Source: UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY submitted to
WATER MANAGEMENT AND QUALITY FOR ORNAMENTAL CROP PRODUCTION AND HEALTH
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0223968
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
KY011034
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
NC-_OLD1186
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2010
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2015
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Dunwell, W.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
500 S LIMESTONE 109 KINKEAD HALL
LEXINGTON,KY 40526-0001
Performing Department
Horticulture
Non Technical Summary
The ornamental plant industry ranks 5th ($14.6 billion) in US agriculture commodities and is in the top 5 commodities for 26 states (USDA, 2004). Water issues, specifically irrigation scheduling, surface water management, salinity and runoff water quality are topics of major concern to ornamental producers. Drought, urban competition for water resources, and increasing legislation at state and county levels increase the need for ornamental producers to manage water more effectively and/or use alternative water sources that are often of inferior quality. Regardless of the area of the United States in which an operation is located, challenges exist regarding sufficient quantities of quality water sources. Legislation regarding water use and/or quality has been implemented in at least 8 states. Most field producers of nursery stock use irrigation at some point during the growing season. Many field producers use low-volume irrigation and some use such systems to deliver soluble fertilizers. While supplemental irrigation is beneficial in field production it is essential for container production. Container substrates need to be well drained and container volume limits the amount of available water, resulting in frequent irrigation and high water use. Almost all greenhouse crops are produced in containers. Over 75 pecent of nursery crops in 17 of the major nursery producing states were grown in containers (USDA, 2007) and thus require irrigation. Amount of water applied, method of application, and irrigation frequency for Georgia nurseries has been summarized (Garber et al., 2002). Frequent irrigation along with high fertilizer and pesticide use can lead to significant losses of agricultural chemicals in runoff water that transports them to containment ponds and/or off-site into groundwater or surface water (Briggs et al., 1998, 2002; Cabrera, 2003; Camper et al., 1994). Irrigation water management is a key component in the nutrient management of ornamental crop production and in reducing the impact of runoff water on local water (Tyler et al., 1996; Lea-Cox et al., 2001; Ross et al., 2002). Recycling water includes another set of issues for growers, primarily in the form of disease and salinity management. Emerging constraints on water use and quality means that the ornamental industry needs to find ways to manage water without detracting from production schedules and crop quality. Water conservation and quality are top priority issues in agriculture. Research and extension projects that are designed to address these issues are needed in ornamental production (Ogg and Keith, 2002). Precision water management and resource efficiency were rated at the top of the issue/need/concern list developed at the joint USDA, ARS, NASA and NSF workshop Engineering Solutions for Specialty Crop Challenges(USDA, 2007). There are five interrelated areas relevant to this project: 1. Source water management and quality, 2. Irrigation management, 3. Runoff water management and quality, 4. Substrate and nutrition management, and 5. Pathogens and crop health management.
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
(N/A)
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1022110106010%
1112110106010%
2042110106030%
2052110106050%
Goals / Objectives
1.Develop an effective multistate group to identify knowledge gaps in water management and quality for ornamental production; organize transdisciplinary teams to address these gaps, and leverage existing national programs to maximize impact. 2.Develop effective outreach programs which a) change behavior and implement best management practices; b) increase resource use-efficiency and minimize environmental impacts of practices; c) increase production efficiency and profitability and d) allow regulatory agency and public sectors to access baseline information which can be used for policy and other decision-making. 3.Disseminate research results to the academic community through traditional means (e.g. peer reviewed journals, and extension programs) and also more novel web-based methods (knowledge centers, eXtension and social networks) 4.Integrate projects, programs and results according to the following specific project objectives. 5.3.1 Source Water Management and Quality 6.a. Gather information regarding the quantity and quality of primary water sources currently available in various regions of the United States. b. Determine what water quality parameters limit ornamental plant production and how secondary water sources differ throughout different regions of the U.S. c. Determine national research priorities regarding water quantity and quality of primary and secondary water sources. d. Obtain funding and conduct research to address the physical and chemical limitations of primary and secondary water sources.
Project Methods
The methods are described in the context of the objectives in the previous section, but it is important to realize that these are not clearly delineated areas; rather there is much overlap among these areas, which is necessary to assure that this project will integrate the most promising approaches. Each subsection of the methods will be coordinated by one of the project members identified at the annual meeting. Subsection leaders and the project executive committee will accomplish coordination of methods to attain overall project objectives.

Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/15

Outputs
Target Audience:Target Audiences include: Primary, producers of ornamental plants (Nursery Crops) and community leaders; Secondary, the purchasers of ornamental plants; landscape contractors, landscape designers and landscape architects,Community tree canopy and landscape development and improvement project leaders, Home Owners, and Master Gardeners. Changes/Problems:Testing of a PLC Media Moisture Sensor Irrigation Control System determined that the cost of software development and availability of trained technical support was a limiting factor and utilization of availableindustry media moisture sensors and systems were the best method of applying water to container plant production media. Informationdistributionby social media is of greater impact ifsupported by directed to sites including anewsletter/blog anda branded website(s) for archivingmaterials. Industry representative attendenceat workshops and conferences is limited. Makingpresentations available for later viewing greatly increases impact. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?In cooperation with the Kentucky Horticulture Council, the Kentucky Nursery Association and regional Extension programs statewide and regional presentations were provided for the industry at conferences and regional Nursery/Landscape Meetings. Carey Grable, Extension Associate for Nursery Crops gave a Nursery Crops IPM Drone Presentation project update and informational program at the 2015 Winter IPM Seminar and at the UKREC Horticulture Open House/Field Day: Ornamental Plant Evaluations, Nursery Production, Fruit. June 25, 2015. Princeton, KY.http://www2.ca.uky.edu/HLA/Dunwell/UKRECHorticultureOpenHouseFruitProgram.pdf How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?All forms of social media have been used; primarilyFacebook andTwitter, as well as a newsletter HortMemo and a new Website http://nursery-crop-extension.ca.uky.edu/ to suppliment the existing site http://www2.ca.uky.edu/HLA/Dunwell/win1.htmlin disemmination of theproducts of all members of NC-1186 that are pertinent to Kentucky Nursery/Landscape Industries, specifically water management. The use of YouTube has been successful based on views and survey value at sharing information related to proper nursery management practices to protect water and the environment.. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Enhanced Best Management Practices, Intergrated Pest Management information distributions, Irrigation control for water use efficiency. A Drone Project for KentuckyNursery Crop Integrated pest management (IPM) plant health and pest monitoring by drone - (funded by Kentucky IPM and Kentucky Horticulture Council). A 3D Robotics Quad Copter with Hero GoPro4 Camera with infrared lens will be used to fly set patterns over nursery crop fields and evaluate the irradiation from the field. Over time changes in the fields will be observed and then diagnostics will be used to determine the plant stressor, e.g. lack of fertility or moisture, insect or disease injury. Testing of a PLC Media Moisture Sensor Irrigation Control System determined that the cost of software development was a limiting factor and utilization of industry media moisture sensors and available systems model improvements were demonstrated at a UKREC Horticulture Open House/Field Day:Ornamental Plant Evaluations, Nursery Production, Fruit. June 19, 2014. Princeton, KY. Contact: Christi Forsythe, 270.365.6541 x 221; e-mail, cforsyth@uky.edu url, http://www2.ca.uky.edu/HLA/Dunwell/UKRECHort2014OpenHouse.pdf

Publications

  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2016 Citation: Ilex spp. (Hollies) Image of I. v. Winter Red or I. o. Chief Paduke as background Francesca Peduto Hand, Winston Dunwell, Frank Hale, JC Chong, Sarah White, and Gary Knox
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Dunwell, Winston, S. Kristine Braman, Jean Williams-Woodward, Mathews Paret, Alan Windham, Steven Frank, Sarah A. White, and Anthony V. LeBude. 2014. Shrub Rose Chapter of IPM for Shrubs in Southeastern US Nursery Production: Vol I. http://wiki.bugwood.org/IPM_Shrub_Book
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Dewayne Ingram, Winston Dunwell, and Alan Hodges. 2015. Characteristics of Kentuckys Nursery and Greenhouse Industries, HO-89. http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/ho/ho89/ho89.pdf


Progress 10/01/13 to 09/30/14

Outputs
Target Audience: The primary audience is owners and managers of plant production facilities; primarily container production of landscape plants including trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials and natives. A secondary audience is those who purchase the plants for environemental enhancement. Container production requires irrigation systems. Water utilization efficiencies save water and reduce losses to the environment. Integrated Pest Management Practices (proper water, fertilizer, herbicide and pesticide application) that reduce pesticide losses to the environment. Changes/Problems: The videos of presentations and how properly manage plants and pepsticides has been successful and will be continued.Incorporating new technology into programs targeted at protecting water will be continued. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Winston Dunwell attended the NC-1186 Meeting in Alexandria, VA and participated in the tours. Images were taken of the demonatrations provided by the meeting hosts. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Information has been disseminated via Trainings and Workshops. The presentations were recorded edited andposted to YouTube for future reference. (See Other Products) Increasing Efficiency in Pest Management a workshop for nursery and landscape professionals. December 4, 2013. Hardin County Extension Office, Elizabethtown, KY. Contact: Contact: Sarah Vanek, 859.257.1273; e-mail, sarah.vanek@uky.edu ; url, http://www2.ca.uky.edu/HLA/Dunwell/IncrEfficiencyPestMgt_131204.pdf The PLC Control System model improvements were demonstrated at a UKREC Horticulture Open House/Field Day: Ornamental Plant Evaluations, Nursery Production, Fruit. June 19, 2014. Princeton, KY. Contact: Christi Forsythe, 270.365.6541 x 221; e-mail, cforsyth@uky.edu url, http://www2.ca.uky.edu/HLA/Dunwell/UKRECHort2014OpenHouse.pdf UK Nursery Crops IPM Diagnostics Workshop [Certified Arborist: 5.5 ISA CEU's Pesticide CEUs: 3 General & 1 Specific Hr. (Categories 1A, 3, 10, 12, 19)]. August 13, 2014. Oldham County Office, 1815 North Highway 393, La Grange, KY 40031-8632 and River Farm Nursery, 2901 N Buckeye Lane, Goshen, KY 40026. Contact: Christi Forsythe, 270.365.7541 x 221, cforsyth@uky.edu or Win Dunwell, 270.365.7541 x 209, wdunwell@uky.edu , OR Carey Grable, Extension Associate for Nursery Crops, 270-365-7541, Ext. 279, Carey.Gable@uky.edu; url, http://www2.ca.uky.edu/HLA/Dunwell/UKNurseryCropsIPMDiagnosticsWorkshop_2014.pdf What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Continue development and demonstration of irrigation control systems in a model container production system at the UKREC, Princeton, KY Continue to post Nursery Production and IPM videos to YouTube channel http://www.youtube.com/user/UKRECHort Attend the NC-1186 Annual Meeting and Educational Opportunity. Incorporate water quality, water-use efficiency, efficient nutrient utilization and optimum pesticide use into Kentucky IPM Nursery Crops programs: Integrated Pest Management Scouting workshops and Educational Programs.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Enhanced Best Management Practices, Intergrated Pest Management information distributions, Irrigation control for water use efficiency. 15 Videos related to protecting water sources throughIntegrated Pest Management and Best Management Practiceswere prepared. Multiplying the number of views times the survey value participants gave for the program/the number of presentations gives us the total views 1187 x $567.60/presentation = $673,741.20 Continuing Project: PLC Control Systems for Irrigation Automation. Carey Grable, Extension Associate - Nursery Crops Extension Associate A PLC is a type of computer used in industrial settings to automate various production processes. These units are readily available and are usually modular to allow expansion for adaptation to many different production processes. The Human machine interface (HMI, touchscreen) allows observation of and interaction with the PLC. Modern HMIs use graphical representations of the production system for ease of operator understanding. A sensor to measure Volumetric Water Content (VWC) that is insensitive to salinity, water proof / can be buried and comparatively inexpensive with output voltage proportional to moisture level reading so that readings between 0-100 can be utilized to turn irrigation on and off according to VMC providing the plant with adequate water for a maximum growth and water use efficiency. Demonstration of the PLC (programmable logic controller) system for irrigation control resulted in 27 individuals showing interest in addtional information. The model has been subjected to continuing testing and demonstration.

Publications

  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Dunwell, Winston, S. Kristine Braman, Jean Williams-Woodward, Mathews Paret, Alan Windham, Steven Frank, Sarah A. White, and Anthony V. LeBude. 2014. Shrub Rose Chapter of IPM for Shrubs in Southeastern US Nursery Production: Vol I. http://wiki.bugwood.org/IPM_Shrub_Book
  • Type: Books Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Sarah A. White, Amy Fulcher, Anthony LeBude, Steven Frank, Frank Hale, William E. Klingeman, Craig Adkins, Kris Braman, Matthew Chappell, Juang-Horng (JC) Chong, Jeffrey F. Derr, Winston C. Dunwell, Gary W. Knox, Mathews L. Paret, Joseph C. Neal, Nicole A. Ward, Jean Williams-Woodward and Alan S. Windham. 2014. IPM for Shrubs in Southeastern US Nursery Production: Vol I. http://wiki.bugwood.org/IPM_Shrub_Book


Progress 01/01/13 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: The primary audience is owners and managers of plant production facilities; primarily container production of landscape plants including trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials and natives. A secondary audience is those who purchase the plants for environemental enhancement. Container production requires irrigation systems. Water utilization efficiencies save water and reduce losses to the environment. Integrated Pest Management Practices (proper water, fertilizer, herbicideand pesticideapplication)that reduce pesticidelosses to the environment. Changes/Problems: The cost of currently available irrigation control systemsusing moisture sensors to control irrigation by Volumetric Water Content measurementshas lead to an attempt to develop a new system that by usingeasily manipulated and readilyavailable programmable logic controllers used locally by manufacturers. Results of the work will be shared via field days, publications and video. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Winston Dunwell attended the NC-1186 Meeting at the Amercian Society of Horticulture of Science Conference at Palm Springs Desert, CA. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? The PLC Control System modelwas developed and demonstrated at a UKREC HorticultureOpen House at the University of Kentucky Research and Education Center June 27, 2013. Kentucky IPM Funding provided for the UKREC Horticulture Field Day: Ornamentals and Fruit Program (Irrigation Efficiency and Pest Management Presentations). UKREC, 1205 Hopkinsville Street, Princeton, KY 42445. June 27, 2013, 9:00 start. http://www2.ca.uky.edu/HLA/Dunwell/UKRECHort2013OpenHouse.pdf What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Continue development and demonstration of irrigation control systems in a modle container production system at the UKREC< Princeton, KY Continue to post Nursery Production and IPM videos to YouTube channel http://www.youtube.com/user/UKRECHort Attend the NC-1186 Annual Meeting and Educational Opportunity. Incorporate water quality, water-use efficiency, efficient nutrient utilizationand optimum pesticide use into Kentucky IPM - Nursery Crops programs: Integrated Pest Management Scouting workshops and Educational Programs.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Enhanced Best Management Practices, Intergrated Pest Management information distributions, Irrigation control for water-use efficiency. Project: PLC Control Systems for Irrigation Automation. Carey Grable, Extension Associate – Nursery Crops Extension Associate A PLC is a type of computer used in industrial settings to automate various production processes. These units are readily available and are usually modular to allow expansion for adaptation to many different production processes. The Human-machine interface (HMI, touchscreen) allows observation of and interaction with the PLC. Modern HMIs use graphical representations of the production system for ease of operator understanding. A sensor to measure Volumetric Water Content (VWC) that is insensitive to salinity, water proof / can be buried and comparatively inexpensive with output voltage proportional to moisture level reading so that readings between 0-100 can be utilized to turn irrigation on and off according to VMC providing the plant with adequate water for a maximum growth and water use efficiency. Demonstration of the PLC (programmable logic controller) system for irrigation control resulted in 27 individuals showing interest in addtional information. The model has been built, software written, outdoor facilities developped for continuning testing and demonstration Three videos were prepared and posted to YouTube relative to plant selection for production, climate change and an insect pest all of which have impact on Kentucky's water . The 247Views of the videos have an added-value to the original IPM workshop of $78,447.20

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Sarah A. White*, Amy Fulcher, Anthony LeBude, Steven Frank, Frank Hale, William E. Klingeman, Craig Adkins, Kris Braman, Matthew Chappell, Juang-Horng (JC) Chong, Jeffrey F. Derr, Winston C. Dunwell, Gary W. Knox, Mathews L. Paret, Joseph C. Neal, Nicole A. Ward, Jean Williams-Woodward and Alan S. Windham. 2013. eBooks: A New Platform for Extension Outreach. HortScience 48(9) Supplement2013 ASHS Annual Conference; pp S281-S282
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Dunwell, Winston C., Dwight Wolfe and Carey Grable. 2013. Influence of Time On Measuring Container Fertility By the Pour-Through Extraction. HortScience 48(9) Supplement2013 ASHS Annual Conference; pp S299-S300.


Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: An effort was made to combine efforts of the NC-1186, KY-IPM, and The Southern Nursery Integrated Pest Management (SNIPM) to protect water resources in Kentucky. Projects: Kentucky Workshops UK Nursery/Landscape/Garden Center IPM Workshop. December 1, 2011. UKREC, 1205 Hopkinsville St, Princeton, KY. http://www.ca.uky.edu/HLA/Dunwell/IPMGreenIndustryProgram_111201.pdf UK Nursery Crops IPM Diagnostics Workshop. June 14, 2012. Trimble County Extension Office, 43 High Country Lane, Bedford, KY and Kenton Abrams Nursery, 8206 North Highway 421, Milton, KY. http://www.ca.uky.edu/HLA/Dunwell/UKNurseryCropsIPMDiagnosticsWorksho p_2012.pdf Cooperation on an Apple/Android IPMpro and IPMLite App and an iBook. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
UK Nursery Crops programs target IPM training for nursery owners, their employees and Extension Agents as a means to protect Kentucky resources and citizens, including protecting the many waterways. Carey Grable, Extension Associate for Nursery Crops and I decided in 2011 to create videos and established a YouTube Channel http://www.youtube.com/user/UKRECHort which currently contains 24 videos with 36 subscribers and 32,051 views (October 23, 2012). Impacts of IPM programs include improved plant quality through pest and nutrient management, pruning techniques, and reduced pesticide applications. 2011 and 2012 workshop attendance was 55. Attendees state they have greater interest in growing plants for pesticide-free landscapes. A six year average economic value estimated by growers who attend nursery crop IPM workshops was $1,588 per grower. The estimated impact of the 2011 and 2012 programs (workshop attendees only) is 55 x $1,588 = $87,340; the 762 YouTube IPM Workshop presentation viewers significantly increase the value of the program. Assuming each workshop has an average of 5 presentations: $1,588/5=$317.60/presentation x 762=$242,011 is the value of the videos currently posted.

Publications

  • Chong, Juang-Horng (JC), Nicole A. Ward, Matthew Chappell, and Winston C. DunwellC. 2012. Chapter 11: Oaks - Quercus spp. In IPM For Selected Deciduous Trees in Southeastern US Nursery Production.
  • Dunwell, Winston C., Carey Grable, and Dwight Wolfe. 2012. Long Residual Controlled Release Fertilizer Pour-through results from two plant species and a no-plant control. Proc. SNA Res Conf. 57:6-10. http://www.sna.org/Resources/Documents/12resprocsec01.pdf
  • LeBude, A.V., S.A. White, A.F. Fulcher, S. Frank, J-H. Chong, M.R. Chappell, A. Windham, K. Braman, W.E Klingeman III, K. Ivors, F. Hale, Winston C. Dunwell, J. Williams-Woodward, C. Adkins, and J. Neal. 2011. Assessing the Integrated Pest Management Practices of Southeastern U.S. Nursery Operations. Pest Manag Sci 2012; 68: 1278-1288. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3295/pdf
  • Robert L. Geneve, Cynthia H. Finneseth, Amy Poston Lentz and Winston C. Dunwell. 2011. Invasive woody plants in the nursery industry - a review of the USA perspective and response. Proc. International Horticultural Congress: in edit process.
  • Fulcher, A., C. Adkins, K. Braman, M.R. Chappell, J-H. Chong, Winston C. Dunwell, S. Frank, F. Hale, K. Ivors, W. Klingeman III, A.V. LeBude, J. Neal, S. White, Jean Williams-Woodward, and A. Windham. 2011. Multiplier Effect of Collaborative Nursery Crops Programming On Outputs and Outcomes. HortScience 46(9):S377-S378
  • Fulcher, Amy and Sarah White, editors. 2012. IPM For Selected Deciduous Trees in Southeastern US Nursery Production. (iTunes/iBooks or print at http://wiki.bugwood.org/SNIPM)


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Attended the NC-1186 Annual Meeting January 2011 in Louisville, KY Presentations were made specifically using a Powerpoint developed at the Annual Meeting January 2011 in Louisville, KY Commercial Arborist, Landscaper & Nursery Workshops: The Latest Greatest Nursery Production Practices. A research/demonstation project was undertaken to measure leachate and leachate salts to determine fertilizer availability. A nursery field day attended by 135 individuals PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Primary audience is Kentucky Nursery/Landscape industry business owners, Managers, and employees. Presentations and demonstrations are targeted to these clientele groups. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
255 Nursery/Landscape industry members where made aware of water conservation, recycling, remediation, irrigation control to reduce leaching topics which relate to Water Management and Quality for Ornamental Crop Production and Health.

Publications

  • Dunwell, Winston C., Carey Grable, Dwight Wolfe, and Dewayne Ingram. 2011. Differences in Pour-through Results from Two Plant Species and a No-plant Control. Proc. SNA Res. Conf. 56: 246-249 http://www.sna.org/Resources/Documents/11resprocsec09.pdf