Source: OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
CHROMIUM & ANTIOXIDANT INTAKES OF OLDER OKLAHOMANS WITH AND WITHOUT METABOLIC SYNDROME AND EFFECTS OF ASPIRIN OR ANTACID ON CR ABSORPTION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0220148
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
OKL02754
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Aug 1, 2009
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2011
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Stoecker, B. J.
Recipient Organization
OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
STILLWATER,OK 74078
Performing Department
Human Sciences
Non Technical Summary
This study will investigate two questions that may affect chromium (Cr) status in the elderly. One question relates to dietary Cr intakes of older adults. When the Recommended Dietary Intakes (DRIs) for Cr were established in 2001, there were too few data to set an estimated average requirement (EAR) for Cr. Recommendations for adults 51 years of age and above were estimated at 30 ?g Cr/day for men and 20 ?g/day for women; however, the rapid increase in Type II diabetes in the elderly raises the question of the adequacy of this dietary recommendation. Our study will provide data on Cr intakes of older Oklahomans as well as information about intakes of magnesium, zinc, copper, and selected antioxidants. Secondly, we will investigate effects on Cr absorption of taking either aspirin or over-the-counter antacid compounds. Animal studies suggest that aspirin or antiacids dosed with chromium significantly raise or lower chromium absorption respectively. We propose to test the effects of both aspirin and a common antacid on chromium absorption in humans. This study will be conducted in older Oklahoma women with and without metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is defined as central obesity with any two of the following four factors: elevated triglycerides, blood sugar, or blood pressure or decreased HDL-cholesterol. People with metabolic syndrome have a five times greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes as well as having other risk factors for heart disease. The project will: 1) Assess dietary intakes of macronutrients, magnesium, micronutrients with antioxidant function, and specifically dietary chromium. 2) Relate glucose, insulin resistance and selected plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress to dietary intakes of chromium, magnesium and antioxidant nutrients, and 3) evaluate the effects of two commonly used over-the-counter medications on chromium absorption in these older adults. Duplicate plate diet samples from forty-four women as well as computer analysis of 4 three-day dietary records for each participant will be analyzed. Half of these women will have metabolic syndrome. Glucose and lipid profiles will be analyzed using standard clinical laboratory methods. Insulin resistance will be estimated using HOMA modeling. Selected markers in blood of inflammation and antioxidant status also will be analyzed. Diet samples will be handled using procedures appropriate for trace mineral testing. Data will be analyzed using SAS software, v.9.1. Multiple regression models will be used to assess relations between baseline variables, dietary chromium intakes and urinary chromium. The Proc Mixed procedure will be used for repeated measures analysis of effects of medications on chromium absorption. Both the food records and the duplicate plate analyses will help characterize the nutritional adequacy of diets of older Oklahomans. These data will be useful for extension programming and for preparation of proposals to obtain further funding for work on trace element status and metabolic syndrome in vulnerable population groups in Oklahoma.
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
80%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
7016010101030%
7026010101070%
Goals / Objectives
This project will contribute to the overall objectives of the W2002 Multistate Project entitled, "Nutrient Bioavailability-Phytonutrients and Beyond". These objectives are: 1) Determine the bioavailability (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) of nutrients and other food components and their environmental and genetic determinants 2) Evaluate the bioactivity of nutrients and other food components in order to elucidate their underlying protective mechanisms. Specifically, for chromium, we hypothesize that: 1) Baseline body fat, fasting glucose concentration, and insulin resistance will be significantly related to dietary chromium intakes and to markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in healthy older Oklahomans and in those with metabolic syndrome. 2) Consumption of commonly used medications will significantly affect chromium absorption (assessed by urinary chromium excretion). Specific Aims: 1) Assess dietary intakes of macronutrients, magnesium, micronutrients with antioxidant function, and specifically dietary chromium. Further analyses will include glucose control and insulin resistance [using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)] of healthy older Oklahomans and of those with metabolic syndrome. 2) Relate circulating concentrations of selected adipokines and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress to dietary intakes of chromium, magnesium and antioxidant nutrients. 3) Evaluate the effects of two commonly used over-the-counter medications on chromium absorption in these older adults
Project Methods
Forty-four women >50 y will be recruited for this study with half having metabolic syndrome [defined as central obesity (&#8805; 88 cm) plus any two of the following four factors: triglycerides &#8805; 150 mg/dL; HDL cholesterol <50 mg/dL; elevated blood pressure, systolic &#8805; 130 or diastolic &#8805; 85 mm Hg or hypertension treatment; fasting plasma glucose &#8805; 100 mg/dL or previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes]. Four duplicate plate diet samples and four three-day dietary records will be collected from each participant. Furthermore, we will analyze effects of aspirin, antacid or placebo on chromium (Cr) absorption (assessed by urinary Cr 2 hours after dosing) in the same participants. Medications will be administed in a randomized cross-over design and each participant will serve as their own control. The study will be conducted in the following stages: Stage 1 - Screening. Screening will involve consent, a health questionnaire, measurement of central obesity and blood pressure and a venous blood sample for measuring glucose and lipid profiles. Qualified participants will be instructed in collection of duplicate plate diet samples and three-day dietary records. Stage 2 - Baseline. Participants will bring a duplicate plate dietary collection and a three-day diet record to the study headquarters. Baseline measurements of central obesity and blood pressure will be taken. A DEXA scan will be done for assessment of whole body and regional fat distribution and a blood sample will be drawn for analyses of insulin, glucose, lipids, C-reactive protein, and inflammatory cytokines as well as markers of antioxidant status. A urine sample will be aliquoted for analyses of Cr and of F2- isoprostanes. Participants will take a 100 mcg supplement of Cr chloride with a placebo tablet. Two hours later second samples of blood sample and urine will be collected; both will be analyzed for Cr. Stage 3 - Randomly Assigned Medication Treatment 1 (15 days after baseline). All diet, blood and urine collections will be repeated. Women will take a 100 mcg Cr supplement with either aspirin or antacid. Stage 4 - Baseline for Crossover (15 days after treatment 1). All diet, blood and urine collections will be repeated. Women will take a 100 mcg Cr supplement with a placebo. Stage 5 - Randomly Assigned Medication Treatment 2 (15 days after Stage 4). All diet, blood and urine collections will be repeated. Women will take a 100 mcg Cr supplement with a medication in a crossover design. Glucose, lipids, and insulin will be analyzed using standard methods. Insulin resistance will be estimated using HOMA modeling. TNF-&#945;, IL-1, IL-6, adiponectin, F2-isoprostanes and hsCRP will be analyzed using ELISA techniques. Diet records will be analyzed using the Food Processor. Duplicate plate diet samples will be processed using a Stomacher. Diet samples will then be ashed in a muffle furnace using procedures appropriate for trace mineral testing and mineral concentrations will be determined using ICP-MS. Data will be analyzed using SAS software, v.9.1. The Proc Mixed procedure will be used for repeated measures analysis of effects of medications on chromium absorption.

Progress 08/01/09 to 09/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This study assessed associations among dietary intakes, body fat distribution and serum biomarkers in 41 women aged > 50 yrs with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition was waist circumference &#8805;88cm with two additional factors: elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, or glucose; or decreased HDL-cholesterol. Three-day diet records and 24-hr duplicate plates were collected. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were used to estimate body fat distribution. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in diet and serum were measured with the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The MetS group had significantly higher serum insulin and adiponectin as well as higher homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-&#946;, HOMA-IR, and android:gynoid ratio. TAC in serum and 24-hr duplicate plate diet samples were not significantly different between control and MetS groups; however, dietary fiber intakes were positively associated with dietary vitamin C (p<0.03). Total body fat, android fat, android:gynoid ratio, and serum adiponectin were significantly (p<0.05) associated with insulin resistance in these older women. In addition associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed. Forty women, half with metabolic syndrome (MetS), had whole body, lumbar spine, hip and forearm BMD assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. No women had 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L, 15% were between 25 - <50, 55% were between 50-<75, and 30% had &#8805; 75 nmol/L. Mean (SD) for 25(OH)D was 62 (18) for women with MetS and was not significantly different (p<0.10) from the mean of 71 (15) for control women. Z scores for BMD for age were higher in the lumbar spine (p<0.0004) and hip regions (p<.0024) for women in the MetS group and BMD tended to be higher (p<0.06) in the whole body in the MetS group. BMD was not significantly different in the forearm between control and MetS groups. Overall, serum 25(OH)D did not correlate significantly with BMD in the sites measured. PARTICIPANTS: Pitipa Chongwatpol has collected data for her M.S. thesis as part of this project and her thesis defense is scheduled for December 13, 2011. Alemtsehay Bogale also participated in managing the human subjects along with Professor Janice Hermann and Professor Barbara Stoecker. Karen Wyatt completed her senior honors thesis with the project and Kate Lasley is completing an undergraduate Wentz research project using project databases. Sandra Peterson assisted with laboratory and compliance requirements for the project and Debra Pililau served as phlebotomist for the project. Forty-eight women aged 50 years and above participated in screening for the project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Project announcements in newsletters circulated through the cooperative extension service have raised awareness of the project among the target population of older women. Subjects were also contacted on the Oklahoma State University campus and in the Stillwater community. Announcements about the project have increased awareness among undergraduates, graduate students, and the campus community of nutrition-related issues and of work being done in the Department of Nutritional Sciences. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Participants were counseled about their bone mineral density data and provided with copies of their DEXA scans for themselves and for their personal physicians. Questions about nutrient intakes, serving size and dietary modifications were answered for participants. Furthermore, identification as meeting criteria for metabolic syndrome motivated several participants to begin physical activity programs at the conclusion of the study.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This project involves assessment of insulin resistance and antioxidant and chromium status of older women as well as investigation of potential effects of over-the-counter medications on chromium status. The first aspect of the project involves collecting three-day diet records and duplicate plate diet samples for chromium and antioxidant analysis. This part of the study is being handled by Pitipa Chongwatpol who is using the dietary data for her M.S. thesis. A second aspect of the project is investigating whether over-the-counter medications affect the absorption of chromium. Data from this part of the study is being used by Karen Wyatt as part of her senior honors thesis. PARTICIPANTS: Pitipa Chongwatpol has worked on this project and has developed the methods for analysis of the duplicate diet samples. She is using the data from the project for her MS thesis. Karen Wyatt, an honors student in Nutritional Sciences, is doing her senior honors thesis on the effects of over-the medications on chromium absorption. Sandy Peterson is assisting with laboratory and compliance requirements for the project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Project announcements in newsletters circulated through the extension service have raised awareness of the project among the target population of older women. The project is on-going and data will be presented at appropriate scientific meetings and will be used for Oklahoma outreach programming. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Oklahomans have one of the lowest intakes of fruits and vegetables in the nation and one of the highest rates of obesity. Incidence of diabetes in Oklahoma is 25% above the national average and is increasing at a more rapid rate in Oklahoma than nationally. In addition to obesity and metabolic syndrome, reduced intakes of chromium and antioxidant nutrients may contribute to this problem which is the basis for this study. Insulin resistance is characteristic of Type II diabetes; inadequate chromium intakes are associated with insulin resistance and certain antioxidant nutrients also decrease insulin resistance. Furthermore, medications may affect chromium status. Our prior studies with animals showed strong effects of aspirin on increasing chromium absorption and of antacids on decreasing the absorption of chromium.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period