Source: UNIV OF IDAHO submitted to
DEVELOPMENT OF A FEMALE-PRODUCED SEX PHEROMONE FOR MANAGING PRIONUS CALIFORNICUS IN HOP
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0211599
Grant No.
2007-34103-18495
Project No.
IDA00703-CG
Proposal No.
2007-03623
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
QQ.W
Project Start Date
Aug 15, 2007
Project End Date
Aug 14, 2010
Grant Year
2007
Project Director
Barbour, J. D.
Recipient Organization
UNIV OF IDAHO
875 PERIMETER DRIVE
MOSCOW,ID 83844-9803
Performing Department
PLANT SOIL & ENTOMOLOGICAL SCI
Non Technical Summary
Prionus californicus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious root-feeding pest of hop in the Pacific Northwest. At present there are no host-plant resistance or biological control alternatives available to control this pest, and no insecticides have been registered for its control. The only effective methods available for managing P. californicus infestations in hop are the complete removal of hop rootstock from infested fields followed by soil fumigation, or by a 2- to 3-year period in which the field is left fallow or planted to a non-host crop. All of these alternatives are very expensive and disruptive to hop growers. Our recent research has confirmed that female P. californicus produce a sex pheromone that is highly attractive to males, and we have narrowed the pheromone structure down to one of only eight possible compounds. The primary goals of this proposal are are to confirm the structure of the Prionus californicus pheromone and to develop volatile pheromones as a component of an IPM program for managing P. californicus in hop: by reducing populations of insect pests by preventing mating, either by eliminating males from the population or by inundating the area with pheromone so that males cannot locate females, and consequently females produce no viable eggs
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2112230107050%
2162230113050%
Goals / Objectives
The objectives of this proposal are to confirm the structure of the pheromone, to develop synthetic routes to produce the pheromone in quantities sufficient for large-scale field trials, and to explore the potential for incorporating pheromone-based monitoring and control of P. californicus into IPM programs for hop. We will also test the efficacy of pheromone-based sampling of P. californicus in orchard crops and landscape settings in Utah and California, and determine whether the pheromone is attractive to the congeners P. imbricornis and P. laticollis in Texas and the eastern US.
Project Methods
The focus of this proposal first will be on carrying out the syntheses to conclusively verify the exact structure of the pheromone, followed by scaleup of the syntheses to produce multigram quantities of the pheromone component(s) for large-scale field trials. The focus will then shift to the operational details required for effective implementation of the pheromone for both sampling and control of P. californicus. Laboratory and field trials will be conducted that determine optimum doses and blends of pheromone components (if the minor components turn out to be important), and optimal trap placement and spacing of pheromone-baited traps or lures. We also will assess whether pheromone-based management strategies can be used to control P. californicus in the western U.S., and congeneric cerambycid species attacking orchard and landscape plantings in the U.S. west of the Rocky Mountains.

Progress 08/15/07 to 08/14/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Objective 1: We identified by a combination of retention index comparisons and mass spectral interpretation the gross structure of the female-produced sex attractant pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Prionus californicus Mots. (Cerambycidae: Prioninae) as an isomer of 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid. Laboratory and field bioassays in southern California and Idaho showed that male beetles were strongly attracted the mixture of the four stereoisomers of 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid. Three minor components identified from GC-EAD analyses were also synthesized for field and lab testing: two, 3,5 dimethyltridecanoic acid and 3,5 dimethylpentadecanoic acid are chain length homologs of 3,5 dimethyldecanoic acid. The remaining compound, methyl 3,5 dimethyldocecanoate, is the methyl ester of the synthetic pheromone. Objective 2: Field and lab studies demonstrate that male beetles are attracted to (3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, but not to (3S,5R)-3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, indicating that the (3R,5S) enantiomer is the active pheromone component. The (3R,5R)- and (3S,5S)-enantiomers were excluded from consideration because their gas chromatography retention times were different from that of the insect-produced compound. The mixture of four stereoisomers of 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid was as attractive as the pure (3R,5S)-enantiomer, indicating that none of the other three stereoisomers antagonized the active enantiomer. Beetles responded to as little as 10 ng and 10 ug of synthetic 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid in laboratory and field studies, respectively. Field studies indicated that capture rate did not increase with dosages of 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid that were greater than 100 ug. Minor components show little to no activity to males in the presence of (3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid. In the absence of the synthetic pheromone, 3,5 dimethyldocecanoate is moderately attractive to males. Recapture of marked male beetles to 1 mg lures containing synthetic pheromone decrease sharply with distance and was 5% or less at 800-1000 ft from traps. The number of males captured at traps baited with live females or to lures baited with 0.1 mg of synthetic pheromone was significantly reduced when these traps were surrounded similar lure-baited traps or by lures alone than when surrounded by traps baited with control lures or by control lures alone. These results indicate that the synthetic pheromone has excellent potential for managing P. californicus in hop. Objective 3: Field bioassays conducted in southern California captured males of a congeneric species, P. lecontei, but that species was not captured in Idaho. Additional field bioassays captured Prionus congeners in North America, (Georgia (P. laticollis, P. imbricornis), Idaho (P. integer), Arizona (P. linseleyi) and Northern Mexico (P. aztecus)), and Western Europe (P. coriarius) Objective 4: Pheromone synthesis technology and pheromone activity information has been released. To date at least two pheromone manufacturing companies are testing synthetic pheromone in commercial lures towards release in grower fields for managing P. californicus in hop. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals: James D. Barbour (PI), Jocelyn G. Millar (PI), and Lawrence M. Hanks (PI), Diane Alston (collaborator), James Dutcher (collaborator) Organizations: Idaho Hop Commission, Washington Hop Commission, Hop Research Council University of Idaho University of California, Davis, University of Illinois University of Georgia Utah State University TARGET AUDIENCES: The audiences for this project are hop growers and pricvate and public scientists working in cerambycid mating behavior, and pheromone production PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
This research documents the identification and development of a synthetic volatile sex pheromone of P. californicus. Experiments conducted to date indicate that the compound ise potentially useful when incorporated into an IPM program for this pest using mating disruption or mass trapping. Prionus californicus is one of the most destructive pests of hops in the Pacific Northwest. Currently there are no effective strategies for managing this pest in hops. Thie pheromone appears to have significant potential for managing P. californicus in apples, cherries, and other orchard crops of which it is a pest, and managing the congeners P. imbricorni and P. laticollis in apples and pecans. It also may have application monitoring for rare and endangered Prionus species in N. America and Europe.

Publications

  • E. C. Maki, J. G. Millar, J. Rodstein, L. M. Hanks and J. D. Barbour. 2011. An Evaluation of Mass Trapping and Mating Disruption for Managing Prionus californicus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Hop Production Yards. J. Econ. Entomol. Submitted .
  • E. C. Maki, J. G. Millar, J. Rodstein, L. M. Hanks and J. D. Barbour. 2011. Attraction of Male Prionus californicus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to Non-Pheromone Compounds from Ovipositor Extracts. J. Econ. Entomol. Submitted.
  • J. D. Barbour, J. G. Millar, J. Rodstein, A. M. Ray, D. G. Alston, M. Rejzek, J. D. Dutcher, and L. M. Hanks. 2011. Pheromones of North American and European Prionus species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) appear to be highly conserved: attraction of multiple species to 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, the sex pheromone of Prionus californicus Motschulsky. J. of Insect Behavior. Submitted
  • J. Millar, J. D. Barbour, J. Rodstein, J. Steven McElfresh, I. M.Wright, K. S. Barbour, A. M. Ray, and L. M. Hanks. 2011. Field evaluation of synthetic female-produced sex pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Prionus californicus. J. Chem. Ecol. Submitted.


Progress 08/15/08 to 08/14/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Several experiments were conducted characterizing the activity of the synthetic pheromone for Prionus californicus, including recapture rate of marked males over distance, relative response of male beetles to minor pheromone components, evaluation of trap types for beetle capture and initial experiments evaluating pheromone efficacy for mass trapping and mating disruption. Results were dessiminated in peer-reviewed pulications at professional meetings attend by research peers and at research reports and field tours attended by hop industry personnel. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals: James D. Barbour (PI), Jocelyn G. Millar (PI), and Lawrence M. Hanks (PI), Diane Alston (collablrator), James Durcher (collaborator) Organizations: Idaho Hop Commission, Whashington Hop Commission, Hop Research Council TARGET AUDIENCES: The audiences for this project are hop growers and scientists working in cerambycid mating behavior, and pheromone production. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period

Impacts
Recapture of marked male beetles to 1 mg lures containing synthetic pheromone decrease sharply with distance and was 5% or less at 800-1000 ft from traps. Although there was some respnse to minor pheromone components, this response was generaly small in the presence of the major pheromone component. The number of males captured at traps baited with live females or to lures baited with 0.1 mg of sythetic pheromone was significantly reduced when these traps were surrounded similar lure-baited traps or by lures alone than when surounded by traps baited with control lures or by control lures alone. These reults inidcate that the synthetic pheromone has excellent potential for managing P. californicus in hop.

Publications

  • Rodstein, J., Millar, J. G., J. J.D, Barbour J. S. McElfresh, A.M. Ray and Lawrence M. Hanks. 2009. Identification of Female-Produced Sex Pheromone of the Primitive Longhorned Beetle Prionus californicus. J. Chem. Ecol. (in press)


Progress 08/15/07 to 08/14/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The volatile female-produced pheromone for P. californicus was identified and synthesized and experiments in California and Idaho characterizing its structure and activity the field and laboratory are underway. The active enantiomer has been identified, but is no more effective than the racemic mixture. The presence of inactive enantiomers and diastereomers in the racemic mixture does not inhibit pheromone attractiveness over the range of concentrations tested. The compound is highly attractive to male P. californicus. Results have been disseminated to growers and other hop industry personnel at regularly scheduled meetings of the Idaho Hop Commission and the Hop Research Council. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals: James D. Barbour (PI), Jocelyn G. Millar (PI), and Lawrence M. Hanks (PI) Organizations: Idaho Hop Commission TARGET AUDIENCES: The audiences for this project are hop growers and scientists working in cerambycid mating behavior, and pheromone production. Results have been disseminated to growers and other hop industry personnel at regularly scheduled meetings of the Idaho Hop Commission and the Hop Research Council. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
This research documents the development of a synthetic volatile sex pheromone of P. californicus. Experiments conducted to date indicate that the compound may be potentially useful when incorporated into an IPM program for this pest using mating disruption or mass trapping. Prionus californicus is one of the most destructive pests of hops in the Pacific Northwest. Currently there are no effective strategies for managing this pest in hops.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period