Progress 08/01/08 to 07/31/10
OUTPUTS: After Only 4 hrs small black fuzzy growth can be seen and in 5 hrs distinct colonies can be counted making the Fung Double Tube the fastest possible viable cell count method to date. Swab, sponge, flocked swab, direct agar contact, and M-Vac have been evaluated showing that the sponge sampling method, in general, recovered the highest number of microorganisms. The effectiveness of Stomacher, Pulsifier, Bagmixer, and Smasher instruments had similar performance with regards to viable cell counts. ECA Check Easygel was in some instances, better than conventional media at recovering target organisms. L. monocytogenes may translocate from drains to food contact surfaces, thus contaminating food products. The addition of rosemary, turmeric, and fingeroot in ground beef showed significantly reduced Heterocyclic amines (HCA) levels. The 2-dodecyclcyclobutanone formed during irradiation was metabolized by rat liver microsomes. Microwave ovens with wattages ≥1000 provide substantially reduced pathogen survival. Greater than a 5 log reduction of natural and antibiotic resistant E. coli and Salmonella spp. by a high pressure treatment of 600 MPa for 3 min was observed. Processors could use heat-sealed packaging with oxygen scavenger or vacuum in conjunction with 24-48 h holding time as an antimicrobial process to ensure a >1log CFU/cm2 of Listeria monocytogenes. Persimmon puree appears to be an effective antimicrobial agent against Gram-positive bacteria in a liquid medium. However, incorporation of persimmon puree into ground beef was not as effective. An outbreak of H5N1, or merely its detection within the country, would have major complications for the U.S. poultry industry. Research has found that targeting specific geographical regions within nations is one way of streamlining trade between nations where food safety issues might otherwise cause problems. Credit courses in food science and food safety have been developed and continue to be updated for distance education. The courses integrate results from the Consortium along with research from other sources. The 2-DCB concentration was consistently the same in gamma-ray and low-energy X-ray irradiated patties. Results indicated that the level of HCAs in RTE meat products are generally low. Home-style dehydrators may not provide adequate lethality to reduce Salmonella on chicken. Persimmon puree suppressed (P<0.05) growth of L. monocytogene. Suppressed (P<0.05) growth of L. monocytogenes continued through 36 and 72 h for all concentrations of persimmon puree tested. An average of approx. 1.5 Log CFU/meat cut reduction in bacterial counts was seen after a 45 s treatment in an advanced oxidation chamber equipped with ultraviolet light (UV). By blending insights from the fields of Food and Agricultural Security, Border Security, International Relations, as well as the Behavioral Sciences, Frontier uniquely contributes to the Consortium's research and outreach programs regarding food safety. Food safety and security degrees and certificates in mediated formats incorporating Consortium research has been developed. PARTICIPANTS: Ongoing partnerships with the University of Nebraska, Iowa State University, University of Missouri, University of Arkansas, Purdue University, University of Indiana, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota and the Department of Homeland Security are designed to enhance education for undergraduate and graduate students. TARGET AUDIENCES: The research information has been incorporated into college credit courses for undergraduate and graduate degrees and certificates. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.
Over the project period projects have been focused on reducing hazard detection time strategies to control Listeria during processing, spice treatments that reduce or eliminate toxins formed during grilling of meat, determining how compounds formed during irradiation are metabolized to non-toxin compounds, as well as microwave cooking guidelines to reduce salmonella in pre-browned food items. These projects have received widespread notoriety. For example, women's magazines have recommended treating meat with spices before grilling. Consumers, processors, and regulatory personnel have also welcomed the guidelines for microwave cooking that control salmonella in pre-browned chicken items. In summary, Consortium research has contributed to educational programs, technology and information transfer, which has been used by regulatory agencies to establish policy, by industry to establish safe processing and handling practices, and by consumers while preparing food. Additionally, this food safety research has also contributed to food security, protection, and defense strategies.
- Fung, D.Y.C. 2009. Methods for evaluating microbial flora in muscle foods. L.L. Nollet and F. Toldra (eds.), Revised Handbook of Muscle Foods Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 563-591.
- Fung, D.Y.C. 2009. Rapid methods and automation in microbiology: 25 years of scientific developments and global market trends. In: G. Barbosa-Canovas, A. Mortimer, D. Lineback, W. Spiess, K. Buckle and P. Colonna (eds.), Global Issues in Food Science and Technology, Elsevier, Burlington, Mass., 165-176.
- Fung, D. Y. C 2009. XXIX International Rapid Method and Automation in Microbiology Workshop Manual and Presentation. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kan. (CD)
- Fung, D.Y.C. 2009. Viable cell counts. Bioscience World, 8 (1): 1-2.
- Ruengwilysup, C., C. Detvisitsakun, N. Aumyat and D.Y.C. Fung. 2009. Application of a colony PCR technique with Fung's Double Tube Method for Rapid Detection and confirmation of Clostridium perfringens. Journal of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology, 17 (3): 280-290.
- Saini, J.K., J. Marsden, D. Fung and B.A. Crozier-Dodson. 2010. Evaluating the potential for translocation of Listeria monocytogenes from floor drains to food contact surfaces in the surrounding environment using Listeria innocua as surrogate. Journal for Food Protection, 72 (Supplement A): 24.
- Taylor, E., J. Kastner and D. Renter. 2010. Challenges involved in the Salmonella Saintpaul outbreak and lessons learned. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 16 (3): 221-231.
- Block, C., J. Ackleson and J. Kastner. 2010. Chapter 7: Looking Forward. In: Food and Agriculture Security: An Historical, Multidisciplinary Approach, Justin Kastner (ed.), ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, Calif.
- Crnic, T., and J. Kastner. 2009. Veterinary capacity analysis: Taiwan. Report prepared for Dr. Barry Erlick for U.S. Department of Defense and National Agricultural Biosecurity Center project, Development of Veterinary Response Capacity Templates for Intelligence Analysts, Sept. 30, 2009.
- Fung, D.Y.C., and L.K. Thompson. 2009. "Natural" suppression of the growth of foodborne pathogens in meat products. International Review of Food Science and Technology, 2009: 80-81.
- Harper, N.M., K.J.K. Getty and E.A.E. Boyle. 2010. Evaluation of sample preparation methods for determination of water activity in jerky and kippered beef: a research note. Meat Science. 86: 527-528.
- Harper, N., M.N. Roberts, K.J.K. Getty, E.A.E. Boyle and D.Y.C. Fung. 2009. Evaluation of two thermal processing schedules for the production of chopped and formed beef jerky for elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Journal for Food Protection, 72 (12): 2476-2482.
- Hijaz, F., T.B. Shrestha, S.H. Bossman, F. Hussain and J.S. Smith. 2010. In vitro and in vivo metabolism of the radiolytic compound 2-dodecylcyclobutanone. Journal of Food Science, 75 (4): T72-T80.
- Karim, F., F. Hijaz, C. L. Kastner and J. S. Smith. 2010. Frozen beef contamination after exposure to low levels of ammonia gas. Journal of Food Science, 75 (1): T35-T39.
- Kastner, J. 2010. Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: Food and Agriculture Security: An Historical Illustration of Contemporary Challenges; Chapter 6: Managing Human and Animal Health Threats: Additional Lessons From the Nineteenth-Century Trading World. In: Food and Agriculture Security: An Historical, Multidisciplinary Approach, Justin Kastner (ed.), ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, Calif.
- Puangsombat, K., and J.S. Smith. 2010. Inhibition of heterocyclic amine formation in beef patties by ethanolic extracts of rosemary. Journal of Food Science, 75 (2): T40-T47.
Progress 08/01/08 to 07/31/09
OUTPUTS: The outputs of the project have been disseminated to not only scientific audiences, but to the popular press and USDA FSIS. For example, Dr. Scott Smith's research strategies to utilize spices to prevent toxin formation during grilling has been covered in the popular press (i.e. Women's Health Magazine. 2008). Additionally, that research was presented at the Institute of Food Technologists annual meeting. During the 2009 Meat Industry Management Conference held in Chicago, Dr. Jim Marsden, North American Meat Processors Association senior science advisor summarized his and others research on E. coli O157:H7 in beef and how industry should respond. The recently developed Food Safety and Defense graduate certificate incorporates Consortium research results in course used in the certificate. Because of the recognition Dr. Kelly Getty's research with defining the "safe" processing parameters for jerky, she has been asked to present that information at research conferences as well as USDA policy hearings. PARTICIPANTS: The primary partners (Iowa State University and the University of Nebraska) in the Food Safety Consortium remain the same. However, new partners that help extend Consortium results include University of Nebraska, University of Missouri, Purdue University, University of Indiana Schools of Public Health, University of Minnesota and New Mexico State University. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.
Proper food microbiological examination involves proper sampling and sample preparation. Smasher homogenizer was the highest ranking instrument in ease of cleaning and ergonomics. This research provides scientists with information to make equipment selection decisions. Viable cell count results show sponge sampling method generally recovered the highest number of microorganisms. These results can be used to insure appropriate sampling strategies that maximize the ability to detect pathogens. ECA Check Easygel was efficient, less labor-intensive, comparable to or better than conventional media at recovering target organisms. This information can be used to insure appropriate sampling and culturing strategies. After 4 hrs small black fuzzy growth of Clostridium perfringens can be seen and in 5 hrs distinct colonies can be counted making the Fung Double Tube (FDT) the fastest possible viable cell count method to date. Although the most probable number (MPN) method gave more B cereus than the mannitol egg-yolk polymyxin (MYP) method, MYP method should be used by industry for enumeration of B. cereus due to its ease of use and rapid turnover time (2 d compared to 5 d with MPN). MPN method should be used for valuation research due to its greater population recovered. L. monocytogenes may translocate from drains to food contact surfaces via aerosols generated due to cleaning and washing, thus contaminating food products. Research provides information used to reduce contamination during processing and ultimately the incidence of foodborne disease. Spice Influence on inhibition of HCA formation in cooked beef patties was evaluated. Addition of rosemary, turmeric, and fingerroot in ground beef showed significantly reduced HCA levels. Spices containing natural antioxidants could be easily used to provide safer meat products. Metabolism of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB), a compound formed during irradiation) by rat liver S9 mitochondrial enzymes and to identify possible end metabolites was evaluated. Results indicated that 2-DCB was reduced by NADP(H) dependent reductase to an alcohol, which is not considered a toxic product. Results also support the position of FDA and WHO regarding the safety of irradiated foods. Microwave ovens with wattages ≥1000 provide substantially reduced pathogen survival risks if validated cooking instructions are followed. Greater than a 5 log reduction of natural and antibiotic resistant E.coli and Salmonella spp. by a high pressure treatment of 600 MPa for 3 min was observed. Growth of Lm was inhibited due to packaging and storage; processors may be able to use selected packaging and storage combinations as an antimicrobial process. Outbreak of H5N1, or its detection within the country, would have major implications for the US poultry industry. Impact time frame is hard to predict but could range from a few months to several years. Research has found that targeting specific geographical regions within nations is one way of streamlining trade between nations where food safety issues might otherwise cause problems. Distance Education courses integrate Consortium results along with research from other sources.
- Fung, D.Y.C. 2009. Methods for evaluation microbial flora in muscle foods. In: Revised Handbook of Muscle Foods Analysis (L.L. Nollet and F. Toldra), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., Chapter 32, 563-591.
- Fung, D.Y.C. 2008. Rapid methods and automation in microbiology: 25 years of developments and predictions. Alimentaria, 392:113-117.
- Fung, D.Y.C. 2008. Rapid methods and detecting microbial contaminants in food: past, present and future. (C.L. Wilson, and S. Droby, eds.) Microbial Food Contamination, 24th edition, Chapter 7, 149-186.
- Fung, D.Y.C., and B.A. Crozier-Dodson. 2008. Tempeh: A mold-modified indigenous fermented food. In: Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods (Edward R. Farnworth, ed.) CRC Press, Chapter 17, 475-494.
- Kastner, J. and C. Block. 2009. The global food supply chain. In: Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security (John Voeller, ed), John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Hoboken. N.J.
- Kastner, J., A. Nutsch, and C. Kastner. 2009. The role of food safety in food security/defense. In: Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security (John Voeller, ed.), John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, N.J.
- Nutsch, A. and J. Kastner. 2009. Carcass disposal options. In: Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security (John Voeller, ed.), John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Hoboken, N.J.
- Lai, W., D.Y.C. Fung and B.A. Crozier-Dodson. 2009. Preliminary study on rapid culture of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Journal of Food Science, 30 (7): 145-147.
- Lai, W., D.Y.C. Fung, Y. Xu, R. Liu and Y. Xiong. 2009. Development of a colloidal gold strip for rapid detection of Ochratoxin A with mimotope peptide. Food Control, 20: 791-795.
- Lai, W.H., D.Y.C Fung. Y. Xu and Y.H. Xiong. 2008. Screening procedures for clenbuterol residue determination in raw swine livers using lateral-flow assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Journal of Food Protection, 71 (4): 865-869.
- Luchansky, J.B., R.K. Phebus, H. Thippareddi and J.E. Call. 2008. Translocation of surface inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7. into beef subprimals following blade tenderization. Journal of Food Protection, 71: 2190-2197.
- Luchansky, J.B., A.C.S. Porto-Fett, B. Shoyer, R.K. Phebus, H. Thippareddi and J.E. Call. 2009. Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in blade-tenderized beef steaks cooked on a commercial open-flame gas grill. Journal of Food Protection, 72: 1404-1411.
- Zhao, R., S. Bean, B. Dodson-Crozier, D.Y.C. Fung, and D. Wang. 2008. Application of acetate buffer in pH adjustment of sorghum mash and its influence on fuel ethanol fermentation. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 36 (1): 75-85.