Source: UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI submitted to
EVALUATION OF NATIVE AND INTRODUCED HERBACEOUS SPECIES FOR PASTURE AND WILDLIFE.
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0208697
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
MO-PSSL0772
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2006
Project End Date
Sep 1, 2011
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
McGraw, R. L.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI
(N/A)
COLUMBIA,MO 65211
Performing Department
PLANT SCIENCES
Non Technical Summary
Information is needed on the interactions between trees and forage crops to develop silvopasture agroforestry practices for cattle enterprises. Knowledge of the ability of a species to tolerate flooding is needed when selecting plants for use in a floodplain. Excess rain and over-irrigation on poorly drained fields or low lying areas can result in soil waterlogging and yield losses can be 80 to 90%. This project examines how trees and forage crops interact in an agroforestry practice. Herbaceous species and soybean will be evaluated for flood and waterlogging tolerance.
Animal Health Component
90%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
90%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2030699102020%
2030780102080%
Goals / Objectives
Objectives 1) Develop cultural management practices for successful establishment of trees (particularly black walnut) in tall fescue pastures. 2) Evaluate the feasibility of commercial tall fescue seed production grown as an alley crop in a mixed hardwood tree plantation. 3) Identify herbaceous plant species tolerant to short-term flood conditions for use in mid-western floodplains. 4) Identify waterlogging-tolerant soybeans by measuring yield losses under flooded and non flooded conditions among group III and IV soybean and germplasm lines.
Project Methods
The study for objective 1 consists of 7 groundcover treatments and 4 cultural management treatments established on 168 plots. Within each plot, 4 tree species are planted (black walnut, northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), and pitlolly pine (Pinus rigida P. Mill. X taeda L.). The vegetative treatments are endophyte infected (E+) Ky-31 tall fescue, (E-) Ky-31 tall fescue, (E+) Hounddog 5 turf-type tall fescue, novel endophyte (E++) tall fescue, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and vegetation-free bare soil. The cultural management treatments are fertilizer, irrigation, fertilizer and irrigation, or nothing. Forage dry matter yields will be assayed approximately every 3 to 4 weeks and tree growth data will be taken in fall. The experiment for objective 2 will be conducted in an existing nursery of mixed hardwood varieties including chestnut, oak, and walnut planted in a North-South orientation with control areas to the North and West of the plantation. Houndawg V, a turf-type fescue, will be seeded at 40- and 60-cm row spacings. Control plots will be established adjacent to the tree plots. Nitrogen fertilizer will be applied in split applications of 0, 75, 150 N kg/ha. Data will be taken on seed yield and seed yield components. A Flood Tolerance Laboratory (FTL) was constructed along Sulphur Creek in the Missouri River floodplain will be used for objectives 3 and 4. The FTL has 12 channels and each can be independently adjusted for water depth, standing or flowing water, and duration of flooding. Twenty-five species of grasses and legumes will be started in the greenhouse in late winter and transplanted into the channels as soon as conditions are favorable. Flooding will begin in late May or early June depending on conditions. Data will be taken on plant survival, condition, and regrowth yield. Soybean germplasm of group III and IV plant introductions collected from humid regions throughout the world will be planted. The most tolerant group III and IV varieties currently identified will also be planted among the new introductions for comparative purposes. Entries will be planted in three replications with hills spaced 60-cm apart within rows 75-cm wide. Plots will be flooded about 5-cm deep at flowering (late July or early August) and remain flooded until plants begin to yellow and show damage (approx. 7-10 days). After a two-week post flood recovery period, plants will be rated for injury on a 1 (no injury) to 5 (dead) scale. These trials will be repeated to determine plant introductions and strains with the most consistent year to year tolerance to flooding and waterlogging. Germplasm with waterlogging potential will be tested in the channels under flooded and not flooded conditions for comparison. Breeding material will be generated from the most tolerant strains to develop varieties with high tolerance and low yield loss under flooded conditions.

Progress 09/01/06 to 09/01/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Studies were conducted on cultural practices for establishment of trees in tall fescue pastures; on the feasibility of commercial tall fescue seed production as an alley crop in a mixed hardwood tree plantation; on herbaceous species tolerant to short-term flooding; and to identify waterlogging-tolerant soybeans genotypes. Factors such as grass species, tree species, competition for moisture and nutrients, and presence of fungal endophyte may affect tree growth. Groundcover treatments were established for 4 tree species planted in endophyte infected (E+) Ky-31 tall fescue, (E-) Ky-31 tall fescue, (E+) Hounddog 5 turf-type tall fescue, novel endophyte (E++) tall fescue, orchardgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and vegetation-free bare soil. Height and diameter growth of pitch x loblolly pine was unaffected by grass species but was increased by irrigation but not fertilization. Kentucky bluegrass appeared to be less competitive to black walnut or northern red oak than orchardgrass or tall fesue. Both tree species had greater diameter growth in Kentucky bluegrass than all other grass species. Height growth of black walnut and red oak was greatest in Kentucky bluegrass. Black walnut height growth in Kentucky bluegrass was significantly greater than that in Houndog V tall fescue only, while red oak height growth in Kentucky bluegrass was significantly greater than that in the four fescues. Endophyte status of tall fescue had no significant affect on growth of any of these tree species. Irrigation significantly increased the diameter growth of red oak and significantly reduced the height growth of black walnut. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Producers in Missouri and nearby areas. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Establishing trees in existing pastures to create silvopasture could provide alternative income without sacrificing significant forage production.

Publications

  • Leblanc, H.A., R.L. McGraw, and P. Nygren. 2007. Dinitrogen-fixation by three neotropical agroforestry tree species under semi-controlled field conditions. Plant Soil 291:199-209.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Establishing trees in existing pastures to create silvopasture could provide alternative income without sacrificing significant forage production. Factors such as grass species, tree species, competition for moisture and nutrients, and presence of fungal endophyte may affect tree growth. This study assessed whether three grass species, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) affected the growth of black walnut (Juglans nigra), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), and pitch x loblolly pine (Pinus rigida x taeda) differently. Four varieties of tall fescue were used that differed in Neotyphodium coenophialum endophyte status and growth habit (Ky-31 endophyte infected, Ky-31 non-infected, Max-Q Jesup novel endophyte, and Houndog V turftype endophyte infected). Irrigation and/or fertilization were evaluated to determine if these practices would affect the grass/tree relationship. Height and diameter growth of pitch x loblolly pine was unaffected by grass species but was increase by irrigation but not fertilization. Kentucky grass appeared to be less competitive to black walnut or northern red oak than orchardgrass or tall fesue. Both tree species had greater diameter growth in Kentucky bluegrass than all other grass species. Height growth of black walnut and red oak was greatest in Kentucky bluegrass. Black walnut height growth in Kentucky bluegrass was significantly greater than that in Houndog V tall fescue only, while red oak height growth in Kentucky bluegrass was significantly greater than that in the four fescues. Endophyte status of tall fescue had no significant affect on growth of any of these tree species. Irrigation significantly increased the diameter growth of red oak and significantly reduced the height growth of black walnut. PARTICIPANTS: James Houx III - Research Specialist Thomas Settle - Masters Student

Impacts
Posters and publications have been developed and a Ph.D. dissertation is being prepared.

Publications

  • Leblanc, H.A., R.L. McGraw, and P. Nygren. 2007. Dinitrogen-fixation by three neotropical agroforestry tree species under semi-controlled field conditions. Plant Soil 291:199-209.
  • Houx, J.H.III and R.L. McGraw. 2007. Establishing trees in pastures to create silvopasture. Agronomy Abstracts (CD-ROM), ASA Madison, WI.
  • Houx, J.H.III, R.L. McGraw and T.A. Settle. 2007. Feasibility of tall fescue seed production in an alley-cropping system. Agronomy Abstracts (CD-ROM), ASA Madison, WI.
  • Van Sambeek J.W., N. E. Navarrete-Tindall, H. E. Garrett, C.-H. Lin, R L. McGraw, and D. C. Wallace. 2007. Ranking the Shade Tolerance of Forty-five Candidate Groundcovers for Agroforestry Plantings. Temp. Agroforester Vol 15. (on-line)
  • Houx, J.H.III and R.L. McGraw. 2007. Silvopasture tree establishment as affected by three pasture grass species. Tenth North American Agroforestry Conference, Quebec City, Quebec.
  • Van Sambeek, J.W., R.L. McGraw, J.M. Kabrick, M.V. Coggeshall, I.M. Unger and C.Daniel. 2007. Debeloping a field facility for evaluating flood tolerance of hardwood seedlings and understory ground covers. In: Buckley, D.S.and W.K. Clatterbuck eds. Proc. Fifteenth Central Hardwoods Forest Conference. USDA Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-101: 572-580.