Thrive Farming Like Our Grandfathers (A. E. Stone, MS). 2) SQMI Featured Farm: Tri-Springs Jerseys (P. Krawczel, TN). 3) Dont Forget Genetics When Improving Milk Quality (A. De Vries and F. Penagaricano, FL). 4) Former SQMI Graduate Student Lands Job at Major Land-Grant University (D. T. Nolan, KY).
  • Type: Books Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berry, E.A., J.E. Hillerton, H. Hogeveen, J.S. Hogan, S.C. Nickerson, S.P. Oliver, G.M. Pighetti, P. Rapnicki, Y.H. Schukken, and K.L. Smith. 2016. Current Concepts of Bovine Mastitis, 5th Edition. National Mastitis Council, New Prague, MN.
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2017 Citation: Bewley, J. Precision dairy technology implementation opportunities and challenges. In: Large Dairy Herd Management 3rd edition, D. Beede, Ed., American Dairy Science Association (In press, eBook to be published Aug 2017). Chandan, R.C., D.A. Patel, R.A. Almeida, and S.P. Oliver. 2016. Mammary gland and milk biosynthesis: Natures virtual bioprocessing factory. In: 2nd Edition of Dairy Processing Technology and Quality Assurance, Ramesh C. Chandan, Arun Kilara and N. P. Shah, Eds., Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. De Vries, A. Marginal thinking and decision-making. In: Large Dairy Herd Management 3rd edition, D. Beede, Ed., American Dairy Science Association (In press, eBook to be published Aug 2017). Nickerson, S.C. and L.M. Sordillo. 2016. Modulation of the bovine mammary gland. Large Dairy Herd Management, 3rd ed. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/ldhm. American Dairy Science Association, TBC. In Press. Oliver, S. P. 2016. Milk quality and safety. In: Large Dairy Herd Management 3rd edition, D. Beede, Ed., American Dairy Science Association (In press, eBook to be published Aug 2017). 32. Patel, D.A, S.P. Oliver, R.A. Almeida, and E.R. Vedamuthu. 2016. Management systems for safety and quality. In: 2nd Edition Dairy Processing Technology and Quality Assurance, R. C. Chandan, A. Kilara and N. P. Shah, Eds., Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. Petersson-Wolfe, C. Opportunities for managing health and welfare using precision technologies. In: Large Dairy Herd Management 3rd edition, D. Beede, Ed., American Dairy Science Association (In press, eBook to be published Aug 2017). Oliver, S. P. 2016. Milk quality and safety. In: Large Dairy Herd Management 3rd edition, D. Beede, Ed., American Dairy Science Association (In press, eBook to be published Aug 2017).
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Enger, B., R.R. White, S.C. Nickerson, and L.K. Fox. 2016. Meta-analysis of factors influencing teat dip efficacy trial results in reducing the development of new intramammary infections. J. Dairy Sci. In press. Jensen, D. B., H. Hogeveen, and A. De Vries. 2016. Bayesian integration of sensor information and a multivariate dynamic linear model for prediction of dairy cow mastitis. J. Dairy Sci. 99 (9) 73447361.


Progress 02/01/15 to 01/31/16

Outputs
Target Audience:Target audiences for this study include dairy producers and farm personnel, Extension agents, Extension Speacialists, veterinarians, academicians, allied support personnel and undergraduarte and graduate students. The information below is intended for all of these groups. Objective 1) Identify economic, social, and psychological factors affecting limited adoption of practices known to control mastitis and develop strategies to counter the rationale for non-adoption. This research effort involves using both qualitative and quantitative research methods to identify economic, social, and psychological factors that work directly with producers to assess on-farm practices that enhance milk quality. Extension programs and educational resources relevant to SE dairy producers will be developed and published for improving milk quality. Year 3 activities..... continued analysis of data collected through the survey of 589 dairy producers in GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN and VA using multivariate regression and drafted a manuscript for publication; focused additional analysis on information resources and how they relate to SCC; prepared data from the survey of closed dairy farms (n= 75 in GA, KY, MS, and TN) for comparative analysis with the survey of currently operating dairy farms; engaged > 100 dairy farmers, extension agents and dairy co-op field representatives at 3 workshops to present information about farm and operator characteristics related to SCC. Objective 2) Conduct applied research and on-farm demonstrations to evaluate management practices, including implementation strategies, required to control mastitis and enhance milk quality. Objective 2.1. Evaluate the current status of milk quality in the SE. Bulk tank (BT) milk quality records were provided by state regulatory agencies for dairy operations with Grade A milk permits for 2014. Data from dairy operations in FL (n = 125), KY (n = 701), TN (n = 330), and VA (n = 631) were evaluated. At least one somatic cell count (SCC) and standard plate count (SPC) were collected each month for each dairy. SCC and SPC data were not adjusted for milk volume. GA and MS data were not available for 2014 at the time of the report. Monthly mean BTSCC in 2014 decreased ~ 21,000 cells/ml (6.7%) continuing the downward trend from 2013. A comparison of the SE in relation to other regions of the US was possible through a USDA report (USDA-APHIS, #684.0713). The national BTSCC from the USDA study was 230,000 cells/ml, which is 73,000 cells/ml less than that observed in the SE. Thus, although improving, the SE lags behind herds in other regions. Overall, ~ 78% of SE BT samples were < 400,000, which has improved from the prior two years which were 74-75%. Thus, the majority of BT milk would not be penalized under most marketing conditions and would meet EU certification. Of the SE states, FL experienced the greatest improvement with a ~ 18% increase in BT samples < 400,000 since 2012 followed by TN with an 8% increase. Both KY and VA remained strong with > 80% of BT samples < 400,000 cells/ml. Maintaining a BTSCC < 400,000 cells/ml continues to be particularly problematic during summer months and will need to be addressed in future training programs and research. For the SE as a whole, the percentage of BT milk samples containing > 400,000 somatic cells/ml of milk was 20% or less during winter, spring, and fall months but increased to ~ 30% during summer months (July, August, and September). In TN and FL, this increased to ~ 50% of bulk tank samples. Objective 2.2. Evaluate milk quality practices on farms producing low, average, and high quality milk. Identifying those practices that are unique within each quality category will provide insight to developing education and outreach activities to help producers enhance milk quality. From June 21, 2014 through June 20, 2015 (months 18 to 30), we evaluated 286 dairies in KY (n=96), MS (n=7), TN (n=87), and VA (n=96) as part of Objective 2.2. Outputs & outcomes 1) Completed housing and milking system evaluation of 286 farms in KY, MS, TN and VA. 2) Evaluation results and recommendations reported to producers/herd managers during the evaluation including a written report following the farm visit. 3) Completed survey evaluations of 286 farms across the 4 participating states. 4) Survey data (n=246) were entered into a centralized database and are currently being processed for in-depth analyses. 5) In process of building centralized database for housing and milking system evaluations. Objective 3) Provide producers with decision-support tools and services needed to make informed decisions regarding milk quality. Decision support tools, on-farm analytics, and educational support materials needed to make more informed decisions related to milk quality will include: 1) consideration of economic factors associated with mastitis; 2) standard operating procedures (SOPs) and videos related to milk quality management and mastitis prevention practices; 3) understanding milk cultures and an online mastitis pathogen reporting system; and 4) on-farm assessment programs to investigate risk factors for mastitis. These tools are/will be available on the SQMI website (www.sequalitymilk.com) and a YouTube video channel, through Smartphone applications, printed and bound copies, and on USB storage devices. Objective 3.2 Educational support materials. A comprehensive set of SOPs and informational fact sheets in printed and/or video format will be developed starting in Year 3 through the end of the project. One-page metric sheets based on DHIA records will be created to facilitate development and tracking of farm-specific key performance indicators. Creation of flowcharts to aid in mastitis treatment and decision-making will target reduced antimicrobial use and improved milk quality. Documents most commonly used by hired labor will be translated into Spanish and made available via the Internet in printed form with explanations, and also as 1-page documents suitable for lamination to be posted on-farm and in milking parlors. At the end of Year 3, we will hold our first set of training workshops in KY. We will provide extension agents, industry representatives, milk testers, and graduate students the opportunity to learn how to evaluate milking equipment function, understand bulk tank bacteria counts, and learn the economics of mastitis treatment, to mention a few topics. These hands-on workshops will give the SQMI team the opportunity to show participants how to assess milk quality on-farm. Objective 4) Develop continuing education programs to create human resources needed to serve the dairy industry. Objective 4.1 focuses on training programs that cover basic concepts as well as new advances in mastitis control and milk quality for veterinarians, allied industry personnel, and extension educators so that they can extend their expertise to stakeholders. One goal is to provide tools and methodologies in the form of training modules for practitioners and other professionals to use in order to assist producers in controlling mastitis and improving milk quality. These research-based training modules can also be used for continuing education credits for veterinarians, and will be accessible for on-site or state-wide educational sessions. Several research-based training modules including webinars, seminars, YouTube videos, SQMI Quarterly Newsletter, and in-service training for extension agents were developed and presented in 2014-2015 and are listed under "Other Products". Objective 4.2 focuses on the development of educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students, with the goal of training the next generation of milk quality professionals by offering research opportunities through internships, special problems courses, and SQMI on-farm activities. In Year 3, 32 undergraduate and 21 graduate students were involved in various SQMI activities. Changes/Problems:No forseeable changes are anticipated for activities described for Year 4. The SQMI Team communicates very often (twice/monthly conference calls) and works very well together. Any issues that arise during the year are dealt with quickly and efficiently. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Professional development activities include seminars and presentations about SQMI at various state, regional, and national meetings to varied audiences. In addition, the PD and co-PD"S on this grant have had the opportunity to attend meetings and learn about dairy related issues in the SE and throughout the US that will be helpful as this study progresses. Objective 4.2: Focuses on training the next generation of milk quality professionals; namely undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at Land-Grant Universities in the SE. One of the goals for Year 2 of this objective, continuing on through Year 5, is to continue to develop modules for undergraduate/graduate students in the area of mastitis and milk quality, test them in the classroom, and distribute them to other institutions as requested. Teaching Modules for undergraduate/graduate students in the area of mastitis and milk quality over year 3 by SQMI institutions include: Georgia: Module 1. Introduction to Lactation Another goal of Objective 4.2 is to train students in the areas of mastitis control and milk quality by offering research opportunities through internships special problems courses. Examples of internship projects carried out during year 3 at participating SQMI institutions include: 2014-2015 Undergraduate Research Course (ADSC 4960): 15 students instructed 2014-2015 4 Graduate students instructed Students participated in research projects (internships) and gained field experience with dairy cattle including: Animal feeding, animal restraint, bleeding, weight and height measurements, vaccination, vaccination site assessment, mammary secretion collection, teat canal keratin collection, and teat condition scoring. They also received laboratory experience in: Plating and reading milk and teat canal keratin samples, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, biochemical testing (coagulase, API, etc.), Gram staining, somatic cell counting, and differential leukocyte counting. They were also responsible for writing a scientific report on their projects and had the option of presenting their work as an oral or poster session at the annual College of Agriculture and Environmental Science Seminar Series. Internships completed during Year 3 included: Internship 1. Combining dry cow therapy and teat seal to treat bred heifers prior to calving. Internship 2. Use of vaccination to control staphylococcal mastitis and somatic cell counts. Internship 3. Evaluation of a nutritional specialty product for ruminants in controlling mastitis. Internship 4. Implementation of mastitis control measures in a high SCC problem herd. Internship 5. Relationship between teat end scoring, intramammary infection status, and SCC. Virginia: Modules developed for educating undergraduate and/or graduate students in the areas of mastitis and milk quality: Module 1. Evaluating milking equipment Module 2. Understanding the importance of antibiotic therapy Module 3. Understanding on-farm milk culturing - how, where and why to use this tool Internship 1. SQMI on-farm assessments continued from 2014: Continued to oversee 4 undergraduate students and a visiting intern from France in the following: Learn to appropriately assess milk quality on-farm Learn to critically assess the data to determine strengths and weaknesses on-farm Learn to write reports for dairy producers which suggest changes in standard operating procedures Gain experience working directly with dairy producers and hired personnel Internship 2. SQMI on-farm visits: Trained one Ph.D. and one M.S. student in the following: How to appropriately assess milk quality on-farm, to critically assess data to determine strengths and weaknesses, to write reports for dairy producers suggesting changes in standard operating procedures, and to work directly with producers/hired personnel Gain experience in organizing and training undergrads and interns Gain experience in administering surveys to dairy producers Learn to analyze observational datasets Responsible for project write-up and analysis Tennessee: 12 student internships grouped as follows: Internship 1: SQMI Farm Evaluation - one MS candidate How to appropriately assess milk quality on-farm, to critically assess data to determine strengths and weaknesses, to write reports for dairy producers suggesting changes in standard operating procedures, and work directly with producers/hired personnel. Gain experience in organizing and training undergrads and interns Gain experience in administering surveys to dairy producers Learn to analyze observational datasets Responsible for project write-up and analysis Internship 2: SQMI Farm Evaluation (n=3; MS and PhD candidates) How to appropriately assess milk quality on-farm, to critically assess data to determine strengths and weaknesses, to write reports for dairy producers suggesting changes in standard operating procedures, and work directly with producers/hired personnel. Gain experience in organizing and training undergrads and interns Gain experience in administering surveys to dairy producers Internship 3 (n=6 BS, MS, PhD, and DVM candidates): Shadow on-farm evaluation processes used to assess contribution to milk quality Internship 4 (one BS candidate): Evaluate genetic variation in Staphylococcus aureus genes associated with granuloma formation in host tissues. Develop research skills such as PCR, sequencing, genetic variation analysis in an organism associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Her goal is to enter an MS program related to mastitis-based research. Kentucky: Graduate Students: 2 PhD students and 2 MS students Four Undergraduate Students How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results from our study are presented regularly to scientists, extension specialists, extension agents, dairy producers, veterinarians, dairy consultants, pharmaceutical companies and other members of the dairy community. The SQMI Team has presented numerous abstracts and presentations at professional organizations such as the National Mastitis Council and the American Dairy Science Association Annual Meetings. We also publish our results in the popular press such as Hoard's Dairyman. The three-day 2015 SQMI Annual Meeting held in Russellville, KY focused on educational presentations for dairy producers, extension personnel, and members of agri-industries serving the dairy community, and many of the presentations were based on findings from the SQMI project during the first two days. The 3rd day of the SQMI Annual Meeting was dedicated to discussions with our Advisory Committee discussing our progress during the last year, our plans for next year and listening to their comments about our activities and potential ways of enhancing our outreach efforts. We will continue to develop educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students. This project has already impacted numerous undergraduate and graduate students, and has played an important role in training the next generation of milk quality professionals. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?The goal of Objective 1 is to identify economic, social, and psychological factors affecting limited adoption of practices known to control mastitis, and to develop strategies to counter the rationale for non-adoption. The survey identified producer utilization of various management practices and veterinarians serving dairies. In Year 3, analysis of dairy producer survey data (n=589 in GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN and VA) using multivariate regression was completed and one manuscript for publication was drafted. This paper will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Other manuscripts focusing on farm structure characteristics, operator characteristics, farmer attitude and perceptions, state indicators, and information source will be prepared and submited for publication to perr-reviewed journals, popular press outlets, and extension publications. A meeting of Objective 2 members was held at Virginia Tech after completion of farm visits associated with Objective 2.2 to assess and begin refining best means of summarizing data for analysis. We also developed a series of publications that will be targeted in the future. A listing of these publications and lead states are provided below. We expect three to four publications to be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and developed into extension-based materials for the SE in the upcoming year. Influence of producer perceptions on antibiotic use and BTSCC (VT, UT) Management practices associated with BTSCC - Milking practices (UT, VT) Management practices associated with BTSCC - Equipment (VT, UT) Management practices associated with BTSCC - Housing facilities, animal factors, management (UT, UKY) Management practices associated with BTSCC - Housing type and management (UKY) Management practices associated with BTSCC - Heat stress (MSU, UT) Management practices associated with BTSCC - Preventive practices (UT, VT) Management practices associated with BTSCC - Nutrition and grazing management (MSU) Management practices associated with BTSCC - Heifer and dry cow management (UT, MSU) Economic descriptive analysis/economic optimization analysis (UKY) Relative usage of antibiotics on farm (UT) Factors influencing milk quality and status of dairy industry (UT, MSU) Human resources (UKY) Housing factors that affect locomotion in the SE (UT) Pathogen prevalence (UT) DHIA data impact on milk quality (UKY) Objective 2.3. In Year 4, farms with low to average quality milk will be enrolled in an on-farm assessment and modification program that will involve 4 phases: 1) pre-trial evaluation of dairy farm management practices; 2) development of an objective mastitis control and milk quality plan; 3) implementation of the mastitis control and milk quality plan; and 4) evaluation of the mastitis control and milk quality plan. These activities will occur in Years 4 and 5. The focus of Objective 3 is to inform dairy producers and other members of the dairy farm team to utilize current and newly developed tools to make on-farm decisions that improve milk quality. Two dashboards for dairy producers and extension personnel created during Year 2 to help manage and show economic effects of somatic cell counts in milk were used extensively in Year 3. These tools are user-friendly and easily accessible to maximize producer use. The Milk Quality Dashboard: http://sequalitymilk.com/calculator/and the Hotsheet Dashboard: http://afsdairy.ca.uky.edu /extension/decision tools/hotsheet are ready for viewing and use on the SQMI website (www.sequalitymilk.com). Objective 3.2 A comprehensive set of SOPs and informational fact sheets in printed and/or video format will be developed starting in Year 3 through the end of the project. One-page metric sheets based on DHIA records will be created to facilitate development and tracking of farm-specific key performance indicators. Creation of flowcharts to aid in mastitis treatment and decision-making will target reduced antimicrobial use and improved milk quality. Documents most commonly used by hired labor will be translated into Spanish and made available via the Internet in printed form with explanations, and also as 1-page documents suitable for lamination to be posted on-farm and in milking parlors. We will hold our first set of training workshops in Kentucky. At these meetings we are taking the "train-the-trainer" approach, where we will provide extension agents, industry representatives, milk testers, and graduate students the opportunity to learn how to evaluate milking equipment function, understand bulk tank bacteria counts, and learn the economics of mastitis treatment, to mention a few topics. These hands-on workshops will give the SQMI team the opportunity to show participants how to assess milk quality on-farm. Objective 4 focuses on developing and presenting dairy education programs that result in a more knowledgeable workforce to promote the sustainability of the SE dairy industry. Objective 4.2: Focuses on training the next generation of milk quality professionals; namely undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at Land-Grant Universities in the SE. One of the goals for Year 3 of this objective, continuing on through Year 5, is to continue to develop modules for undergraduate/graduate students in the area of mastitis and milk quality, test them in the classroom, and distribute them to other institutions as requested. Objective 4 will continue to develop educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students, with the goal of training the next generation of milk quality professionals. This project has impacted numerous undergraduate and graduate students, and has played an important role in training the next generation of milk quality specialists. You-Tube videos will be developed that focus on procedures and/or principles for mastitis control that are followed by successful dairy operations. The YouTube channel has been set up as Southeast Quality Milk at https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCJCWBuzj78G_-LS1Ika--2Q/feed?filter=2. Educational materials (i.e., PowerPoint presentations) are also in development over Years 3 and 4 for veterinarians to use at locally-sponsored producer meetings in order to provide training for extension agents and producers. Such materials will include: 1) aseptic collection of milk samples for bacterial culture and how results are used to devise an on-farm action plan; 2) mastitis vaccines; 3) developing and evaluating farm-specific treatment protocols; and 4) monitoring herd performance using somatic cell count (SCC) and bulk tank data. Further materials for veterinarians will focus on the public health aspects of mastitis including: 1) prevention of antibiotic residues in milk and meat; 2) judicious use of antibiotics to decrease antibiotic resistance; 3) explanation of extra-label drug use and implications for milk and meat withholding times; 4) importance of record keeping and official identification of all cows on the dairy; and 5) dangers of raw milk consumption.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1) Identify economic, social, and psychological factors affecting limited adoption of practices known to control mastitis and develop strategies to counter the rationale for non-adoption. This research effort involves using both qualitative and quantitative research methods to identify economic, social, and psychological factors that work directly with producers to assess on-farm practices that enhance milk quality. Extension programs and educational resources relevant to SE dairy producers will be developed and published for improving milk quality. Year 3 activities..... continued analysis of data collected through the survey of 589 dairy producers in GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN and VA using multivariate regression and drafted a manuscript for publication; focused additional analysis on information resources and how they relate to SCC; prepared data from the survey of closed dairy farms (n= 75 in GA, KY, MS, and TN) for comparative analysis with the survey of currently operating dairy farms; engaged > 100 dairy farmers, extension agents and dairy co-op field representatives at 3 workshops to present information about farm and operator characteristics related to SCC. Objective 2) Conduct applied research and on-farm demonstrations to evaluate management practices, including implementation strategies, required to control mastitis and enhance milk quality. Objective 2.1. Evaluate the current status of milk quality in the SE. Bulk tank (BT) milk quality records were provided by state regulatory agencies for dairy operations with Grade A milk permits for 2014. Data from dairy operations in FL (n = 125), KY (n = 701), TN (n = 330), and VA (n = 631) were evaluated. At least one somatic cell count (SCC) and standard plate count (SPC) were collected each month for each dairy. SCC and SPC data were not adjusted for milk volume. GA and MS data were not available for 2014 at the time of the report. Monthly mean BTSCC in 2014 decreased ~ 21,000 cells/ml (6.7%) continuing the downward trend from 2013. A comparison of the SE in relation to other regions of the US was possible through a USDA report (USDA-APHIS, #684.0713). The national BTSCC from the USDA study was 230,000 cells/ml, which is 73,000 cells/ml less than that observed in the SE. Thus, although improving, the SE lags behind herds in other regions. Overall, ~ 78% of SE BT samples were < 400,000, which has improved from the prior two years which were 74-75%. Thus, the majority of BT milk would not be penalized under most marketing conditions and would meet EU certification. Of the SE states, FL experienced the greatest improvement with a ~ 18% increase in BT samples < 400,000 since 2012 followed by TN with an 8% increase. Both KY and VA remained strong with > 80% of BT samples < 400,000 cells/ml. Maintaining a BTSCC < 400,000 cells/ml continues to be particularly problematic during summer months and will need to be addressed in future training programs and research. For the SE as a whole, the percentage of BT milk samples containing > 400,000 somatic cells/ml of milk was 20% or less during winter, spring, and fall months but increased to ~ 30% during summer months (July, August, and September). In TN and FL, this increased to ~ 50% of bulk tank samples. Objective 2.2. Evaluate milk quality practices on farms producing low, average, and high quality milk. Identifying those practices that are unique within each quality category will provide insight to developing education and outreach activities to help producers enhance milk quality. From June 21, 2014 through June 20, 2015 (months 18 to 30), we evaluated 286 dairies in KY (n=96), MS (n=7), TN (n=87), and VA (n=96) as part of Objective 2.2. Outputs & outcomes 1) Completed housing and milking system evaluation of 286 farms in KY, MS, TN and VA. 2) Evaluation results and recommendations reported to producers/herd managers during the evaluation including a written report following the farm visit. 3) Completed survey evaluations of 286 farms across the 4 participating states. 4) Survey data (n=246) were entered into a centralized database and are currently being processed for in-depth analyses. 5) In process of building centralized database for housing and milking system evaluations. Objective 3) Provide producers with decision-support tools and services needed to make informed decisions regarding milk quality. Decision support tools, on-farm analytics, and educational support materials needed to make more informed decisions related to milk quality will include: 1) consideration of economic factors associated with mastitis; 2) standard operating procedures (SOPs) and videos related to milk quality management and mastitis prevention practices; 3) understanding milk cultures and an online mastitis pathogen reporting system; and 4) on-farm assessment programs to investigate risk factors for mastitis. These tools are/will be available on the SQMI website (www.sequalitymilk.com) and a YouTube video channel, through Smartphone applications, printed and bound copies, and on USB storage devices. Dashboards created in Year 2 continue to be used in educational efforts. Milk Quality Dashboard: http://afsdairy.ca.uky.edu/MilkQualityCalculator, http://sequalitymilk.com/calculator/ Hotsheet Dashboard: http://afsdairy.ca.uky.edu/extension/decisiontools/hotsheet Objective 3.2 Educational support materials. A comprehensive set of SOPs and informational fact sheets in printed and/or video format will be developed starting in Year 3 through the end of the project. One-page metric sheets based on DHIA records will be created to facilitate development and tracking of farm-specific key performance indicators. Creation of flowcharts to aid in mastitis treatment and decision-making will target reduced antimicrobial use and improved milk quality. Documents most commonly used by hired labor will be translated into Spanish and made available via the Internet in printed form with explanations, and also as 1-page documents suitable for lamination to be posted on-farm and in milking parlors. At the end of Year 3, we will hold our first set of training workshops in KY. We will provide extension agents, industry representatives, milk testers, and graduate students the opportunity to learn how to evaluate milking equipment function, understand bulk tank bacteria counts, and learn the economics of mastitis treatment, to mention a few topics. These hands-on workshops will give the SQMI team the opportunity to show participants how to assess milk quality on-farm. Objective 4) Develop continuing education programs to create human resources needed to serve the dairy industry. Objective 4.1 focuses on training programs that cover basic concepts as well as new advances in mastitis control and milk quality for veterinarians, allied industry personnel, and extension educators so that they can extend their expertise to stakeholders. One goal is to provide tools and methodologies in the form of training modules for practitioners and other professionals to use in order to assist producers in controlling mastitis and improving milk quality. These research-based training modules can also be used for continuing education credits for veterinarians, and will be accessible for on-site or state-wide educational sessions. Several research-based training modules including webinars, seminars, YouTube videos, SQMI Quarterly Newsletter, and in-service training for extension agents were developed and presented in 2014-2015 and are listed under "Other Products". Objective 4.2 focuses on the development of educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students, with the goal of training the next generation of milk quality professionals by offering research opportunities through internships, special problems courses, and SQMI on-farm activities. In Year 3, 32 undergraduate and 21 graduate students were involved in various SQMI activities.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Jensen, D.B, and A. De Vries. 2015. Bayesian prediction of mastitis using sensor data routinely collected in dairy herds. Book of Abstracts of the 66th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, page 297. (Warsaw, Poland)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2016 Citation: Oliver, Stephen P., Oudessa Kerro Dego, and Raul A. Almeida. 2016. Mastitis, antibiotics and production of high quality milk. In: Proc. Natl. Mastitis Council (In press).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Schexnayder, S.M., L.E. Garkovich, J.M. Fly, P.D. Krawczel, and S.P. Oliver. 2015. Southeast Quality Milk Initiative: Survey findings on producers experiences, perceptions, and attitudes about mastitis and mastitis management. In: Proc. Natl. Mastitis Council, pp. 237-238.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Schexnayder, S.M., J.M. Fly, P.D. Krawczel, L.D. Garkovich, and S.P. Oliver. SQMI Mastitis and Milk Quality, Finding of a Survey of Dairy Producers. Presentation to DFA Quarterly Meeting, 12 November 2014. (20 DFA Field Representatives).
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: Schexnayder, S.M., J.M. Fly, P.D. Krawczel, L.D. Garkovich, and S.P. Oliver. SQMI Mastitis and Milk Quality, Findings of Survey of Dairy Producers. Presentation to TN Dairy Producers Association Meeting, Murfreesboro, TN. 16 January 2015. (45 dairy producers and TN Extension agents).
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: Krawczel, P.D., L.D. Garkovich, and S.P. Oliver. Kentucky Dairy Farmers & Research-based Information. Presentation to Kentucky Dairy County Program Training, Columbia, KY. 16 June 2015. (40 Extension agents and specialists).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Pighetti, G.M., C.S. Petersson-Wolfe, J.M. Bewley, S.C. Nickerson, S. Hill-Ward, A. De Vries, and S.P. Oliver. 2015. Southeast Quality Milk Initiative: Milk quality in the Southeast USA, 2013. NMC Annual Meeting Proceedings, pp 213-214.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Blakely, C., G.M. Pighetti, P. Krawczel, R. Almeida, C. Petersson-Wolfe, J. Bewley, S. Ward, A. Stone, and S.P. Oliver. 2015. SQMI: Survey of practices in the Southeast USA to control milk quality. NMC Annual Meeting Proceedings, pp 217-218.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: Borchers, M.R. and J.M. Bewley. 2015. Promoting dairy cattle health through the transition period and into early lactation. Kentucky Dairy Notes (July). Nolan, D.T. and J.M. Bewley. 2015. Hot sheet dashboard user guide. Kentucky Dairy Notes (March). Nolan, D.T. and J.M. Bewley. 2015. Promoting dairy cattle health through the transition period and into early lactation. Kentucky Dairy Notes (February). Petersson-Wolfe, C.S. 2015. Raw milk  risk or reward? Dairy Pipeline at Virginia Tech. (October). Petersson-Wolfe, C.S. 2015. Every second counts. SQMI Quarterly Newsletter (July). Petersson-Wolfe, C.S. 2015. The truth about Staph aureus. Dairy Pipeline at Virginia Tech. (March). Petersson-Wolfe, C.S. 2014. Milk quality in the Southeast US: How did Virginia measure up? Dairy Pipeline at Virginia Tech. (November). Stone, A.E. and J.M. Bewley. 2014. Does a cow's DNA or her dam's environment determine her disease response? Kentucky Dairy Notes (December). De Vries, A. and F.C. Ferreira. 2015. Smaller Florida dairy farms tend to be more seasonal in milk production. Dairy Update, Spring 2015, Vol. 15. No. 2. http://dairy.ifas.ufl.edu/ dairyupdate/index.shtm Ferreira, F.C. and A. De Vries. 2015. Average somatic cell counts in Florida milk. Dairy Update, Summer 2015, Vol. 15. No. 3. http://dairy.ifas.ufl.edu/dairyupdate/index.shtm Ferreira, F.C, and A. De Vries. 2015. Larger Florida dairy farms tend to have lower bulk tank somatic cell counts. Dairy Update, Winter 2015, Vol. 15. No. 1. http://dairy.ifas.ufl. edu/dairyupdate/index.shtml Nickerson, S.C. 2015. Fly season is here: Protect your heifers! April May June, 2015 Georgia Dairyfax, Animal and Dairy Science Dept., Athens, GA. http://www.ads.uga.edu/ extension/documents/AprilMayJuneDairyfaxNewsletter.2015.pdf Nickerson, S.C. 2015. Using proper dry-off procedures helps control mastitis. July Aug Sept, 2015 Georgia Dairyfax, Animal and Dairy Science Dept., Athens, GA. http://www.ads.uga.edu/extension/documents/DairyfaxNewsletterJAS2015.pdf Nickerson, S.C. 2015. Managing mastitis through proper dry-off procedures. UGA Extension Bulletin, Number 1447, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. http://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.cfm?number=B1447. Nickerson, S.C. 2015. Tips for cold weather teat dipping. Jan Feb Mar, 2015 Georgia Dairyfax, Animal and Dairy Science Dept., Athens, GA. http://www.ads.uga.edu/extension /documents/JanFebMarchDairyFaxNewsletter2015.pdf Merriman, K., F. Maunsell, C. Nelson, and A. De Vries. 2014. Selective antibiotic treatment for dairy cow mastitis. Univ. Florida Ext. Publ. AN306. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu /an306
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Fereirra, F.C. and A. De Vries, 2015. Effects of season and herd milk volume on somatic cell counts of Florida dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci. 98:4182-4197.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Oliver, S.P. 2014. Consumption of raw milk: Separating fact from fiction as the debate continues. Abstract presented at the 2014 Recent Advances in Microbial Control Meeting of the Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, San Francisco, CA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Oliver, S. P. 2015. Antibiotics, mastitis, and production of high quality milk: Shall we always rely on antibiotics for udder health? In Proc. World Congress on Controversies in Bovine Health, Industry & Economics (CoBo), Berlin, Germany.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: SQMI Quarterly Newsletter (Fall 2014) 1) A welcome from SQMI Chair, S. P. Oliver (TN) titled Southeast Quality Milk Initiative (SQMI)  Who We Are and What Were About; 2) Five Common Parlor Mistakes You Should Avoid to Keep Somatic Cell Counts Low (J. Bewley, KY); 3) Extended Therapy for Mastitis (M. Arnold, KY); and 4) Is Selective Dry Cow Treatment Beneficial? (D. Nolan, KY). SQMI Quarterly Newsletter Winter 2015: 1) Consumption of Raw Milk: Separating Fact from Fiction as the Debate Continues (S.P. Oliver, TN); 2) Proper Udder Prep Maximizes Milk Quality and Minimizes Mastitis (S.C. Nickerson, GA); and 3) Management Tips for Teat Sanitization When Temperatures Drop Below Freezing (J.K. Reneau, MN). SQMI Quarterly Newsletter Spring 2015: 1) Contagious vs. Environmental Pathogens: What is the Difference? (R.A. Almeida, TN); 2) Larger Florida Dairy Farms Tend to have Lower Somatic Cell Counts (F.C. Ferreira and A. De Vries, FL); and 3) Using Nutrition to Prevent Mastitis (S.H. Ward, MS). SQMI Quarterly Newsletter Summer 2015: 1) Every Second Counts (C. Petersson-Wolfe, VA); 2) Summertime Flies and Heifers Dont Mix (S.C. Nickerson, GA); and 3) The Importance of Dry Cow Therapy (M. Arnold, KY). SQMI Quarterly Newsletter Fall 2015: 1) Cost of Mastitis: Not All Mastitis Costs the Same (F.C. Ferreira and A. De Vries, FL); 2) Controlling Mastitis in Grazing Dairy Operations (D.K. Hardin and S.H. Ward, MS); and 3) Animal Behavior and Mastitis (P. Krawczel, TN).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Ferreira, F.C., and A. De Vries, 2015. Influence of period of the year and volume of milk shipped on bulk tank somatic cell counts of Florida dairy farms. Pages 132-133 in: NMC Annual Meeting Proceedings (Memphis, Tennessee).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Hall, C.L., S.C. Nickerson, D.J. Hurley, L.O. Ely, and F.M. Kautz. 2015. Use of a novel adjuvant to enhance the protective effect of a commercial vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. Abstract no. 514. Orlando, FL. Page 569 in: J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 93, Suppl. s3/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 98, Suppl. 2. http://m.jtmtg.org/abs/t/61523
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Harding, A., S.C. Nickerson, F.M. Kautz, L.O. Ely, and D.J. Hurley. 2015. Maximize heifers udder health. Hoards Dairyman. October 10, 2015, Page 637. http://www.ads.uga.edu/ documents/UseofDryCowTherapyandTeatSeal.pdf
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Haviland, C. and S.C. Nickerson. Effectiveness in curing existing intramammary infections and preventing new caws in bred Holstein Heifers. Page 89 in Proceedings of the Center for Undergraduate Research Opportunities Symposium, March 30-31, Athens, GA.


Progress 02/01/14 to 01/31/15

Outputs
Target Audience: Objective 1) Identify economic, social and psychological factors affecting limited adoption of practices known to control mastitis and develop strategies to counter the rationale for non-adoption. Conducted one focus group in MS to complete qualitative exploration of factors affecting farmers’ mastitis management choices. Also conducted survey of farmers and “ex” dairy farmers. The survey was sent to 1,964 farms in GA, KY, MS, TN, and VA. We excluded Florida because they were surveyed by the Michigan State group. We included SC and NC to adjust for the loss of sample. The number of completed mail surveys was 588; the survey completion rate was 29.1%. Outcomes….Along with the 588 completed mail surveys, a limited telephone survey was conducted to test for the possibility of bias in results and identify the proportion of closed dairies among non-responders. The telephone survey was completed with 164 farmers and comprised a subset of the questions used in the mail survey. This non-response bias survey testing found that 14% of the sample of permitted dairies had ceased operation, with 5.5% of the sample having ceased operation between January and June 2014. Producers’ perceptions of mastitis and mastitis management, were assessed on a five-point scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Notably, producers’ perceive a SE industry-wide issue; agreement with weather having an important role is greater than agreement that milking practices, barns, and equipment do; and producers do not agree that milk quality premiums adequately cover costs. Objective 2) Conduct applied research and on-farm demonstrations to evaluate management practices, including implementation strategies, required to control mastitis and enhance milk quality. 2.1. Evaluate current status of milk quality in SE. Bulk tank milk (BTM) quality records were provided by state regulatory agencies for dairy operations with Grade A milk permits for 2013. Data from dairy operations in FL (n = 122), GA (n = 231), KY (n = 776), MS (n = 94), TN (n = 369), and VA (n = 465) were evaluated. Nearly 70% of monthly mean BTM samples were < 10,000 colony forming units per ml and well below regulatory levels defined in the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Monthly mean BTMSCC in 2013 decreased by 6,000 cells/ml (2%) from 2012 to 318,000 cells/ml. This improvement was not consistent across all states; FL, GA, and VA experienced a 16,000 - 29,000 cells/ml decrease. This suggests that different challenges and/or attitudes may be present in each state that need to be addressed through our developing programs. The national BTMSCC from USDA data was 230,000 cells/ml, which is 88,000 cells/ml less than that observed in the SE. In general, herds on DHI within a given state performed better than the overall state BTM monthly mean by 13,000 - 160,000 cells/ml, which most likely indicates better management decisions can be made. Overall US DHIA test day SCC averaged 190,000 cells/ml, while states in the SE participating in this analysis ranged from 229,000 - 319,000 cells/ml. Overall, 75% of SE BTMSCC were < 400,000, which is similar to the prior year (~74%) and indicates that the majority of BTM would not be penalized under most marketing conditions and would meet EU certification. Of the SE states, FL experienced the greatest improvement with 67% of BTM samples < 400,000, while both KY and VA had > 80% of BTM samples < 400,000 cells/ml. The percentage of BTM samples containing > 400,000 somatic cells was 20% or less during winter, spring, and fall months but increased to 30 - 40% during summer months (July, August, and September). In MS, TN, FL, and GA, this increased to 40 - 70% of bulk tank samples. Objective 3) Provide producers with decision-support tools and services needed to make informed decisions regarding milk quality. Two dashboards were created for producers to help manage and show economic effects of SCC. The Milk Quality Dashboard: http://sequalitymilk.com/calculator/and the Hotsheet Dashboard: http://afsdairy.ca.uky.edu /extension/decision tools/hotsheet are ready for viewing and use on the SQMI website (www.sequalitymilk.com). Milk Quality Dashboard: The Milk Quality Economic Opportunity Dashboard was developed so producers can calculate how increased SCC affects their farm specifically. The dashboard calculates economic benefits of increased revenue from increased milk quality bonuses and increased milk production that are correlated with a decreasing SCC. In many cases, the highest economic opportunity is the increase in milk production compared to the higher milk bonuses when lowering the SCC. Hot Sheet Dashboard: The objective was to develop a farm specific tool that producers could use to make economic decisions from DHIA hot sheet data.A DHIA hot sheet ranks cows from the highest to lowest percent of bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) based on their SCC and milk yield. Producers enter production information for the top SCC cows from the DHIA hot sheet including: milk production (lbs/d) and percentage of the BTSCC, and herd based inputs including: amount of milk shipped per day, BTSCC, current milk price, and bonus opportunities for milk quality. Results are displayed to show how the current BTSCC and the economic opportunity would change depending on which cows’ milk was discarded. Objective 4) Develop continuing education programs to create human resources needed to serve the dairy industry. Objective 4.1 focuses on training programs that cover the basic concepts as well as new advances in mastitis control and milk quality for veterinarians, allied industry support personnel, and extension educators so that they can extend their expertise to stakeholders. In order to reach practicing dairy veterinarians in the SE, a working database of food animal practitioners has been assembled. This list will be updated as farm visits are conducted in Objective 2; each producer is asked during the farm visit about veterinary care on the dairy. Eight research-based training modules and dashboards were developed in Year 2 and four of these were translated into Spanish. Objective 4.2: Focuses on training undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at Land-Grant Universities in the SE. Seven teaching modules for undergraduate/graduate students in the area of mastitis and milk quality were developed. Another goal of Objective 4.2 is to train students in the areas of mastitis control and milk quality by offering research opportunities through internships special problems courses. Four internship projects were carried out in Year 2 and several undergraduate (n=31) and graduate (n=21 ) students were involved in various SQMI on-farm activities. One graduate thesis will be based on on-farm evaluation, and participating in generating follow-up reports that are returned to producers. Changes/Problems: Assessment of bulk tank milk quality is one key area of assessment associated with Objective 2. This is now being done in conjunction with the producer’s milk buyer (processor or co-operative) and represents a slight deviation from the original proposal. Originally, we were going to collect a bulk tank milk sample during the site visit and process milk samples at milk quality labs located in TN or VA. However, this one sample was limited to a single point-in-time. By working with milk cooperatives, we are now able to obtain bulk tank milk quality data (standard plate count and somatic cell count information) for 12 months for each farm. We also are able to conduct additional analyses on the normally submitted bulk tank milk samples to include preliminary incubation count, and Streptococci, Staphylococci, Coliforms, and Mycoplasma, which were included in the original proposal. Consequently, we were able to significantly increase the amount of data from each farm participating in this project at NO additional cost to the grant. Having this extra information will allow us to provide greater feedback and recommendations to producers regarding bulk tank milk quality. Our collaborations with milk cooperatives will be of considerable value as we continue work in years 3-5. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? The current project includes training of one graduate student and this number will increase when we begin Year 3. One student internship that focused on mastitis control in dairy heifers has been completed, and that individual is now enrolled in veterinary school, where she is focusing on food animal medicine. Also, 4 undergraduate students received training in the 4000 level course: Undergraduate Research (Spring 2013) in the use of vaccines, immunostimulants, and antimicrobials in mastitis control. Year 2 will also involve several undergraduate students that will help collect samples and data at participating dairies and students who will work in the laboratory evaluating milk quality. Professional development activities include seminars and presentations about SQMI at various state, regional, and national meetings to varied audiences. In addition, the PD and co-PD"S on this grant have had the opportunity to attend meetings and learn about dairy related issues in the SE and throughout the US that will be helpful as this study progresses. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? We held our 2nd SQMI External Advisory Committee Meeting at Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg on September 22 and 23, 2014. The meeting was excellent and the SQMI Advisory Committee provided the SQMI Team with several comments and suggestions. A copy of the SQMI Advisory Report was sent to Dr. Peter Johnson of USDA NIFA. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Objective 1: Analysis of data from the producers’ survey will be worked on and completed in Year 3. A full analysis will be published as a free-standing report and in a peer-reviewed journal (or journals) to be selected. The Southeast-wide analysis will be followed by within-state analysis and testing for significant differences among states. Objective 2. 2.2.1. Identification of herds for participation. Herds (n=306) will be evaluated in KY (n=96), MS (n=18), TN (n=96), and VA (n=96). Within each state, herds will be stratified into low (bottom 33%), average (middle 33%), and high (top 33%) quality milk herds using 2013 BTM data. Assessments will be conducted over a 12-month period with farms equally distributed among 4 time periods (3-month intervals based on seasonal equinox) and quality groups. 2.2.2. Assessment of on-farm practices. On-farm assessment consists of 4 components: 1) a survey of management practices by the owner, 2) milking processes and equipment, 3) housing, and 4) BTM quality. Much of Year 2 was spent developing the survey, developing standard operating procedures for each of the assessments so consistency is maintained across participating states, holding a training session hosted at VA Tech with specific emphasis on milking equipment, identifying herds for participation, initiating on-farm surveys, developing databases for organizing data entry, and developing a standardized report that is returned to producers to provide guidance based on our evaluation. A questionnaire was developed to identify variations in management, facilities, and resources that potentially contribute to variations in milk quality among farms in the SE. We also included multiple questions to help estimate costs of certain practices known to help produce high quality milk. This aspect was in response to findings of Objective 1, which indicated that producers would like to have an economic cost to benefit ratio for implementing certain practices. Milking processes being evaluated include those known to be relevant to controlling mastitis. We also included assessment of milking equipment which may be a particular challenge to SE as milking equipment suppliers and support personnel are not readily available in all areas. This assessment includes vacuum reserve, vacuum levels, and pulsator function. We are also evaluating temperature and pH properties of clean-in-place wash cycles of the milking system. The third key area takes into account cleanliness and cow comfort of the housing system by assessing aspects such as stall size, bedding wetness and cleanliness, overcrowding, ventilation, cow cleanliness, and water/feed access. The fourth key area is an assessment of BTM quality. This is being done in conjunction with the producer’s milk buyer (processor or co-operative) and represents a slight deviation from the proposed research. Originally, we were going to collect a BTM sample during the site visit only and process at either TN or VA. However, this was limited to a single snap-shot in time. By working with milk cooperatives, we are able to obtain BTM quality data (SPC and SCC) for 12 months for each farm. Objective 3. The next dashboard to be developed in Year 3 will focus on mastitis treatment decisions. In Years 4 and 5, a series of partial-budget dashboards will be created to target decision-making for pathogen-specific mastitis culture, treatment, and culling decisions with specific emphasis placed on reduced antibiotic use. These dashboards will allow for input of farm-specific data to determine whether observations made on-farm are cause for concern. In the final year of this project, this suite of udder health management tools will be incorporated into dairy herd management software and also, where applicable, as downloadable applications to Smartphones. 3.2 Educational support materials. A comprehensive set of SOPs and informational fact sheets in printed and/or video format will be developed starting in Year 3 through the end of the project. These educational materials will be available to the public through the SQMI website. One-page metric sheets based on DHIA records will be created to facilitate development and tracking of farm-specific key performance indicators. Creation of flowcharts to aid in mastitis treatment and decision-making will target reduced antimicrobial use and improved milk quality. Documents most commonly used by hired labor will be translated into Spanish and made available via the Internet in printed form with explanations, and also as 1-page documents suitable for lamination to be posted on-farm and in milking parlors. In addition, we will partner with the NMC to disseminate this information nationally and internationally. At the end of Year 2, we are holding our first training workshops in VA. We are taking the “train-the-trainer” approach, where we will provide Extension agents, industry representatives, milk testers, and graduate students the opportunity to learn how to evaluate milking equipment function, understand BTM bacteria counts, and learn the economics of mastitis treatment. These hands-on workshops will give the SQMI team the opportunity to show participants how to assess milk quality on-farm. Objective 4. In Years 2 and 3, You-Tube videos will continue to be developed that focus on procedures and/or principles for mastitis control that are followed by successful dairy operations. The YouTube channel has been set up as Southeast Quality Milk at https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCJCWBuzj78G-LS1Ika--2Q. These short clips will be presented or made available to producers who are struggling with milk quality issues in order to motivate them. To date, one video on “Treating heifer mastitis” has been posted at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ON5lrya0Hmo, and two more videos: 1) Proper milking procedures and 2) Sanitary collection of quarter milk samples are in progress. During Year 2 (continuing through Year 5), quarterly 2-page electronic newsletters will be developed for dairy veterinarians to: 1) update them on the latest information on udder health, such as recent regulatory changes in medications and residue testing, and 2) emphasize key concepts on milk quality and mastitis control. The first SQMI Quarterly Newsletter will become available in the fall of 2014 and this issue will feature 4 items: 1) Welcome from SQMI Chair, S P. Oliver; 2) Five Common Parlor Mistakes You Should Avoid to Keep Somatic Cell Counts Low (J. Bewley); 3) Is Selective Dry Cow Treatment Beneficial? (D. Nolan); and 4) Extended Therapy for Mastitis (M. Arnold). Educational materials (i.e., PowerPoint presentations) are also in development for veterinarians and to provide training for extension agents and producers. Such materials will include: 1) Aseptic collection of milk samples for bacterial culture and how results are used to devise an on-farm action plan; 2) mastitis vaccines; 3) developing and evaluating farm-specific treatment protocols; and 4) monitoring herd performance using somatic cell count (SCC) and bulk tank data. Further materials for veterinarians will focus on the public health aspects of mastitis including: 1) prevention of antibiotic residues in milk and meat; 2) judicious use of antibiotics to decrease antibiotic resistance; 3) explanation of extra-label drug use and implications for milk and meat withholding times; 4) importance of record keeping and official identification of all cows on the dairy; and 5) dangers of raw milk consumption. Objective 4.2: Focuses on training the next generation of milk quality professionals; namely undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at Land-Grant Universities in the SE. Goals for Year 3 through Year 5 are to develop modules for students in the area of mastitis and milk quality, test them in the classroom, and distribute them to other institutions as requested.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1) Identify economic, social and psychological factors affecting limited adoption of practices known to control mastitis and develop strategies to counter the rationale for non-adoption. Conducted one focus group in MS to complete qualitative exploration of factors affecting farmers’ mastitis management choices. Also conducted survey of farmers and “ex” dairy farmers. The survey was sent to 1,964 farms in GA, KY, MS, TN, and VA. We excluded Florida because they were surveyed by the Michigan State group. We included SC and NC to adjust for the loss of sample. The number of completed mail surveys was 588; the survey completion rate was 29.1%. Outcomes….Along with the 588 completed mail surveys, a limited telephone survey was conducted to test for the possibility of bias in results and identify the proportion of closed dairies among non-responders. The telephone survey was completed with 164 farmers and comprised a subset of the questions used in the mail survey. This non-response bias survey testing found that 14% of the sample of permitted dairies had ceased operation, with 5.5% of the sample having ceased operation between January and June 2014. Producers’ perceptions of mastitis and mastitis management, were assessed on a five-point scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Notably, producers’ perceive a SE industry-wide issue; agreement with weather having an important role is greater than agreement that milking practices, barns, and equipment do; and producers do not agree that milk quality premiums adequately cover costs. Objective 2) Conduct applied research and on-farm demonstrations to evaluate management practices, including implementation strategies, required to control mastitis and enhance milk quality. 2.1. Evaluate current status of milk quality in SE. Bulk tank milk (BTM) quality records were provided by state regulatory agencies for dairy operations with Grade A milk permits for 2013. Data from dairy operations in FL (n = 122), GA (n = 231), KY (n = 776), MS (n = 94), TN (n = 369), and VA (n = 465) were evaluated. Nearly 70% of monthly mean BTM samples were < 10,000 colony forming units per ml and well below regulatory levels defined in the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Monthly mean BTMSCC in 2013 decreased by 6,000 cells/ml (2%) from 2012 to 318,000 cells/ml. This improvement was not consistent across all states; FL, GA, and VA experienced a 16,000 - 29,000 cells/ml decrease. This suggests that different challenges and/or attitudes may be present in each state that need to be addressed through our developing programs. The national BTMSCC from USDA data was 230,000 cells/ml, which is 88,000 cells/ml less than that observed in the SE. In general, herds on DHI within a given state performed better than the overall state BTM monthly mean by 13,000 - 160,000 cells/ml, which most likely indicates better management decisions can be made. Overall US DHIA test day SCC averaged 190,000 cells/ml, while states in the SE participating in this analysis ranged from 229,000 - 319,000 cells/ml. Overall, 75% of SE BTMSCC were < 400,000, which is similar to the prior year (~74%) and indicates that the majority of BTM would not be penalized under most marketing conditions and would meet EU certification. Of the SE states, FL experienced the greatest improvement with 67% of BTM samples < 400,000, while both KY and VA had > 80% of BTM samples < 400,000 cells/ml. The percentage of BTM samples containing > 400,000 somatic cells was 20% or less during winter, spring, and fall months but increased to 30 - 40% during summer months (July, August, and September). In MS, TN, FL, and GA, this increased to 40 - 70% of bulk tank samples. Objective 3) Provide producers with decision-support tools and services needed to make informed decisions regarding milk quality. Two dashboards were created for producers to help manage and show economic effects of SCC. The Milk Quality Dashboard: http://sequalitymilk.com/calculator/and the Hotsheet Dashboard: http://afsdairy.ca.uky.edu /extension/decision tools/hotsheet are ready for viewing and use on the SQMI website (www.sequalitymilk.com). Milk Quality Dashboard: The Milk Quality Economic Opportunity Dashboard was developed so producers can calculate how increased SCC affects their farm specifically. The dashboard calculates economic benefits of increased revenue from increased milk quality bonuses and increased milk production that are correlated with a decreasing SCC. In many cases, the highest economic opportunity is the increase in milk production compared to the higher milk bonuses when lowering the SCC. Hot Sheet Dashboard: The objective was to develop a farm specific tool that producers could use to make economic decisions from DHIA hot sheet data.A DHIA hot sheet ranks cows from the highest to lowest percent of bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) based on their SCC and milk yield. Producers enter production information for the top SCC cows from the DHIA hot sheet including: milk production (lbs/d) and percentage of the BTSCC, and herd based inputs including: amount of milk shipped per day, BTSCC, current milk price, and bonus opportunities for milk quality. Results are displayed to show how the current BTSCC and the economic opportunity would change depending on which cows’ milk was discarded. Objective 4) Develop continuing education programs to create human resources needed to serve the dairy industry. Objective 4.1 focuses on training programs that cover the basic concepts as well as new advances in mastitis control and milk quality for veterinarians, allied industry support personnel, and extension educators so that they can extend their expertise to stakeholders. In order to reach practicing dairy veterinarians in the SE, a working database of food animal practitioners has been assembled. This list will be updated as farm visits are conducted in Objective 2; each producer is asked during the farm visit about veterinary care on the dairy. Eight research-based training modules and dashboards were developed in Year 2 and four of these were translated into Spanish. Objective 4.2: Focuses on training undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at Land-Grant Universities in the SE. Seven teaching modules for undergraduate/graduate students in the area of mastitis and milk quality were developed. Another goal of Objective 4.2 is to train students in the areas of mastitis control and milk quality by offering research opportunities through internships special problems courses. Four internship projects were carried out in Year 2 and several undergraduate (n=31) and graduate (n=21 ) students were involved in various SQMI on-farm activities. One graduate thesis will be based on on-farm evaluation, and participating in generating follow-up reports that are returned to producers.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Nickerson, S.C and S. P. Oliver. 2014. How well have US dairy producers adopted mastitis control technologies for reducing herd somatic cell counts and improving milk quality? Professional Animal Scientist 30:115-124.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Pighetti, Gina M., Stephen P. Oliver, Raul A. Almeida, Peter D. Krawczel, J. Mark Fly, Susan M. Schexnayder, Christina S. Petersson-Wolfe, Jeffrey M. Bewley, Lorraine E. Garkovich, Donna M. Amaral-Phillips, L. Michelle Arnold, Stephen C. Nickerson, Stephanie Hill Ward, and Albert De Vries. 2014. Southeast Quality Milk Initiative: Milk quality in the Southeast USA. In: Proc. Natl. Mastitis Council, pp 209-210.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Schexnayder, Susan M., Lorraine E. Garkovich, J. Mark Fly, Peter D. Krawczel, Christina S. Petersson-Wolfe, Jeffrey M. Bewley, Stephanie Hill-Ward, Gina M. Pighetti, Raul A. Almeida, L. Michelle Arnold, Donna M. Amaral-Phillips, Stephen C. Nickerson, Albert De Vries, and Stephen P. Oliver. 2014. Southeast Quality Milk Initiative: Producers experiences, perceptions, and attitudes about mastitis and bulk tank SCC management. In: Proc. Natl. Mastitis Council, pp. 169-170.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Schexnayder, S. M., P. D. Krawczel, M. Fly, L. E. Garkovich, C. S. Petersson-Wolfe, J. M. Bewley, S. H. Ward, G. M. Pighetti, R. A. Almeida, M. Arnold, S. C. Nickerson, A. De Vries, and S. P. Oliver. 2014. Initial assessment of producers experiences, perceptions, and attitudes about mastitis and bulk tank somatic cell count management in the Southeast. J. Dairy Sci. 97 (Suppl. 1):518-519.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Pighetti, G. M., C. S. Petersson-Wolfe, J. M. Bewley, S. C. Nickerson, S. H. Ward, A. De Vries, P. D. Krawczel, R. A. Almeida, M. Fly, S. M. Schexnayder, L. E. Garkovich, M. Arnold, and S. P. Oliver. 2014. The status of milk quality at the start of the Southeast Quality Milk Initiative. J. Dairy Sci. 97 (Suppl. 1):519.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Eubanks, V.J., and S. C. Nickerson. 2013. Are you ready for fly season? Hoards Dairyman. May 10, 2013, page 333. Nickerson, S. C. 2013. Proper prepping of cows for milking helps to improve milk quality, especially during hot, rainy weather. Georgia Dairyfax. July August September 2013. Pages 13-15. Nickerson, S. C. 2013. Dry cow therapy: Kills two birds with one stone. Georgia Dairyfax. October November December 2013. Pages 6-8. Nickerson, S.C. 2013. Management strategies to reduce heat stress, prevent mastitis, and improve milk quality in dairy cows and heifers. Bulletin (B 1426). UGA Cooperative Extension. 10 pp. http://www.caes.uga.edu/Publications/pubDetail.cfm?pk_id=8082&pg=dl&ak=Animal%20and%20Dairy%20Science. Nickerson, S.C. 2013. Invited Review. Managing mastitis in dairy heifers to improve overall herd health. Penn State Extension Dairy Cattle Nutrition Workshop. Pages 7-14. Grantville, PA. Nickerson, S. C. 2013. Mastitis management in heifers. Hoards West. September 25, 2013. Nickerson, S. C. 2013. Waging war in the udder. Hoards Dairyman Magazine. Page 472. July, 2014. Nickerson, S.C., F. M. Kautz, and E.L. Nace. 2013. Managing mastitis in dairy heifers to improve overall herd health. Bulletin (B 1416). UGA Cooperative Extension. 11 pp. http://www.caes.uga.edu/Publications/pubDetail.cfm?pk_id=8046&pg=dl&ak=AnimalandDairyScience.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Nickerson, S.C. 2014. Whats better - teat dipping or teat spraying to prevent new cases of mastitis? Pages 13-14 in Georgia Dairyfax. January-February-March 2014. Nickerson, S.C. 2014. Chronic mastitic quarters that dont cure need to be permanently dried off. Pages in Georgia Dairyfax. April-May-June 2014. Nickerson, S.C. 2014. Chronic mastitic quarters need to be dried off. Dairy Herd Management. June 13, 2014. Nickerson, S. C. 2014. Despite our best efforts to limit mastitis, bacteria may bridge a cows natural defenses and cause an infection. Hoards Dairyman Magazine. Young Dairymen Issue. July, 2014. Page 472. Nickerson, S. C. 2014. Immune-stimulating additives: Are they worth the investment? Progressive Dairyman. July 10, 2014.


Progress 02/01/13 to 01/31/14

Outputs
Target Audience: To date, activities have focused on operating farms rather than recently closed operations. Members of the SQMI Objective 1 team have conducted three focus groups—two in Kentucky and one in Virginia—and 12 personal interviews mostly with Tennessee farmers. Participants have been selected to assure representation of different size herds, types of ownership/management, SCC histories, and farming cultures. Preliminary findings from qualitative research suggest: Size of the operation is not a predictor of bulk tank SCC, although approaches to controlling it may vary based on the size and number of laborers associated with the operation. There seems only moderate understanding of the relationship between subclinical mastitis and milk production, and the financial losses based on quantity alone (rather than quality) are not affecting behavior. Long-term objectives of the farmer affect behaviors related to SCC, with those planning to remain in business for an extended period or to transfer ownership to a family member more willing to make changes and investments. There is considerable uncertainty among producers about the effectiveness and “return-on-investment” for mastitis management practices, with culling cows being the only exception. Farmers have interest in identifying the SCC level that is most cost-efficient, or the points at which investments in mastitis management begin to and cease to add economic benefit. Extension publications and “meetings” seem to be less favored information sources/learning opportunities. Visits to other farms to view effective and cost-effective practices in place are one preferred option. The SQMI Objective 1 team has developed a mail survey instrument focused on the research questions outlined above and drawing from previous mastitis research, including the Kentucky survey that focused on mastitis management practices, the Dutch survey that focused on behavioral and attitudinal factors, and the current Michigan survey. The survey instrument draws heavily on the outcomes of the focus groups and personal interviews, SQMI team input based on experience with dairies and farmers, expert reviews of the survey, and farmer pretests. The survey is included as an appendix to this report. Sample for the survey has been drawn from six states. Sample size is > 2,000, and the expected response rate is just over 40%, based on previous experience with surveying dairy farms, the degree of interest dairies have in the topic, the “interest item” designed to increase initial consideration (see Figure 1), and small incentives offered to respondents. The first mailing of the survey to currently operating dairy farms will be September 5. A standard four-contact design is scheduled and the survey period will close on October 18. Survey respondents will be offered the opportunity to be considered for on-farm evaluations (Objective 2). The survey of closed dairy operations will track about 4 – 6 weeks behind this. Changes/Problems: There have been no major or minor problems. We were able to send additional surveys to dairy producers in S.Carolina and N. Carolina which was not part of the funded proposal. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? The current project includes training of one graduate student and this number will increase when we begin Year 2. One student internship that focused on mastitis control in dairy heifers has been completed, and that individual is now enrolled in veterinary school, where she is focusing on food animal medicine. Also, 4 undergraduate students received training in the 4000 level course: Undergraduate Research (Spring 2013) in the use of vaccines, immunostimulants, and antimicrobials in mastitis control. Year 2 will also involve several undergraduate students that will help collect samples and data at participating dairies and students who will work in the laboratory evaluating milk quality. Professional development activities include seminars and presentations about SQMI at various state, regional, and national meetings to varied audiences. In addition, the PD and co-PD"S on this grant have had the opportunity to attend meetings and learn about dairy related issues in the SE and throughout the US that will be helpful as this study progresses. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? We held our 1st SQMI External Advisory Committee Meeting at The University of Tennessee, Knoxvile on September 18 and 17, 2013. The meeting was excellent and the SQMI Advisory Committee provided the SQMI Team with several comments and suggestions. A copy of the SQMI Advisory Report was sent to Dr. Peter Johnson of USDA NIFA. SQMI Publicity Oliver Stephen P., Raul A. Almeida, Gina M. Pighetti, Peter D. Krawczel, J. Mark Fly, Christina S. Petersson-Wolfe, Jeffrey M. Bewley, Lorraine Garkovich, Donna M. Amaral-Phillips, Michelle Arnold, Stephen C. Nickerson, Stephanie Hill-Ward, and Albert DeVries. 2013. Southeast Quality Milk Initiative: Implementing science-based recommendations to control mastitis and improve milk quality in the Southeast. In: Proc. Natl. Mastitis Council. Farmworld Newspaper/magazine/ http://feedstuffs.com/story-program-aid-southeastern-dairies-through-herd-health-milk-quality-45-99532 ADSA e-news E-Newsletter Feedstuffs Newspaper/magazine/ http://feedstuffs.com/story-program-aid-southeastern-dairies-through-herd-health-milk-quality-45-99532 Dairy Herd Network E-Newsletter http://www.dairyherd.com/e-newsletters/dairy-daily/Saving-Southeastern-dairies-through-herd-health-milk-quality-212493911.html SQMI presented to the Tennessee Dairy Advocacy Group, Knoxville, TN March, 2013 SQMI presented at the Kentucky Quality Milk Conference, Cadiz, KY August 2013 Associated Press: Southeastern universities to study ailing regional dairy industry, seek cure A six-state study will attempt to pinpoint the causes of the decline in the Southeastern U.S. dairy industry. The University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture is the lead institution for the study, funded by a $3 million grant from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/southeastern-universities-to-study-ailing-regional-dairy-industry-seek-cures/2013/06/20/6eca4046-d9be-11e2-b418-9dfa095e125d_story.html Memphis Daily News:http://www.memphisdailynews.com/news/2013/jun/21/ut-heading-dairy-study-in-southeast/ Miami Herald:http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/06/20/3461470/ut-heading-dairy-study-in-southeast.html Seattle Post Intellicencer:http://www.seattlepi.com/news/article/UT-heading-dairy-study-in-Southeast-4612089.php Knoxville News Sentinel:http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2013/jun/20/ut-heading-dairy-study-in-southeast/ Access North Georgia http://www.accessnorthga.com/detail.php?n=262763 Kentucky.com http://www.kentucky.com/2013/06/20/2686021/ut-heading-dairy-study-in-southeast.html WVLT http://www.local8now.com/news/headlines/UT-heading-dairy-study-in-Southeast-212419421.html WBBJ Jackson, TN http://www.wbbjtv.com/news/regional/UT-heading-dairy-study-in-Southeast-212436081.html Fox 35 Orlando, FL http://www.myfoxorlando.com/story/22644322/ut-heading-dairy-study-in-southeast My Fox Atlanta, GA http://www.myfoxatlanta.com/story/22644323/ut-heading-dairy-study-in-southeast Evening Ledger http://www.theledger.com/article/20130620/NEWS/306205011/1001/BUSINESS?Title=University-of-Tennessee-Heading-Dairy-Study-in-Southeast UTIA News & Announcements https://ag.tennessee.edu/news/Pages/NR-2013-06-MilkQualityGrant.aspx WVVA Virginia http://www.wvva.com/story/22644329/ut-heading-dairy-study-in-southeast Washington Post http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-06-20/national/40084162_1_dairy-industry-regional-farmers-study WPEC West Palm Beach, FL http://www.cbs12.com/template/inews_wire/wires.regional.fl/36f229b1-www.cbs12.com.shtml Oak Ridger: SE Dairies in decline, UT to head study Sevierville Mountain Press: UT AgResearch heading Southeast dairy industry study Columbia Daily Herald: UT to head regional dairy study Cleveland Daily Banner: UT heading dairy study in Southeast Chattanooga Times Free Press: UT heading dairy study in Southeast Dyersburg State Gazette: UT heading dairy study in Southeast Kingsport Time News: UT heads regional dairy study Greeneville Sun: Southeast Dairy Study to be headed by UT Athens Daily Post-Athenian: UT heading dairy study in Southeast Manchester Times: Dairies decline under UT Study Bledsonian Banner: Southeastern dairies in trouble; improved herd health a solution Athens Daily Post-Athenian: UT leads effort to revitalize dairy industry Jefferson City Standard Banner: Saving dairies through improved herd health, milk quality Overton County News: USDA investigates how to reverse dairy decline UT heading dairy study in Southeast Athens Banner-Herald: UT heading dairy study in Southeast WATE-TV Union City Daily Messenger: Saving Southeastern dairies through improved herd health, milk quality Elizabethton Star: UT to play lead role in study of dairy decline in Southeast Trade journals Southeast Farm Press: Effort under way to revitalize Southeast dairy industry http://southeastfarmpress.com/livestock/effort-under-way-revitalize-southeast-dairy-industry KyForward.com Kentucky dairy farmers to benefit from new six-state study on Southeast milk ... Wisconsin Ag Connection: http://www.wisconsinagconnection.com/story-national.php?Id=1502&yr=2013 Farm World: USDA Funds plan to boost Southeast’s dairy volume Dairy Herd Network: http://www.dairyherd.com/dairy-news/Saving-Southeastern-dairies-through-herd-health-milk-quality-212493911.html Feedstuffs: http://feedstuffs.com/story-program-aid-southeastern-dairies-through-herd-health-milk-quality-45-99532 Web and Social Media: AgIsAmerica @AgIsAmerica Check out what @utextension is doing to save #dairies across the United States! bit.ly/147h8nL @DesJarlaisTN04 AgIsAmerica @AgIsAmerica .@utextension will lead a $3 million, 6 state effort to save SE Dairies & improve milk quality. bit.ly/147h8nL @SenAlexander Agriculture is America http://agisamerica.org/the-ut-institute-of-agriculture-will-lead-a-3-million-effort-to-save-southeastern-dairies What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? The SQMI Objective 1 team has developed a mail survey instrument focused on the research questions outlined above and drawing from previous mastitis research, including the Kentucky survey that focused on mastitis management practices, the Dutch survey that focused on behavioral and attitudinal factors, and the current Michigan survey. The survey instrument draws heavily on the outcomes of the focus groups and personal interviews, SQMI team input based on experience with dairies and farmers, expert reviews of the survey, and farmer pretests. The survey is included as an appendix to this report. Sample for the survey has been drawn from six states. Sample size is > 2,000, and the expected response rate is just over 40%, based on previous experience with surveying dairy farms, the degree of interest dairies have in the topic, the “interest item” designed to increase initial consideration (see Figure 1), and small incentives offered to respondents. The first mailing of the survey to currently operating dairy farms will be September 5. A standard four-contact design is scheduled and the survey period will close on October 18. Survey respondents will be offered the opportunity to be considered for on-farm evaluations (Objective 2). The survey of closed dairy operations will track about 4 – 6 weeks behind this. Objective 2. 2.2. Evaluate milk quality practices on farms producing low, average, and high quality milk. Milk quality practices employed by those herds producing low, average, and high quality milk as determined by SCC will inherently differ in nature. Identifying those practices that are unique within each quality category will provide insight to developing education and outreach activities to help producers enhance milk quality. 2.2.1. Identification of herds for participation. A total of 306 herds will be evaluated in KY (n=96), MS (n=18), TN (n=96), and VA (n=96). Within each state, the herds will be stratified into low (bottom 33%), average (middle 33%), and high (top 33%) quality milk herds. Using the herds evaluated with Objective 2.1, we have stratified the herds and will be selecting herds based on their willingness to participate. 2.2.2. Assessment of on-farm practices. This analysis will include a survey of practices related to milking time, milking equipment, antimicrobial treatments, manure removal, and stall maintenance, as well as evaluation of cow/farm cleanliness, body condition score, lying/standing behavior, and stocking densities. To account for season, assessments will be conducted monthly on an equal number of farms from each quality group. Assessments will be completed by personnel from KY, MS, TN, and VA trained during a group training session in year 1 led by TN. This will enable uniform definitions and scoring to help standardize assessment of dairies and data collection. To date, we have compiled a series of assessment protocols that are being evaluated by the team and will be further refined once the survey results from Objective 1 are available. We expect to have standardized training later this fall, along with starting on farm assessments late this year or the beginning of 2014. Objective 3. The suite of producer-focused tools and materials will include: 1) consideration of economic factors associated with mastitis; 2) standard operating procedures (SOPs) and videos related to milk quality management and mastitis prevention practices; 3) understanding milk cultures and an online mastitis pathogen reporting system; and 4) on-farm assessment programs to investigate risk factors for mastitis. These tools will be available via the internet on the SQMI website (www.sequalitymilk.com) and a YouTube video channel, through Smartphone applications, printed and bound copies, and on USB storage devices. We have worked with a design organization and developed the SQMI website. This site recently went live and new materials will be added to it as they come available. For the remainder of Year 1 and into Year 2, we will be designing the website to house a password-protected database system where results from the project can be held and accessed by project personnel and dairy producers. Specific website content is detailed in the project narrative. At least two new decision support tools will be developed in the next fiscal year primarily focused on demonstrating the economics of mastitis prevention strategies. 3.2 Educational Support Materials. A comprehensive set of SOPs and informational fact sheets in printed and/or video format will be developed starting in Year 2 through the end of the project. These educational materials will be available to the public through the SQMI website. One-page metric sheets based on DHIA records will be created to facilitate development and tracking of farm-specific key performance indicators. Creation of flowcharts to aid in mastitis treatment and decision-making will target reduced antimicrobial use and improved milk quality. Documents most commonly used by hired labor will be translated into Spanish and made available via the internet, in printed form with explanations, and also as 1-page documents suitable for lamination to be posted on-farm and in milking parlors. Also starting in Year 2, training workshops will be developed and executed across the SE to educate individuals on the use of these tools. Objective 4. One of the goals for years 1 and 2 of this objective is to provide tools and methodologies in the form of training modules for practitioners to use in order to assist producers in controlling mastitis and improving milk quality. These research-based training modules can also be used for continuing education credits for veterinarians, and will be accessible for on-site or state-wide educational sessions. Plans are in place to attend the upcoming AABP Quality Milk Production seminars in September 2013 that are designed for practicing veterinarians and obtain ideas for the tools and methods that veterinarians need to provide a milk quality and mastitis program to their clients. In order to reach practicing veterinarians in the SE, extension personnel will develop a working database of food animal practitioners, and to accomplish this, a line has been added to the Producer Survey requesting the names and contact information of herd veterinarians. Meetings have also been scheduled by SQMI project extension veterinarians to visit with area practitioners to determine what information and materials they need to assist them in providing udder health service to their clientele. In years 2 and 3, You-Tube videos will be developed that focus on procedures and/or principles for mastitis control that are followed by successful dairy operations. The YouTube channel has been set up as Southeast Quality Milk at https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCJCWBuzj78G_-LS1Ika--2Q. These short clips will be presented or made available to producers who are struggling with milk quality issues in order to motivate them. Examples include 1) Proper milking procedures; 2) how to administer intramammary antibiotic therapy; and 3) sanitary collection of quarter milk samples. Objective 4.2 focuses on training the next generation of milk quality professionals; namely undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at Land-Grant Universities in the SE. One of the goals for years 1 and 2 of this objective (which will continue through year 5) is to develop modules for undergraduate students in the area of mastitis and milk quality, test them in the classroom, and distribute them to other institutions. Undergraduate internships will also be offered to train students.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Members of the SQMI Objective 1 team have conducted three focus groups—two in Kentucky and one in Virginia—and 12 personal interviews mostly with Tennessee farmers. Participants have been selected to assure representation of different size herds, types of ownership/management, SCC histories, and farming cultures. Preliminary findings from qualitative research suggest: Size of the operation is not a predictor of bulk tank SCC, although approaches to controlling it may vary based on the size and number of laborers associated with the operation. There seems only moderate understanding of the relationship between subclinical mastitis and milk production, and the financial losses based on quantity alone (rather than quality) are not affecting behavior. Long-term objectives of the farmer affect behaviors related to SCC, with those planning to remain in business for an extended period or to transfer ownership to a family member more willing to make changes and investments. There is considerable uncertainty among producers about the effectiveness and “return-on-investment” for mastitis management practices, with culling cows being the only exception. Farmers have interest in identifying the SCC level that is most cost-efficient, or the points at which investments in mastitis management begin to and cease to add economic benefit. Extension publications and “meetings” seem to be less favored information sources/learning opportunities. Visits to other farms to view effective and cost-effective practices in place are one preferred option. Objective 2. Evaluate the current status of milk quality in the SE. To accomplish this, we examined milk quality of the herd by evaluating SCC and standard plate count (SPC) records collected for Grade A milk. Initially, we planned on conducting the assessment with the aid of milk cooperatives. However, we realized this may not provide information on all herds in each participating state. We then switched our approach to requesting this information from each state department of agriculture because at least once each month bulk tank SCC and standard plate counts (SPC) are submitted to the state for each Grade A permit holder. Because multiple samples can be collected per farm in a given month, we calculated the average per farm, so that one farm was not weighted any heavier than another. We currently have information on 4 of the 6 states (GA, KY, VA, TN), dating from January 1, 2009. The remaining two states will be included before the end of the calendar year. Dairy operations in GA (n=221), KY (n=753), TN (n=404), and VA (n=814) were analyzed (n=2192 total). Somatic cell count (SCC) and standard plate count (SPC) bulk tank milk data for 2012 were provided by state regulatory agencies. The majority of SPC samples (85%) had < 10,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml and fell within the recommended range. The SE SCC averaged 316,750 cells/ml which is greater than the USA bulk tank average of 230,000 cells/ml. Number of herds enrolled in DHIA ranged from 30-44% and these herds had approximately 50,000 fewer cells/ml. Considerable state variation occurred in frequency of samples having SCC > 400,000 cells/ml. As a group, 20% of SE samples fell into this category versus only 13% for the USA (1). Particularly problematic are the summer months when 20-60% of the samples were > 400,000 cells/ml. This is considerably greater than reported for the USA which is < 10% of samples. In summary, milk quality in the SE lags behind the USA as a whole and is particularly problematic during the summer. This increases costs and reduces revenues. This information, along with the knowledge gained in examining producer related resources and attitudes in Objective 1 will help us target and evaluate future research, education, and outreach related programs. Objective 3. Since the project start, we have developed a producer-focused interactive dashboard to estimate the economic impact of lowering somatic cell counts. Additionally, we have calculated new estimates for the cost of a clinical case of mastitis at $310 for primiparous cows and $340 for multiparous cows. These estimates account for price and biological risk through stochastic simulation, and calculate the cost of culling using the retention pay-off concept. This work provides the foundation for establishing the costs of mastitis to be used in future decision support tools. At least two new decision support tools will be developed in the next fiscal year primarily focused on demonstrating the economics of mastitis prevention strategies. Objective 4. This objective focuses on training programs that cover the basic concepts as well as the new advances in mastitis control and milk quality for veterinarians, allied industry support personnel, and extension educators so that they can extend their expertise to stakeholders (Objective 4.1). In addition, educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students will be developed to train the next generation of milk quality professionals (Objective 4.2). The Tennessee Team has developed three modules for extension in-service training…. Module 1….The Cost of Mastitis, Mastitis Pathogens & Control Practices, and Bulk Tank Milk Quality. Module 2….Using DHI Information in a Mastitis Control Program, Dairy Equipment Maintenance, Mastitis Culturing Programs, Principles of Milking Time Hygiene & Cleaning, Troubleshooting Herd Mastitis Problems, and Troubleshooting High Milk Bacterial Counts. Module 3….Milking for Quality To date, several mastitis and milk quality modules in the form of PowerPoint presentations have been developed and used in the classroom as part of the 3000 level undergraduate course: Physiology of Lactation in Farm Animals (Spring 2013). These modules covered the following areas: 1) mastitis prevalence, public health significance and economic losses to producers; 2) effects of mastitis on yield, composition, and milk quality; 3) the microorganisms that cause udder disease (contagious, environmental); 4) development of mastitis and the cow’s response to intramammary infection; 5) detection and diagnosis of mastitis at the cow and herd levels; 6) control methods for preventing the establishment of mastitis; 7) over the counter (OTC) antibiotic therapy to treat existing cases of mastitis; 8) establishing a Veterinary-Client-Patient Relationship and use of prescription antibiotics; 9) influence of the milking machine on udder health; and 10) the physiology of lactation, including the basics of mammary anatomy and function. One student internship that focused on mastitis control in dairy heifers has been completed, and that individual is now enrolled in veterinary school, where she is focusing on food animal medicine. Also, 4 undergraduate students received training in the 4000 level course: Undergraduate Research (Spring 2013) in the use of vaccines, immunostimulants, and antimicrobials in mastitis control.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Oliver Stephen P., Raul A. Almeida, Gina M. Pighetti, Peter D. Krawczel, J. Mark Fly, Christina S. Petersson-Wolfe, Jeffrey M. Bewley, Lorraine Garkovich, Donna M. Amaral-Phillips, Michelle Arnold, Stephen C. Nickerson, Stephanie Hill-Ward, and Albert DeVries. 2013. Southeast Quality Milk Initiative: Implementing science-based recommendations to control mastitis and improve milk quality in the Southeast. In: Proc. Natl. Mastitis Council.