Source: UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA submitted to
HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0209332
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
FLA-FAS-04596
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2006
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2012
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Phlips, E. J.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
G022 MCCARTY HALL
GAINESVILLE,FL 32611
Performing Department
FISHERIES AND AQUATIC SCIENCES
Non Technical Summary
Over the past century, alterations of land use and acceleration in the rate of cultural eutrophication have led to widespread increases in harmful algal blooms in Florida, including toxin-producing species. These blooms represent potential threats to the integrity and sustainability of many of Floridas critical aquatic resources, and can impact human health. The central goal of this project is to determine the causes, characteristics, and consequences harmful algal blooms in aquatic ecosystems, with special emphasis on lakes, rivers, and estuaries of Florida, and apply the knowledge to the development of management alternatives for the control of harmful blooms.
Animal Health Component
20%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
30%
Applied
60%
Developmental
10%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1120399107010%
1120899107010%
1124099107010%
1350399107010%
1350899107010%
1354099107010%
3140399107010%
3140899107015%
3144099107015%
Goals / Objectives
The central goal of this project is to determine the causes, characteristics, and consequences harmful algal blooms in aquatic ecosystems, with special emphasis on lakes, rivers, and estuaries of Florida, and apply the knowledge to the development of management alternatives for the control of harmful blooms. The primary objectives of the project are: 1) To determine the factors that control the distribution, composition, frequency and intensity of algal blooms, 2) To evaluate the impacts of algal blooms on the integrity and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems, with special emphasis on the distribution and character of toxic algae and their toxins, and 3) To develop strategies for the management and control of harmful algal blooms.
Project Methods
The objectives of the study will be pursued through a combination of field and laboratory research, in combination with the establishment of collaborations with other researchers and managers in the field to facilitate the application of results to management activities and extension activities. Key elements of the research plan include, 1) Establishment of monitoring programs for harmful algae, including the application of remote sensing and paleolimnological/oceanographic methods, 2) In situ and laboratory research on the causes and consequences of harmful algal blooms, such as ecophysiological studies of algal growth and competition, genetic studies of toxin production, and research on the effects of toxins on animal growth, health and behavior, and 3) Participation in the development of management plans for the control of harmful algae, including the development of models for predicting the occurrence and character of algal blooms, identification of the most effective targets for management efforts, and creating a public information system for harmful algal blooms.

Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: A substantial body of evidence now exists for the role of population growth and development in the acceleration of eutrophication, increase in pollution and global climate change. Scientists and water managers around the world are faced with the difficult challenge of providing effective strategies for preventing harm to aquatic ecosystems that are still healthy. Maintaining the integrity of aquatic ecosystems is essential to sustaining the functions and resources critical to the well being of human institutions, including fisheries, water supply, recreational opportunities, and more fundamentally the overall stability of the biosphere. My research program focuses on this challenge as it relates to primary producers (bacteria, algae and aquatic plants), which form the base of aquatic food webs and provide critical structural components of marine and freshwater habitats. Aquatic primary producers can also form the basis for the development of new, environmentally friendly, technologies aimed at filling the growing global demand for food, energy and chemicals, as illustrated by recent efforts to convert algae into biodiesel and the discovery of algae which produce anti-cancer drugs. While many of the research efforts in the program are located in Florida, the results of the work have broad application to environments around the world, particularly in warm temperate and subtropical environments. The central outputs of the program have been in the following areas: 1) Defining factors which control the structure and function of primary producer communities in marine and freshwater ecosystems, 2) Describing the adverse consequences of changes in these communities (such as harmful algae blooms) on the integrity and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems, such as harmful algal blooms or regional anoxia, 3) Developing management strategies for preventing or mitigating damage to ecosystems caused by changes in aquatic primary producer communities, 4) Develop models which can help predict the responses of primary producer communities to changes in environmental conditions, 5) Explore new technologies for the use of primary producers in the production of food, fuel and chemicals, and 6) Apply new genetic methodologies and approaches to address research challenges and opportunities. In pursuit of these objectives, our laboratory has studied the ecology of algae and aquatic plants communities in a wide range of marine and freshwater ecosystems in Florida, as well as some systems in the Caribbean, South America and Africa, providing important insights into how differences in key structural features of ecosystems dictate their response to changes in the environment. Historically, the emphasis of many research efforts has been on the adverse consequences of cultural eutrophication and pollution, but it is becoming increasingly clear that such consequences are also strongly influenced by other issues, such as global temperature changes and rainfall patterns. The results of our research are helping to address important water management issues in a manner that recognizes the unique nature of threats faced by different ecosystems. PARTICIPANTS: Graduate students: Ashley Loren Mathews, Paula Viveros, Nicole Dix, Kathryn O'Donnell, Lance Riley, Pete Sleszynski, Ling Han Dong, Mete Yilmaz, Margaret Hopson, Erin Bledsoe, Akeapot Srifa, Amanda Foss, Ken Black, Karen Donnelly, Christina Jett, Natalie Love, Jessica Frost, Robert Burns, William Kenney. Researchers collaborators: S. Badylak, M. Cichra, Z. He, G. Zalidas, T. Crisman, K. Harr, R. Bonde, M. Lowe, K. Kelley, D. Munch, R. Knight, E. Quinlan, P. Baker, J. Fajans, S. Keller, N. Szabo, Y. Lin, Y. Yang, P. Stofella, C. Powell, J. Yang, G. Chen, J. Hendrickson, R. Gleeson, M. Lehmenseik, M. Lopes, K. Havens, R. Fulton II, C. Schelske, D. Tillett, M. Christman, M. Lasi, S. Baker, J. Wolny, J. Garland, L. Hall, J. Hart, J. Landsberg, J. Lockwood, R. Paperno, D. Scheidt, K. Steidinger, J. Beaver, D. Casamatta, T. East, R. James, P. McCormick, A. Rodusky, D. Sun, K. Work, D. Haunert, T. Rosati, A. Croteau, P. Suscy, and M. Aubel. Collaborating agencies: St. Johns River Water Management District, Suwanee River Water Management District, South Florida Water Management District, Florida Department of Agriculture, Florida DEP, U.S. Dept. Commerce NOAA, U.S.E.P.A., National Science Foundation, USDA, U.S. National Park Service, Exxon-Mobile TARGET AUDIENCES: water management agencies,private corporations,educational organizations, fisheries organizations, agricultural interests PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
In pursuit of the program objectives, our laboratory has studied the ecology of algae and aquatic plants communities in a wide range of marine and freshwater ecosystems in Florida, as well as some systems in the Caribbean, South America and Africa, generating important impacts on hwo management agencies respond to changes in the environment, of both human and natural origin. The following narrative provides three examples of some of the impacts of our research efforts, which are further detailed in the 43 publications generated during the project period. 1) The results of our on-going study of the plankton community in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) (intiated in 1997) has provided a detailed view of the composition, distribution and dynamics of harmful algal blooms. This information is being used by the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) and the U.S. E. P. A. National Estuarine Protection Program to help define the extent and timing of the threat posed by toxic and otherwise harmful algae to the overall integrity of the ecosystem, including the health of invertebrates, fish and marine mammals, as well as human consumers of seafood products. 2) The Suwanee River estuary is one of the most productive coastal environments in the Florida, supporting a wide range of commercial and recreational fishing activities, including a major clam farming industry. However, recent dramatic increases in nutrient levels of the Suwanee River, associated with cultural eutrophication, have raised serious concerns about potential negative impacts on the integrity and sustainability of the estuary. The results of our study off the system provided critical information for water managers in their efforts to design management plans and set regulatory targets, as indicated by the fact that the TMDL (total maximum daily load) limits set by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection for the Suwanee River 2008 relied heavily on the results of our study, as indicated by Section 5.4 (Biological Effects) of the FDEP TMDL Report. 3) There is intense world-wide concern over the threat that toxic algae blooms pose to ecosystem and human health. In one of several studies focused on this issue we targeted the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis, which has been designated as one of two major toxic threats in freshwater ecosystems of Florida. Detailed genetic analysis of a wide range of Cylindrospermopsis isolates from different lakes and rivers around Florida demonstrated that none contained the genes responsible for cylindrospermopsin production. This observation suggests that Cylindrospermopsis is not be a major toxic algae risk in Florida, which has altered the views of major government regulatory agencies on the management of this species.

Publications

  • Riley, L., S. M. Baker and E. J. Phlips. 2010. Self-adhesive wire markers for bivalve tag and recapture studies. American Malacological Bulletin 28:183-184.
  • Riley, L., S. M. Baker, and E. J. Phlips. 2010. A new device for crushing rigid biomass and geologic materials prior to compositional analyses. Journal of Paleolimnology 44:737-739.
  • Riley, L., N. Dix and E. J. Phlips. 2010. A new attachment device for deployment of monitoring equipment in estuaries and other high energy environments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 65:502-522.
  • Phlips, E. J., S. Badylak, M. Christman, J. Wolny, J. Garland, L. Hall, J. Hart, J. Landsberg, M. Lasi, J. Lockwood, R. Paperno, D. Scheidt, A. Staples, K. Steidinger,. 2011. Scales of variability of harmful algae blooms in the Indian River, Florida, USA. Harmful Algae 10:277-290.
  • Havens, K. E., J. R. Beaver, D. A. Casamatta, T. L. East, R. T. James, P. McCormick, E. J. Phlips and A. J. Rodusky. 2011. Hurricane effects on the planktonic food web of a large subtropical lake. Journal of Plankton Research 33:1081-1094.
  • Yilmaz, M. and E. J. Phlips. 2011. Diversity of and selection acting on cylindrospermopsin cyrB gene adenylation domain sequences in Florida, USA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77:2502-2507.
  • Black, K., M. Yilmaz and E. J. Phlips. 2011. Growth and toxin production by Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 (Kutzing) Lemmerman at elevated salt concentrations. Journal Environmental Protection 2:669-674.
  • Yilmaz, M. and E. J. Phlips. 2011. Toxicity and genetic diversity of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in Florida, USA. Lake and Reservoir Management 27:235-244.
  • Yilmaz, M. and E. J. Phlips. 2011. Design and testing of internal amplification controls (IAC) and development of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay for cylindrospermopsin genes. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 27:97-101.
  • Phlips, E. J. and S. DasSarma. 2012, Aquatic biosystems: Reactions and actions. Aquatic Biosystems 8 (1), doi:10.1186/2046-9083-8-1.
  • Havens, K. E., J. R. Beaver, T. L. East, K. Work, E. J. Phlips, M. A. Cichra, A. C. Croteau, A. J. Rodusky, R. Fulton and T. Rosati. 2012. The outcome of the invasion of Florida lakes by Daphnia lumhotlzi. Freshwater Biology 57:552-562.
  • Foss, A. J., E. J. Phlips, M. Yilmaz and A. Chapman. 2012. Characterization of paralytic shellfish toxins from Lyngbya wollei dominated mats collected from two Florida springs. Harmful Algae 16:98-107.
  • Zalidas, G., T. Crisman, E. J. Phlips, E. Ntonou, A. Antoniadis, and V. Takavakoglou. 2012. Selection of a proper management strategy for Lake Koronia, Greece, based on monitoring reliable indicators. Pp. 262-270. In: K. L. Katsidarakis, N. Theodossiou, C. Christodoulatos, A. Kousospryros, and Z. Mallios (eds.). Proceedings of the International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment XI. Thessaloniki, Greece. ISBN 978-960-99922-1-3.
  • Foss, A. J., E. J. Phlips, M. Aubel and N. Szabo. 2012. Comparison of extraction and analysis techniques for Lyngbya wollei derived paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Toxicon 60:1148-1158.
  • Dix, N., E. J. Phlips and P. Suscy. 2012. Control of phytoplankton biomass in a well-flushed subtropical estuary in Florida, USA. Estuaries and Coasts, accepted for publication.
  • Badylak, S., E. J. Phlips, J. Hart, D. Haunert, Z. He, J. Lockwood, C. A. Powell, D. Sun, and Y. Yang. 2012. Climatic influences on phytoplankton community structure and abundance in a subtropical tidal creek. Journal of Coastal Research, submitted.
  • Bledsoe, E. L., K. E. Harr, M. Cichra, E. J. Phlips, R. K. Bonde and M. Lowe. 2006. A comparison of algal mat communities associated with free-ranging and captive Florida manatees. Marine Mammal Science 22:997-1003.
  • Badylak, S., E. J. Phlips and K. Kelley. 2006. A re-examination of Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima (Bacillariophyceae) from the Indian River Lagoon. Diatom Research 21:263-267.
  • Phlips, E. J., S. Badylak, E. L. Bledsoe and M. Cichra. 2006. Factors influencing the distribution and abundance of Pyrodinium bahamense in coastal ecosystems of Florida. Marine Ecology Progress Series 322:99-115.
  • Munch, D. A., D. J. Toth, C. Haung, D. M. Fortich, W. L. Osburn, E. J. Phlips, E. L. Quinlan, M. S. Allen, M. J. Woods, P. Cooney, R. L. Knight, R. A. Clarke and S. L. Knight. 2007. Fifty-year retrospective study of the ecology of Silver Springs, Florida. St. Johns River Water Management District Special Publication SJ2007-SP4. Palatka, Florida.
  • Quinlan, E. L. and E. J. Phlips. 2007. Phytoplankton assemblages across the marine to low-salinity zone in a blackwater dominated estuary. Journal of Plankton Research 29:410-416.
  • Badylak, S., E. J. Phlips, P. Baker and J. Fajans and R. Boler. 2007. Distributions of phytoplankton in Tampa Bay, USA. Bulletin of Marine Science 80:295-317.
  • Phlips, E. J., J. Hendrickson, E. L. Bledsoe and M. Cichra. 2007. Meteorological influences on algal bloom potential in a nutrient-rich blackwater river. Journal of Freshwater Biology 52:2141-2155
  • Quinlan, E. L., E. J. Phlips, K. A. Donnelly, C. H. Jett, P. Sleszynski and S. Keller. 2008. Primary producers and nutrient load in Silver Springs, Florida, USA. Aquatic Botany 88:247-255.
  • Yilmaz, M., E. J. Phlips, S. Badylak and N. Szabo. 2008. A comparative study of Florida strains of Cylindrospermopsis and Aphanizomenon involving two genes putatively associated with the production of the hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin. Toxicon 51:130-139.
  • Lin, Y., Z. He, Y. Yang, P. J. Stoffella, E. J. Phlips, and C. A. Powell. 2008. Nitrogen versus phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton growth in Ten Mile Creek, Florida, USA. Hydrobiologia 605:247-258.
  • Yang, Y., Z. He, Y. Lin, C. A. Powell, E. J. Phlips, J. Yang, G. Chen and P. J. Stofella. 2008. Temporal and spatial variations of nutrients in Ten Mile Creek of South Florida, USA and effects on phytoplankton biomass. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 10:508-516.
  • Burnes, R. M., E. J. Phlips, M. F. Cichra and M. Lehmenseik. 2008. Zooplankton community structure in the Middle St. Johns River, Florida, 2003-2005. Florida Scientist 71:173-187.
  • Dix, N., E. J. Phlips and R. Gleeson. 2008. Water quality changes in a tidal creek within the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve, Florida, associated with the four tropical storms of 2004. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 55:70-81.
  • Badylak, S. and E. J. Phlips. 2008. Spatial and temporal patterns of zooplankton distribution in Tampa Bay, Florida, including observations during a HAB event. Journal of Plankton Research 30:449-465.
  • Phlips, E. J., Havens, K. E., and M. Lopes. 2008. Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in two Amazon flood plain lakes of varying hydrologic connectivity to the main river channel. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 172:99-109.
  • Phlips, E. J., S. M. Baker, K. Knickerbocker, K. Black and N. Dix. 2008. Effects of hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) high density culture on water quality in a shallow semi-restricted bay. Florida Scientist 71:330-340.
  • Harr, K. E., N. J. Szabo, M. Cichra, and E. J. Phlips. 2008. Debromoaplysia toxin in Lyngbya-dominated mats growing on manatees in the Kings Bay ecosystem of Florida, USA. Toxicon 52:385-388.
  • Frost, J., E. J. Phlips, R. Fulton III, C. L. Schelske, W. Kenney, and M. Cichra. 2008. Changes in trophic state parameters over a 21-year period in a hypereutrophic lake, Lake Griffin, Florida, USA. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 172:263-271.
  • Yilmaz, M., E. J. Phlips, and D. Tillett. 2009. A new method for DNA extraction from natural waters containing high colored organic material. Journal of Phycology 45:517-521.
  • Yilmaz, M. and E. J. Phlips. 2008. Investigation of microcystin concentrations and possible microcystin producing organisms in some Florida lakes and fish ponds. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 619:170-172.
  • Jacoby, C. A., T. K. Frazer, and E. J. Phlips. 2008. Chapter 4: Nutrient effects on spring flora and fauna. In: Summary and synthesis of the available literature on the effects of nutrients on spring organisms and systems. Report prepared for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Tallahassee, FL
  • Yang, Y., Z. He, Y. Lin, E. J. Phlips, P. J. Stoffella, and C. A. Powell. 2009. Temporal and spatial variations of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in Ten Mile Creek in South Florida, USA. Water Environment Research 81:40-50.
  • Badylak, S. and E. J. Phlips. 2009. Observations of different life stages of the toxic dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense in the St. Lucie estuary, Florida, USA. Florida Scientist 72:208-217.
  • Quinlan, E. L., C. H. Jett and E. J. Phlips. 2009. Microzooplankton grazing and the control of phytoplankton biomass in the Suwannee River and estuary, USA. Hydrobiologia 632:127-137.
  • Phlips, E. J., S. Badylak, M. Christman and M. Lasi. 2010. Climatic trends and temporal patterns of phytoplankton composition, abundance and succession in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Estuaries and Coasts 33:498-513.
  • Zingone, A., E. J. Phlips, and P. Harrison. 2010. Multi-scale variability of twenty-two coastal phytoplankton time series: A global scale comparison. Estuaries and Coasts 33:224-229.


Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Annual Reports for grant funded projects as PI - Zooplankton community structure in the middle St. Johns River basin, St. Johns River Water Management District; Appalacicola Bay Water Quality, NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserve Program; Water Quality Monitoring Guana Tolomato Matanzas estuaries, NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserve Program; Assessment of the attenuation crustacean zooplankton viability during cyanobacterial bloom conditions in Lake George, St. Johns River Water Management District; Biological monitoring of the lower St. Johns River: Temporal and spatial trends in freshwater plankton, St. Johns River Water Management District; Expert assistance minimum flow criteria for the St. Johns River, St. Johns River Water Management District; Toxic Algae in the Indian River Lagoon, U.S. E.P.A.; Phytoplankton of the Apalachicola River and bay, U. S. Dept. Commerce NERR Graduate Fellowship Program; How estuaries respond to nutrient load: GTMNERR as a model case, U. S. Dept. Commerce NERR Graduate Fellowship Program; Phytoplankton of the Indian River Lagoon ecosystem, St. Johns River Water Management Distict; Zooplankton community structure in the middle St. Johns River basin, St. Johns River Water Management District Phlips, E. J. and H. Paerl, 2010-2011, Effects of water withdrawal on plankton, nutrients and TMDLs, Plankton working group meetings, St. Johns River Water Supply Impact Symposium, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Gainesville, Florida, September 23-24, 2009; Invited member of the National Harmful Algal Bloom Committee, 2009-present; Invited member of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Transgenic Aquatic Species Task Force, 2009-present. PARTICIPANTS: Edward Phlips, Susan Badylak, Mary Cichra, Loren Mathews, Paula Viveros, Akeapot Srifa,Ken Black, Mete Yilmaz, Hans Paerl, Detong Sun, Karl Havens, John Beaver, Mary Christman, Margaret Lasi, Paul Harrison, Adrianna Zingone, Shirley Baker, LAnce Riley, Nicole Dix, Jennifer Wolny, Therese East, Rick James, Paul McCormick, Jane Hart, Dan Haunert, Heather Manley, Shil DasSarma, Ken Work, Amanda Croteau, Andrew Chapman, Amanda Foss Partner organizations: South Florida Water Management District, St. Johns River Water Management District, U.S.E.P.A. National Estuaries Program, NOAA Estuarine Research Reserve program, TARGET AUDIENCES: Scientists, concerned citizens, water managers, political officials, health care providers, students PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Determined factors which control the structure and function of primary producer communities in marine and freshwater ecosystems. E.g. Impact:The results of our study of the affects watershed nutrient inputs on the algae communities of the St. Lucie and Caloosahatchee Estuaries, funded by the South Florida Water Management District, demonstrated important roles for nutrient limitation and salinity stress. 2) Outcome - Define the adverse consequences of changes in the environment for the integrity and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems, including harmful algal blooms and regional anoxia. E.g. Impact: Over the past five years our research on toxic algae blooms in the Indian River Lagoon provided the information needed to confirm the link between the observations of a powerful algae neurotoxin, saxitoxin, in the tissues of several sport fish species(by the Florida Wildlife Research Institute) and blooms of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium. This linkage provided the impetus for the establishment of a U.S.E.P.A. National Estuarine Program funded monitoring effort in the lagoon. 3) Outcome - Developed new strategies for preventing or mitigating damage to ecosystems caused by changes in aquatic primary producer communities. E.g. Impact - The results of research on the relationship between nutrient load from the Suwannee River on the biomass of algae in estuary was used by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to help establish the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) limits for nutrients. 4) Outcome - Developed models which can help predict the responses of ecosystems to changes in environmental conditions, including those resulting from the implementation of management strategies. Example of Impact -The results of our research on the relationships between hydrologic conditions and the potential for harmful algae blooms in the St. Johns River have become a central component of the St. Johns River Water Management District's new policies related to water withdrawal and Minimum Flows and Levels (MFL). 4) Outcome - Applied new genetic methodologies and approaches to address research challenges and opportunities. E.g. Impact - One of the major challenges in defining the potential toxin threats associated with algae is the ability to accurately identify toxic species. Our research results showed that one of the assumed major toxic algae threats in Florida, the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis, did not have the genes needed to produce the toxin cylindrospermopsin, thereby fundamentally altering the view of this major bloom-forming species as a health risk. Historically, the emphasis of many research efforts has been on the adverse consequences of cultural eutrophication, but it is becoming increasingly clear that such consequences are also strongly influenced by other issues, such as global temperature changes and rainfall patterns. The results of our research are helping to address important water management issues in a manner that recognizes the unique nature of threats faced by different ecosystems.

Publications

  • Zingone, A., E. J. Phlips, and P. Harrison. 2010. Multi-scale variability of twenty-two coastal phytoplankton time series: A global scale comparison. Estuaries and Coasts 33:224-229.
  • Riley, L., S. M. Baker and E. J. Phlips. 2010. Self-adhesive wire markers for bivalve tag and recapture studies. American Malacological Bulletin 28:183-184.
  • Riley, L., S. M. Baker, and E. J. Phlips. 2010. A new device for crushing rigid biomass and geologic materials prior to compositional analyses. Journal of Paleolimnology 44:737-739.
  • Phlips, E. J., S. Badylak, M. Christman and M. Lasi. 2010. Climatic trends and temporal patterns of phytoplankton composition, abundance and succession in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Estuaries and Coasts 33:498-513.
  • Riley, L., N. Dix and E. J. Phlips. 2010. A new attachment device for deployment of monitoring equipment in estuaries and other high energy environments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 65:502-522.
  • Phlips, E. J., S. Badylak, M. Christman, J. Wolny, J. Garland, L. Hall, J. Hart, J. Landsberg, M. Lasi, J. Lockwood, R. Paperno, D. Scheidt, A. Staples, K. Steidinger. 2011. Scales of variability of harmful algae blooms in the Indian River, Florida, USA. Harmful Algae 10:277-290.
  • Havens, K. E., J. R. Beaver, D. A. Casamatta, T. L. East, R. T. James, P. McCormick, E. J. Phlips and A. J. Rodusky. 2011. Hurricane effects on the planktonic food web of a large subtropical lake. Journal of Plankton Research 33:1081-1094.
  • Yilmaz, M. and E. J. Phlips. 2011. Diversity of and selection acting on cylindrospermopsin cyrB gene adenylation domain sequences in Florida, USA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77:2502-2507.
  • Black, K., M. Yilmaz and E. J. Phlips. 2011. Growth and toxin production by Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 (Kutzing) Lemmerman at elevated salt concentrations. Journal Environmental Protection 2:669-674.
  • Yilmaz, M. and E. J. Phlips. 2011. Toxicity and genetic diversity of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in Florida, USA. Lake and Reservoir Management 27:235-244.
  • Yilmaz, M. and E. J. Phlips. 2011. Design and testing of internal amplification controls (IAC) and development of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay for cylindrospermopsin genes. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 27:97-101.
  • Phlips, E. J., S. Badylak, J. Hart, D. Haunert, J. Lockwood, H. Manley, K. ODonnell, D. Sun, P. Viveros and M. Yilmaz. 2012. Climatic influences on autochthonous and allochthonous phytoplankton blooms in a subtropical estuary, St. Lucie Estuary, Florida, USA. Estuaries and Coasts 35:335-352.
  • Phlips, E. J. and S. DasSarma. 2012. Aquatic biosystems: Reactions and actions. Aquatic Biosystems 8 (1), doi:10.1186/2046-9083-8-1.
  • Havens, K. E., J. R. Beaver, T. L. East, K. Work, E. J. Phlips, M. A. Cichra, A. C. Croteau, A. J. Rodusky, R. Fulton and T. Rosati. 2012. The outcome of the invasion of Florida lakes by Daphnia lumhotlzi. Freshwater Biology 57:552-562.
  • Foss, A. J., E. J. Phlips, M. Yilmaz and A. Chapman. 2012. Characterization of paralytic shellfish toxins from Lyngbya wollei dominated mats collected from two Florida springs. Harmful Algae 16:98-107.


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Annual Reports for grant funded projects as PI - Zooplankton community structure in the middle St. Johns River basin, St. Johns River Water Management District; Appalacicola Bay Water Quality, NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserve Program; Water Quality Monitoring Guana Tolomato Matanzas estuaries, NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserve Program; Assessment of the attenuation crustacean zooplankton viability during cyanobacterial bloom conditions in Lake George, St. Johns River Water Management District; Biological monitoring of the lower St. Johns River: Temporal and spatial trends in freshwater plankton, St. Johns River Water Management District; Expert assistance minimum flow criteria for the St. Johns River, St. Johns River Water Management District; Toxic Algae in the Indian River Lagoon, U.S. E.P.A.; Phytoplankton of the Apalachicola River and bay, U. S. Dept. Commerce NERR Graduate Fellowship Program; How estuaries respond to nutrient load: GTMNERR as a model case, U. S. Dept. Commerce NERR Graduate Fellowship Program; Control of Lyngbya blooms using ultrasound, Florida DEP; Impacts of the hepatotoxin microcystin on the health of fish, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Servie; Phytoplankton of the Indian River Lagoon ecosystem, St. Johns River Water Management Distict; Zooplankton community structure in the middle St. Johns River basin, St. Johns River Water Management District Bioaccumulation, transfer and fate of algal toxins in freshwater and marine food chains, Office of the Provost, University of Florida Innovation Grant Program. Presentations and Professional Activities - Invited presentations; Christman, M. C. and E. J. Phlips. 2009, Modeling scales of variability of harmful algal blooms in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, Joint National Statistical Conference, Washington, D.C., August 2-6, 2009; Invited expert panel member: Phlips, E. J. and H. Paerl, 2009, Effects of water withdrawal on plankton, nutrients and TMDLs, St. Johns River Water Supply Impact Symposium, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Gainesville, Florida, September 23-24, 2009; Phlips, E. J. and H. Paerl, 2009, Review of the St. Johns River Water Supply Impact Study, Phase 2, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, Florida, December 17, 2009; Phlips, E. J. and H. Paerl, 2009, Plankton working group meeting, Methods to assess effects of water withdrawal on plankton, nutrients and TMDLs in the lower and middle St. Johns River, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, Florida, July 22, 2009; Invited member of the National Harmful Algal Bloom Committee, 2009-present; Invited member of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Transgenic Aquatic Species Task Force, 2009-present. PARTICIPANTS: Biological scientists - Susan Badylak and Mary Cichra; Post-doctoral Fellows - Mete Yilmaz and Lance Riley; MS Students - Ken Black, Linghan Dong, Amanda Foss, Akeapot Srifa; PhD Students - Paula Viveros Bedoya, Nicole Dix, Ashley Loren Mathews, Peter Sleszinski; Cooperating Organizations - St. Johns River Water Management District, South Florida Water Management District, U.S.E.P.A., NOAA, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NASA, National Estuarine Research Reserve Program, Florida Wildlife Research institute and Florida Department of Environmental Protection. TARGET AUDIENCES: State water management agencies, federal environmental regulators, state and federal health authorities, scientific community, general public PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
1) Outcome - Determined factors which control the structure and function of primary producer communities in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Example of Impact - The results of our study on algae communities of the St. Lucie and Caloosahatchee Estuaries, funded by the South Florida Water Management District, demonstrated important roles for nutrient limitation and salinity stress. These observations led to a broader study of primary production and algal blooms in both the St. Lucie Estuary on the east coast of Florida and the Caloosahatchee Estuary on the west coast. 2) Outcome - Defined the adverse consequences of changes in the environment for the integrity and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems, including harmful algal blooms and regional anoxia. Example of Impact - Over the past five years our research on toxic algae blooms in the Indian River Lagoon provided the information needed to confirm the link between the observations of a powerful algae neurotoxin, saxitoxin, in the tissues of several sport fish species(by the Florida Wildlife Research Institute) and blooms of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium. This linkage provided the impetus for the establishment of a U.S.E.P.A. National Estuarine Program funded monitoring effort in the lagoon. 3) Outcome - Developed new strategies for preventing or mitigating damage to ecosystems caused by changes in aquatic primary producer communities. Example of Impact - The results of research on the relationship between nutrient load from the Suwannee River on the biomass of algae in estuary was used by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to help establish the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) limits for nutrients. 4) Outcome - Developed models which can help predict the responses of ecosystems to changes in environmental conditions, including those resulting from the implementation of management strategies. Example of Impact -The results of our research on the relationships between hydrologic conditions and the potential for harmful algae blooms in the St. Johns River. 4) Outcome - Applied new genetic methodologies and approaches to address research challenges and opportunities. Example of Impact - One of the major challenges in defining the potential toxin threats associated with algae is the ability to accurately identify toxic species. Our research results showed that one of the assumed major toxic algae threats in Florida, the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis, did not have the genes needed to produce the toxin cylindrospermopsin, thereby fundamentally altering the view of this major bloom-forming species as a health risk. In pursuit of these objectives, our laboratory has studied the ecology of algae and aquatic plants communities in a wide range of marine and freshwater ecosystems in Florida, as well as systems in the Caribbean, South America and Africa, providing important insights into how differences in key structural features of ecosystems dictate their response to changes in the environment. The results of the research program have been published top level peer-reviewed international journals.

Publications

  • Yilmaz, M., E. J. Phlips, and D. Tillett. 2009. A new method for DNA extraction from natural waters containing high colored organic material. Journal of Phycology 45:517-521.
  • Badylak, S. and E. J. Phlips. 2009. Observations of different life stages of the toxic dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense in the St. Lucie estuary, Florida, USA. Florida Scientist 72:208-217.
  • Quinlan, E. L., C. H. Jett and E. J. Phlips. 2009. Microzooplankton grazing and the control of phytoplankton biomass in the Suwannee River and estuary, USA. Hydrobiologia 632:127-137.
  • Phlips, E. J., S. Badylak, M. Christman and M. Lasi. 2009. Climate changes and temporal trends of phytoplankton composition, abundance and succession in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Estuaries and Coasts, in press.
  • Zingone, A., E. J. Phlips, and P. Harrison. 2009. Multi-scale variability of twenty-two coastal phytoplankton time series: A global scale comparison. Estuaries and Coasts, in press.
  • Riley, L., S. M. Baker and E. J. Phlips. 2009. Evaluation of self-adhesive wire markers for bivalve tag and recapture studies. Malacological Bulletin, in press.
  • Phlips, E. J., S. Badylak, M. Christman, J. Garland, L. Hall, J. Hart, J. Landsberg, M. Lasi, R. Paperno, D. Scheidt, A. Staples, K. Steidinger, J. Wolney. 2009. Scales of variability of harmful algae blooms in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Harmful Algae, accepted with revision, revised manuscript submitted.
  • Yang, Y., Z. He, Y. Lin, E. J. Phlips, P. J. Stoffella, and C. A. Powell. 2009. Temporal and spatial variations of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in Ten Mile Creek in South Florida, USA. Water Environment Research 81:40-50.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Project Reports Submitted During 2008: Indian River Lagoon Phytoplankton - Funded by St. Johns River Water Management District. Monitoring Toxic Algae in the Indian River Lagoon - Funded by U. S. E. P. A. & Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission. Plankton Communities of the Lower St. Johns River - Funded by St. Johns River Water Management District. Task Force Report on the Ecological Effects of Water Withdrawel from the St. Johns River - Funded by SJRWMD & National Research Council. Zooplankton Communities of the Mid- St. Johns River and Orange Creek Basins - Funded by St. Johns River Water Management District. Ecology of Primary Producers in the St. Lucie Estuary - Funded by South Florida Water Management District. Water Quality and Phytoplankton Communities of Ten Mile Creek - Funded by South Florida Water Management District. Bioaccumulation and Transfer of Algal Through Aquatic Food Webs - Funded by University of Florida - Innovation Grant Program. Water Quality in the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve - Funded by U. S. Dept. of Commerce/NOAA/NERR. Indicators of Eutrophication in a Highly Flushed Coastal Ecosystem - Funded by U. S. Dept. of Commerce/NOAA/NERR/National Graduate Student Fellowship. Water Quality in the Appalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve - Funded by U. S. Dept. of Commerce/NOAA/NERR. Primary Production in Appalachicola Bay Ecosystem - Funded by U. S. Dept. of Commerce/NOAA/NERR/National Graduate Student Fellowship. Fish Health in the St. Lucie Estuary: Impact of Toxic Algae Blooms - Funded by U. S. National Marine Fisheries Service. Control of Lyngbya Using Ultrasound - Funded by Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Task Force on the Effects of Nutrients on Spring Organisms and Systems -Funded by Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Presentations: Dix, N., E. Phlips and R. Gleeson. Water quality changes within the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve associated with four tropical storms. Ocean Sciences Meeting, March 2-7, 2008, Orlando, Florida. Sponsored by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, the American Geophysical Union, the Oceanography Society and the Estuarine Research Federation. Nunez, J., R. Burnes and E. Phlips. A new sampling device for collecting zooplankton. Ocean Sciences Meeting, March 2-7, 2008, Orlando, Florida. Sponsored by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, the American Geophysical Union, the Oceanography Society and the Estuarine Research Federation. Phlips, E. and S. Badylak. A ten-year record of phytoplankton composition and biomass in the Indian River Lagoon. Ocean Sciences Meeting, March 2-7, 2008, Orlando, Florida. Sponsored by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, the American Geophysical Union, the Oceanography Society and the Estuarine Research Federation. Phlips, E. J. Panel Member. St. Johns River as a Drinking Water Source. Technical Symposium on the Cumulative Impact Assessment Project, Sept. 17-18, 2008. Sponsored by the National Research Council and the St. Johns River Water Management District. PARTICIPANTS: Major research staff: Biological Scientists - Susan Badylak and Mary Cichra; Post-doctoral Fellow - Mete Yilmaz; PhD Students - Paula Viveros Bedoya, Nicole Dix, Loren Mathews, Lance Riley, Peter Sleszynski; MS Students - Ken Black, Linghan Dong, Amanda Foss, Akepot Srifa; Outside Cooperating organizations: Florida Wildlife and Fish Commission; South Florida Water Management District; St. Johns River Water Management District; McGill University, Canada; Universidade Rio Acre, Brazil; NASA; NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserve Program; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency TARGET AUDIENCES: State water management districts, Federal environmental regulators, State health authorities, General public PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
1)Indian River Lagoon; Our study of the plankton community in the Indian River Lagoon has provided a detailed view of the composition, distribution and dynamics of harmful algal blooms. This information is being used by the Management District and the U.S.E.P.A. to help define the extent and timing of the threat posed by harmful algae to the overall integrity of the ecosystem, including the health of invertebrates, fish and marine mammals. 2)St. Lucie Estuary; Periodic introductions of massive blooms of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis to the St. Lucie estuary from Lake Okeechobee represent a major threat to the health of this important estuary. The results of our study have provided evidence of the key role that periods of substantially elevated rainfall play in exacerbating this phenomenon,as illustrated by major the HAB event of 2005, a year of exceptional hurricane activity, when toxin levels reached 700 times the World Health Organizations guidelines for drinking water safety. 3)St. Johns River: The results our study of the plankton community in the St. Johns River has focused attention on how conditions of river flows and levels strongly influence the potential for HABs. It also highlighted how recent efforts to divert water from the St. Johns River ecosystem to supply the needs of central Florida may lead to substantial increases in the frequency and intensity of HAB events. 4)Algal Toxins in African Rift Lakes; In 2006, our laboratory initiated a cooperative research effort with McGill University in Canada to examine the toxic algae threat in a large African rift lake, Lake Saka, which is used by numerous surrounding villages as a source of fundamentally untreated drinking water. Microscopic and chemical analyses of samples collected from the eutrophic waters of Lake Saka demonstrated the presence of high densities of cyanobacteria year around, as well as consistently high levels of the hepatotoxin microcystin. 6) Toxin Threats in Florida; One target of research was the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis (CYL), which has been designated as one of two major toxin threats in freshwater ecosystems. Detailed genetic analysis of a wide range of CYL isolates from different lakes and rivers around Florida demonstrated that none contained the genes responsible for cylindrospermopsin production. This observation suggests that CYL may not be a major toxic algae risk in Florida. Further investigation revealed that another cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon is a likely source of the toxin, but is not a major HAB threat. In terms of marine algae one of the major algal toxin threats in Florida is the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense (PYRO). In 2002, our research projects in the Indian River Lagoon and Tampa Bay documented major blooms of PYRO for the first time in Florida. Research by the Florida Wildlife and Fisheries Commission in 2002 revealed high levels of the neurotoxin saxitoxin in tissues of several marine fish species in the Indian River Lagoon, which led to closures of certain fishing activities. Since 2002, we have confirmed the link between the distribution of PYRO blooms and the incidence of toxins in fish.

Publications

  • Quinlan, E. L., E. J. Phlips, K. A. Donnelly, C. H. Jett, P. Sleszynski and S. Keller. 2008. Primary producers and nutrient load in Silver Springs, Florida, USA. Aquatic Botany 88:247-255.
  • Yilmaz, M., E. J. Phlips, S. Badylak and N. Szabo. 2008. A comparative study of Florida strains of Cylindrospermopsis and Aphanizomenon involving two genes putatively associated with the production of the hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin. Toxicon 51:130-139.
  • Lin, Y., Z. He, Y. Yang, P. J. Stoffella, E. J. Phlips, and C. A. Powell. 2008. Nitrogen Versus phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton growth in Ten Mile Creek, Florida, USA. Hydrobiologia 605:247-258.
  • Yang, Y., Z. He, Y. Lin, C. A. Powell, E. J. Phlips, J. Yang, G. Chen and P. J. Stofella. 2008. Temporal and spatial variations of nutrients in Ten Mile Creek of South Florida, USA and effects on phytoplankton biomass. J. Environmental Monitoring 10:508-516.
  • Burnes, R. M., E. J. Phlips, M. F. Cichra and M. Lehmenseik. 2008. Zooplankton community structure in the Middle St. Johns River, Florida, 2003-2005. Florida Scientist 71:173-187.
  • Dix, N., E. J. Phlips and R. Gleeson. 2008. Water quality changes in a tidal creek within the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve, Florida, associated with the four tropical storms of 2004. J. Coastal Research, Special Issue 55:70-81.
  • Badylak, S. and E. J. Phlips. 2008. Spatial and temporal patterns of zooplankton distribution in Tampa Bay, Florida, including observations during a HAB event. J. Plankton Research 30:449-465.
  • Phlips, E. J., Havens, K. E., and M. Lopes. 2008. Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in two Amazon flood plain lakes of varying hydrologic connectivity to the main river channel. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 172:99-109.
  • Phlips, E. J., S. M. Baker, K. Knickerbocker, K. Black and N. Dix. 2008. Effects of hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) high density culture on water quality in a shallow semi-restricted bay. Florida Scientist 71:330-340.
  • Harr, K. E., N. J. Szabo, M. Cichra, and E. J. Phlips. 2008. Debromoaplysia toxin in Lyngbya-dominated mats growing on manatees in the Kings Bay ecosystem of Florida, USA. Toxicon 52:385-388.
  • Frost, J., E. J. Phlips, C. L. Schelske and R. Fulton III. 2008. Changes in trophic state parameters over a 21-year period in a hypereutrophic lake, Lake Griffin, Florida, USA. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 172:263-271.
  • Yang, Y., Z. He, Y. Lin, E. J. Phlips, P. J. Stoffella, and C. A. Powell. 2008. Temporal and spatial variations of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in Ten Mile Creek in South Florida, USA. Water Environment Research, in press.
  • Badylak, S. and E. J. Phlips. 2008. Observations of different life stages of the toxic dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense in the St. Lucie estuary, Florida, USA. Florida Scientist, in press.
  • Yilmaz, M. and E. J. Phlips. 2008. A new method for DNA extraction from natural waters containing high colored organic material. Journal of Phycology, in press.
  • Phlips, E. J., S. Badylak, M. Christman and M. Lasi. 2008. Climate changes and temporal trends of phytoplankton composition, abundance and succession in te Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Estuaries and Coasts, accepted for publication.