Source: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
WOOD UTILIZATION RESEARCH CENTER
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0206744
Grant No.
2006-34158-17189
Project No.
OREZ-FP-400-U-06
Proposal No.
2006-06327
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
BB
Project Start Date
Aug 1, 2006
Project End Date
Jul 31, 2009
Grant Year
2006
Project Director
McLain, T. E.
Recipient Organization
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
CORVALLIS,OR 97331
Performing Department
WOOD SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Non Technical Summary
The demand for wood products in the United States, and the world, continues to rise with increasing population. High raw material and labor costs, especially in the western US, coupled with increased foreign importation of finished products is challenging the viability of American wood products industry, especially in rural areas of the western US. To be globally competitive and maintain American jobs requires research-based innovation targeting new products and environmentally acceptable processes to harvest, transport, and process raw materials. New business practices, science and technology are required to stimulate the innovation in the domestic industry that will enable competitiveness. The primary purpose of the proposed projects is to develop the science, technology, engineering and business management practices that will meet those needs with a specific focus on western species and wood utilization problems.
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
80%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
4020650202015%
5110650102010%
5110650201010%
5110650202015%
5115320202010%
5117210202015%
6020650310015%
6050650301010%
Goals / Objectives
The overall objective of this work is to develop the science, technology, management approaches, and business practices that will enhance the domestic and global competitiveness of the US wood products industry, especially in the Pacific Northwest. Specific sub-objectives are: 1) Develop advanced log inventory techniques that will improve log sorting; 2) Improve ability to recognize xylem and log traits that contribute to commercial wood quality and value; 3) Develop new understanding of the potential for increasing competitiveness through business systems innovation; 4) Create a technique for quantifying the 3-D distribution of adhesive in a wood bondline; 5) Identify innovative technologies and practices that may improve the economics of small-diameter timber biomass harvesting; 6) Develop methods of extending process control methods to batch lumber drying procedures; 7) Develop practical applications of the technology for non-destructive measurement of log stiffness in the harvesting and transportation of raw materials; and 8) Develop post-fire planning strategies and tools to assess salvage timber utilization potential.
Project Methods
1) Acoustic measurements and increment-core density will be completed on 2500 sample trees to develop a database for analysis and development of decission tools; 2) Existing data will be analyzed for pruning effects; 12 trees will be harvested, dissected and reconstructed to determine compression wood locations; a sawmill study will be conducted if supplemental funding is found; 3) Case studies will be analyzed and some limited mail, telephone or web-based surveys will be planned; 4) X-ray tomographs of bonds using tagged adhesive will be made and analyzed; 5) Remote sensing data will be used to quantify volume and location of biomass in eastern Oregon. Production data will be developed from field study of a cooperating local biomass energy generation operation; 6) A survey of mills and manufacturers will determine current status of routine drying records and a modle of moistrue variability will be developed. Resulting process control methods will be field-tested a t two mills; 7) Field studies of logging crews and log year operations that use NDT technology will be made. An existing database will be used to develop a model and to assess spatial variability. New data will be collected on 100 stems using mechanical techniques to explore application to mechanized harvesting; and 8) Simulation modeling at the landscape scale will be used with LIDAR input data and decision support tools developed for results.

Progress 08/01/06 to 07/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: 1) A new graduate course in wood quality was developed and delivered. A major workshop on Wood Quality was held for 80 resource management professionals. 2) A mail survey of the general public and forest industry executives was conducted to compare perceptions and expectations regarding corporate social responsibility. A data base of nearly 2000 industry advertisements was developed, a coding scheme devised and content analysis used to analyze advertising trends in the forest industry from 1980-2005. Case studies documented lean thinking implementation within two U.S. and two German secondary wood products companies. Research summaries were sent to over 1000 managers and policy makers. 3) Bond line data were collected at the Argonne National Laboratory and the OSU Electron Microprobe Laboratory. The first true 3-dimensional visualization of a wood adhesive bond on the micron scale was produced. Computer program modules to manipulate the 3D images for contrast enhancement, spatial measurements, and visualization were developed and will be publically available. Results integrated into an industry continuing education program. 4) A study of the cost assessment to a log yard serving multiple processing units was completed. As a result of tagging with barcodes or numeric tags at four sawmills, graphical techniques were developed to determine the charge-to-charge, within-kiln and between-kiln variability in kiln dried lumber. 5) Six hundred-fifty trees were subjected to multiple time-of-flight measurements and laboratory measurements using both an acoustic sampling tool and wood density measured using the water immersion technique. 6) A new innovative approach for harvesting forest biomass integrated with the removal of wood for bioenergy during thinning treatments was developed. New stand related silvicultural variables were measured and correlated with harvesting economics to help land managers with decisions on forest fuel hazard reduction and biomass utilization. Results were disseminated through field days and publications. 7) Fourteen hundred trees were sampled; tree length, merchantable length, diameter at breast height (DBH), biggest branch diameter at each 20 ft segment of the tree, and acoustic velocity measurement of the standing tree were measured. Green densities, as well as sapwood/heartwood ratios, were calculated for each disk from 40 sample trees. The logs were converted into veneer and recovery assessed. An economic model for determining potential increases in laminated veneer end product value from acoustically sorted logs was developed. 8) Simulations considered two cavity nesting birds and evaluated the potential impacts of 19 snag retention strategies over a three-year time period since burn within the Biscuit Fire area in southwestern Oregon. The use of GPS receivers for recording measurements under forest canopy was experimentally assessed over a range of terrain and equipment factors. Positional and height measurements of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine trees were compared between field-based and LiDAR-derived measurements at three distinct study sites in the Biscuit Fire area. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Foresters, wood scientists, resource managers, silviculturalists, wood product manufacturers, engineers, transportation managers, business executives, and wood technologists. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
1) The importance of latewood proportion in dictating Douglas-fir wood strength was shown to be greater than that of microfibril angle. All pine stems were found to have compression wood, regardless of lean. Tree straightness is a poor predictor of compression wood amount. 2) The general public and corporate executives have different expectations and perceptions of the social and environmental performance of corporations and family-owned companies. Building products print advertising has increased during the period of review and focuses more on consumers and customer interests or benefits. Lean thinking can make the secondary wood products industry more profitable, efficient and cost effective. Communication was the most important factor in successful implementation. 3) Now possible to track the pathway of adhesive flow through the porous cellular structure using an electron-dense adhesive. New adhesive formulations could reduce consumption and thus save over $1 million per year for a single manufacturing facility. 4) A new "sweet-spot technology" was developed to determine the final target average moisture content based on a function of value versus moisture content for their products and the moisture distribution from their kilns. Cost allocation in the log yard by the net realizable value method offered the most balanced approach compared to a physical measure of the material. A method for utilizing moisture content and grade information from the planer is being implemented commercially by several mills. 5)Tree acoustic velocity data were normally distributed with a sample mean and a variance that can be sampled easily and incorporated into traditional inventory systems as any other normally distributed attribute. 6) Using an integrated harvesting approach with conventional equipment economically utilized a range of wood products and fuel wood in restoration thinning activities. This provides a restoration management alternative for utilizing small-low-value biomass instead of piling and burning this material. 7) There was no significant correlation between standing tree acoustic velocity measurements and veneer grade recovery and only poor correlation between DBH and both acoustic velocity and G1/G2 veneer recovery. A prototype commercial harvesting head is being developed based on this research. 8) Adequate habitat and economic considerations can be balanced through appropriate strategies for fire salvage operations. The most favorable habitat for the two cavity-nesting birds left all snags standing in the half of the salvage unit farthest away from the yarder. GPS receiver analysis changed knowledge regarding GPS capabilities and showed low horizontal measurement errors in open sky, young forest, and closed canopy conditions. Mean and maximum average LiDAR intensities were significantly different between live and dead (fire-killed) trees in at least one of the three study sites, and that LiDAR intensities were significantly different for deciduous and coniferous trees at one study site.

Publications

  • Modzel, G., F.A. Kamke and F. De Carlo. 2009. Comparative analysis of a wood adhesive bondline. Wood Science and Technology. (Accepted for publication).
  • Amberla, T., W. Lei, H. Juslin, R. Panwar, E. Hansen and R. Anderson. 2009. Students' perceptions of the forest industries business ethics - A comparative analysis of Finland and the USA. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies. (In Press).
  • Amishev, D. and G.E. Murphy. 2009. Estimating breakeven prices for Douglas-fir veneer quality logs from stiffness-graded stands using acoustic tools. Forest Products Journal 59(4):45-52.
  • Amishev, D. and G.E. Murphy. 2008. Implementing acoustic technology on mechanical harvesters/ processors for real-time wood stiffness assessment: Opportunities and considerations. International Journal of Forest Engineering 19(2):49-57.
  • Amishev, D. and G.E. Murphy. 2008. In-forest assessment of veneer grade Douglas-fir logs based on acoustic measurement of wood stiffness. Forest Products Journal 58(11):42-47.
  • Amishev, D. and G.E. Murphy. 2008. Pre-harvest veneer quality evaluation of Douglas-fir stands using time of flight acoustic technique. Wood and Fiber Science 40:(4):587-598.
  • Murphy, G.E. and D. Amishev. 2008. Effects of bark removal on acoustic velocity of Douglas-fir logs. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 38(2/3):247-252.
  • Panwar, R. and E. Hansen. 2009. A Process for identifying social and environmental issues: A case of the US forest products manufacturing industry. Journal of Public Affairs. (In Press).
  • Panwar, R. and E. Hansen. 2008. Corporate social responsibility in forestry. Unasylva 59:45-48.
  • Panwar, R., H. Juslin, E. Hansen and T. Amberla. 2009. A framework for identifying social and environmental issues: A case of the US forest products industry. Social Responsibility Journal. (In Press).
  • Tokcarczyk, J. and E. Hansen. 2008. Evolution of decking advertising: 1996-2006. 27 p. In: Crespell, P. 2007. A Strategic Approach to Value Creation via Market Driven Innovation in Living and Building with Wood. FPInnovations-Forintek Division. Project No. 5905A. 225 p.
  • Tokarczyk, J., D. Thompson and E. Hansen. 2008. Evolution of structural, exterior, and interior building product print advertising: 1980-2005. 40 p. In: Crespell, P. 2007. A Strategic Approach to Value Creation via Market Driven Innovation in Living and Building with Wood. FPInnovations-Forintek Division. Project No. 5905A. 225 p.
  • Wing, M.G., A. Eklund and J. Sessions. 2009. Applying LiDAR technology for tree measurements in burned landscapes. International Journal of Wildland Fire. (In Press).
  • Eklund, A.A. 2007. Applying digital technology for measurement and analysis of burned forest landscapes. M.S. Thesis. Oregon State University, Corvallis. 68 p.
  • Kamke, K. 2009. Lead-user research in the wood window value chain. M.S. Thesis. Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 133 p.
  • Panwar, R. 2008. Corporate social responsibility in the forest products industry: An issues management approach. Ph.D. Dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis. 164 p.
  • Wing, M.G. and A. Eklund. 2008. Vertical measurement accuracy of mapping-grade GPS receivers in three forest settings. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 23(2):83-88.
  • Wing, M.G., A. Eklund, J. Sessions and R. Karsky. 2008. Horizontal measurement performance of five mapping-grade GPS receiver configurations in several forested settings. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 23(3):166-171.
  • Berberovic A. and M. Milota. 2008. Simulation of Drying Using a Kiln Model. Drying Technology 26(9):1097-1102.
  • Bolding, M.C., L.D. Kellogg and C.T. Davis. 2009. Productivity and costs of an integrated mechanical forest fuel reduction operation in southwest Oregon. Forest Products Journal 59 (3):35-46.
  • Crespell, P. and E. Hansen. 2008. Antecedents to innovativeness in the forest products industry. Journal of Forest Products Business Research 6:1-20.
  • DeBell, J. and B. Lachenbruch. 2009. Heartwood/ sapwood relationships of western redcedar as influenced by cultural treatments and position in trees. Forest Ecology and Management. (In Press).
  • Domec, J.C., J.M. Warren, F.C. Meinzer and B. Lachenbruch. 2009. Structural and ecological safety factors against xylem failure by implosion and air-seeding within young and old conifer trees with reference to juvenile and mature wood. IAWA J. (In Press).
  • Eklund, A., M.G. Wing and J. Sessions. 2009. Evaluating economic and wildlife habitat considerations for snag retention policies in burned landscapes. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 24(2):67-75.
  • Lachenbruch, B. and F. Droppelmann. 2008. Effects of stem inclination on compression wood formation in young radiate pine trees. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Convention of the Society of Wood Science and Technology. Concepcion, Chile. 8 pp. http://www.swst.org/meetings/AM08/proceedingsWQ-4.pdf
  • Milota M. 2008. Drying rate correlation for Douglas-fir lumber. Forest Products Journal 58(7/8):37-40.
  • Milota, M. and P. Mosher. 2008. A comparison of methods for measuring HAPs from lumber dry kilns. Forest Products Journal 58(7/8):46-49.
  • Milota, M. and P. Mosher. 2008. Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from lumber during drying. Forest Products Journal 58(7/8):50-55.


Progress 08/01/07 to 07/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: 1) A mail survey on perceptions of corporate social responsibility was conducted and a database of over 2000 industry product/service advertisements was developed. 2. Micro x-ray tomography data were collected at the Advanced Photon Source synchrotron facility at the Argonne National Laboratory. Video models of 3-dimensional structure of adhesive bond lines in Douglas-fir, Loblolly pine, yellow-poplar, and red oak were developed for demonstration purposes. Lectures on adhesive penetration were developed and delivered at a short course on OSB Fundamentals, attended by 28 professionals. One PhD student trained in experimental procedures. 3) Nine students were trained through a 2-credit graduate course. 4) A study of the cost assessment to a log yard serving multiple processing units was completed. Tagging with barcodes and numeric tags was tried in four sawmills to determine feasibility. A model for drying in a kiln was developed. A workshop on lumber drying was presented in December 2008 and new charting techniques for presenting information from the moisture meter at the planer to mill management were developed. 5) Field sampling and laboratory data collection of 650 trees with multiple time-of-flight measurements completed using an acoustic sampling tool and wood density measured using the water immersion technique. Statistical analysis has begun. 6) Field trials with a CTL system that integrates removal of saw logs, pulpwood, and fuel wood for bioenergy during restoration thinning prescriptions were completed. Stand related silvicultural variables were measured and correlated with harvesting economics to help land managers with decisions on forest fuel hazard reduction and biomass utilization. 7) Two hundred trees were measured and 40 were harvested and dissected; the remainder were peeled for veneer. Analysis of data completed and new knowledge about veneer recovery and de-barking damage obtained. A PhD student was trained. 8) Varied salvage strategies were assessed and the results published. A decision support system to aid planners was created. The use of GPS receivers for recording measurements under forest canopy was evaluated and results published. Numerous presentations and a set of industry-oriented research briefs have disseminated research results. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Composite panel manufacturers, silviculturalists, wood scientists, business executives, researchers, forest biometricians, forest land managers, forest engineers. Crespell, P. and E. Hansen. 2007. Creative leadership as a driver of innovation and employee well-being. SYLFF North-South Regional Forum, June 11-14, Boston, MA. Hansen, E. 2007. Innovation and innovativeness in the global forest sector. BC Forum Distinguished Lecture Series, November 8, Vancouver, B.C. Kamke, F.A. 2007. Current composite research. Presented to Temple Inland Company visitors, September 20, Corvallis, OR. Kamke, F.A. 2008. State-of-the-art resin blending for OSB. Presented at Weyerhaeuser Company Technology Center, January 4, Federal Way, WA. Kamek, F.A. 2007. Wood composites research at OSU. Presented to World Forestry Center Advisory Board, September 27, Corvallis, OR. Panwar, R. and E. Hansen. 2006. Corporate social responsibility: What, why, when and how of this paradigm. One day workshop on corporate social responsibility, Shobhit University, February 11, Meerut, India. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Project 6: Other planned research activities presented in the 2007 Progress Report (objectives 2, 3 & 4 - forest residue characteristics and transportation economic assessments with the aid of GIS and LIDAR technology; oil consumption budget field data collection and analysis; and western juniper field harvesting trials) were not able to be completed because of the lack of adequate second year funding for a research assistant, field travel support, graduate student assistant availability, and not being able to win additional leverage funding to complete these projects.

Impacts
1) New understandings about the role of corporate social responsibility in corporate strategic planning were discovered. Content analysis revealed that there appears to be significant opportunity for forest industry firms to distinguish their product from competitors via new advertising strategies. 2) An effective technique for 3-dimensional, quantitative measurement of adhesive penetration of wood using synchrotron radiation at the micron level of spatial resolution was discovered using rubidium hydroxide, instead of the industry practice of sodium hydroxide, as the catalyst. 3) Undergraduate students found that wood density is less related to compression wood and stem form than previously thought, and that individual tree genetics play a large role. 4) It was determined that cost allocation in the log yard by the net realizable value method offered the most balanced approach compared to a physical measure of the material. A method established for utilizing moisture content and grade information from the planer was implemented in several mills. 5) Industrial interest in incorporating estimates of wood quality into forest inventories has been raised to a higher level. 6) Considerable variation in biomass harvesting productivity and cost due to the uneven-aged structure of mixed conifer stands was found. Integrated harvesting cost results compared with the traditional two-step harvesting and fuel treatment operation were mixed depending on the vegetation and tree stocking in each sample plot. 7) Undergraduate, graduate students and faculty were provided with new knowledge of the potential use of acoustic tools for in-forest measuring of wood properties. A working group of two forest companies, a machinery manufacturer and OSU, has been set up to continue research into log sorting using acoustic technology on a harvester head. 8) Our findings indicated that adequate habitat and economic considerations can be balanced through selection of an appropriate strategy for fire salvage operations. The salvage strategy that provided the most favorable habitat for the two cavity-nesting birds left all snags standing in the half of the salvage unit farthest away from the yarder. Five mapping-grade GPS receivers were evaluated and comparative results published.

Publications

  • Milota, M., P. Mosher and K. Li. 2007. VOC and HAP removal from dryer exhaust gas by absorption into and ionic liquid. Forest Products Journal 57(5):73-77.
  • Murphy, G.E. and D. Amishev. 2008. Effects of bark removal on acoustic velocity of Douglas-fir logs. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science. (In Press).
  • Sernek, M. and F.A. Kamke. 2007. Application of dielectric analysis for monitoring the cure process of phenol formaldehyde adhesive. Intl. J. of Adhesion and Adhesives 27:562-567.
  • Taylor, M.A., J.R. Brooks, B. Lachenbruch, J.J. Morrell and S. Voelker. 2008. Correlation of carbon isotope ratios in the cellulose and wood extractives of Douglas-fir. Dendrochronologia 26:125-131.
  • Wang, F., M.R. Milota, P. Mosher, K. Li and M. Yankus. 2007. Henry's Law constants for methanol and a-pinene in ionic liquids. Wood and Fiber Science 39(3);434-442.
  • Wing, M.G. and A. Eklund. 2008. Vertical measurement accuracy of mapping-grade GPS receivers in three forest settings. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 23(2):83-88.
  • Alvarez Ocares, C.A. 2008. Rectitud juvenil y madera de compresion: relaciones con la variacion de densidad en la madera de Pinus radiata (Tree form when young and compression wood in relation to variation in wood density in Pinus radiata). Trabajo de Titulacion presentado com parte de los requisitos para optar al Titulo de Ingeniero Forestal (Thesis Project presented as part of the requirements for the title of Forest Engineer). Instituto de Silvicultura, Universidad Austral de Chile.
  • Amishev, D.Y. 2008. In-forest log segregation based on acoustic measurement of wood stiffness. Ph.D. Dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis. 296 p.
  • Berberovic, A. 2007. Numerical simulation of wood drying. M.S. Thesis. Oregon State University, Corvallis. 143 p.
  • Eklund, A.A. 2007. Applying digital technology for measurement and analysis of burned forest landscapes. M.S. Thesis. Oregon State University, Corvallis. 68 p.
  • Leatherman, L. 2007. Log cost allocation for multiple mill merchansizing systems. M.F. Paper. Oregon State University, Corvallis. 143 p.
  • Amishev, D. and G.E. Murphy. 2008. Effects of bark removal on acoustic velocity of Douglas-fir logs. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science. (In Press).
  • Amishev, D. and G.E. Murphy. 2008. In-forest assessment of veneer grade Douglas-fir logs based on acoustic measurement of wood stiffness. Forest Products Journal. (In Press).
  • Amishev, D. and G.E. Murphy. 2008. Pre-harvest veneer quality evaluation of Douglas-fir stands using time of flight acoustic technique. Wood and Fiber Science. (In Press).
  • Czabke, J. and E. Hansen. 2007. Lean Thinking: Doing more with less. Forest Business Solutions Research Brief. Forest Business Solutioins 5(1):1-2. Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State Universty, Corvallis.
  • Czabke, J., E. Hansen and T. Doolan. 2008. Lean Thinking in the secondary wood products industry: Challenges and benefits. Forest Products Journal 58(9):77-85.
  • Czabke, J., E. Hansen and S. Leavengood. 2007. What Lean Thinking can do for your secondary wood products business. Oregon Wood Innovation Center, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 22 p.
  • Dunham, S.M., L.M. Ganio, A.I. Gitelman and B. Lachenbruch. 2008. Partitioning variation in Douglas-fir xylem properties among multiple scales via a Bayesian hierarchical model. Tree Physiology 28:1017-1024.
  • Dunham, S.M., B. Lachenbruch and L.M. Ganio. 2007. Bayesian analysis of Douglas-fir hydraulic architecture at multiple scales. Trees 21:65-78.
  • Eklund, A., M.G. Wing and J. Sessions. 2008. Evaluating economic and wildlife habitat considerations for snag retention policies in burned landscapes. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. (In Press).
  • Berberovic, A. and M.R. Milota. 2007. Simulation of drying a kiln model. In: Proceedings of the 10th IUFRO Wood Drying Conference, August 27-31, Orno, ME.
  • Crespell, P. and E. Hansen. 2007. Fostering a culture for innovativeness in the forest products industry. Forest Business Solutions Research Brief. Forest Business Solutions 5(3):1-2. Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Crespell, P. and E. Hansen. 2008. Work climate, innovativeness, and firm performance: In search of a conceptual framework. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38(7):1703-1715.
  • Grillo, N., J. Tokarczyk and E. Hansen. 2008. Green advertising developments in the U.S. forest sector: A follow-up. Forest Products Journal 58(5):40-46.
  • Hansen, E., H. Juslin and C. Knowles. 2007. Innovativeness in the global forest products industry: Exploring new insights. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37(8):1324-1335.
  • Hansen, E., C. Knowles and H. Juslin. 2007. Ahead of the pack: What forest industry managers think about achieving and measuring innovation. Engineered Wood Journal 10(1):29-32.
  • Kamke, F.A. 2007. Bullet-proof wood composites: Fact or fiction. p. 1-22 In: Proceedings, Coating Wood and Wood Composites: Designing for Durability. AC Series, Federation of Soc. for Coatings Technology, Blue Bell, PA, July 23-25, Seattle, WA.
  • Kamke, F.A. and J.N. Lee. 2007. Adhesive penetration in wood: A review. Wood and Fiber Science 39(2):205-220.
  • Kamke, F.A. and J.E. Winandy. 2008. Issues and concepts for making durable composites. In: Proceedings, Annual Meeting of American Wood Protection Association, May 18-20, Portland, OR. (In Press).
  • Kang, H-Y., L. Muszynski and M. Milota. 2007. Full-field optical measurement of deformations in early stages of drying Oregon white oak and western hemlock lumer. In: Proceedings of the 10th IUFRO Wood Drying Conference, August 27-31, Orno, ME.
  • Kellogg, L. 2006. Identifying and developing innovation in harvesting and transporting forest biomass. In: Technical Session Proceedings: Woody Biomass Utilization: Challenges and Opportunities. J.R. Shelly, M.E. Puettmann, K.E. Skog and H-S Han, eds. Forest Products Society, Madison, WI.
  • Knowles, C. and E. Hansen. 2007. Measuring innovativeness in North American softwood sawmills. Forest Business Solutions Research Brief. Forest Business Solutions 5(2):1-2. Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Knowles, C., E. Hansen and C. Dibrell. 2008. Measuring firm innovativeness: Development and refinement of a new scale. Journal of Forest Products Business Research 5(5):24.
  • Knowles, C., E. Hansen and S. Shook. 2008. Assessing innovativeness in the North American softwood sawmilling industry using three methods. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38(2):363-375.
  • Milota, M.R. and A. Berberovic. 2007. Modeling the hemlock drying process. In: Proceedings of the Western Dry Kiln Association Annual Meeting, April 25-27, Spokane, WA.
  • Wing, M.G., A. Eklund, J. Sessions and R. Karsky. 2008. Horizontal measurement performance of five mapping-grade GPS receiver configurations in several forested settings. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 23(3):166-171.
  • Panwar, R. and E. Hansen. 2007. Beyond the instrumental view of corporate social responsibility: A human rights, and natural resource conservation perspective. Policy Matters: The journal of the IUCN Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy 15:323-333.
  • Panwar, R. and E. Hansen. 2007. Business sense, awareness of corporate social responsibility issues in India must increase. Down to Earth 15(22):50.
  • Panwar, R. and E. Hansen. 2007. The standardization puzzle: An issue management approach to understand corporate responsibility standards for the forest products industry. Forest Products Journal 57(12):86-91.
  • Peterson, M.G., H.R. Dietterich and B. Lachenbruch. 2007. Do Douglas-fir branches and roots have juvenile wood Wood and Fiber Science 39:651-660.


Progress 08/01/06 to 07/31/07

Outputs
1) Improved wood allocation: Equipment has been ordered, stand selected and measuring began in summer 07. 2) Fuels for bioenergy conversion: Harvesting productivity and costs were determined for a range of technology including simple extraction technology, modified conventional technology and special biomass harvesters. 3) Wood and log quality: Stiffness is emerging as a more important quality metric than density for forest managers interested in wood quality. Latewood percentage was found to be an important indicator of MOE in D. Fir suggesting that pruning and breeding could be used to enhance this trait. 4) Business systems innovation: Interview of executives to identify responsibility issues has begun; a database of product advertisements over the past 25 years has been assembled for study; case studies on lean thinking have been drafted from interviews of two US and German companies. 5) 3-D adhesive distribution: Specimens bonded using rubidium hydroxide were prepared and scanned using the x-ray microtomography system at the Argonne National Lab. Initial analysis of results has begun. 6) Drying process control and modeling: Surveys showed that there is no systematic method for using MC and grade information to improve drying through a feedback system. A new model to assess potential for quality drying through principal components analysis was formulated and will be tested. 7) Acoustic measurement of stiffness: Stands were selected, trees measured and harvested. Disks collected and logs followed through the veneer manufacture process--data analysis is next. 8) Timber salvage: Trees selected and individual data collected using field and LIDAR measurements. General agreement between the two was found, but LIDAR cannot differentiate individual tree characteristics.

Impacts
These projects are developing important knowledge, science and technology to help maintain a vigorous competitive domestic forest products industry in the US. The results offer opportunities to enhance the positive environmental and economic performance of the wood industry value stream from the forest to the end consumer.

Publications

  • Gartner, B.L. 2006. Prediction of wood structural patterns in trees using ecological models of plant water relations. p. 38-52 In: Characterization of the Cellulosic Cell Wall. D.D. Stokke and L.H. Groom, eds. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA.
  • Gartner, B.L. and G.R. Johnson. 2006. Is long primary growth associated with stem sinuosity in Douglas-fir? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36:2351-2356.
  • Hansen, E. 2006. Industry evolution: Implications for innovation and new product development. Journal of Forest Policy and Economics 8(7):774-783.
  • Hansen, E. 2006. The state of the art innovation and new product development in the North American lumber and panel industry. Wood and Fiber Science 38(2):325-333.
  • Crespell, P. and E. Hansen. 2006. Fostering a culture/climate for innovativeness. Forest Business Solutions Research Brief. Wood Science and Engineering. Forest Business Solutions 4(1):1-2.
  • Crespell, P., C. Knowles and E. Hansen. 2006. Innovation in the North American sawmilling industry. Forest Science 52(5):568-578.
  • DeBell, D.S., C.A. Harrington, B.L. Gartner and R. Singleton. 2006. Time and distance to clear wood in pruned red alder saplings. In: Red Alder - A State of Knowledge. R.L. Deal and C.A. Harrington, eds. General Technical Report PNW-GTR 669. USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, Portland, OR. 15O p.
  • Hansen, E., H. Juslin and C. Knowles. 2006. Innovativeness (part 1 of 3): Attributes of innovative companies. Forest Business Solutions Research Brief. Wood Science and Engineering. Forest Business Solutions 4(2):1-2.
  • Hansen, E., H. Juslin and C. Knowles. 2006. Innovativeness (part 2 of 3): Hurdles to innovativeness. Forest Business Solutions Research Brief. Wood Science and Engineering. Forest Business Solutions 4(3):1-2.
  • Hansen, E., H. Juslin and C. Knowles. 2006. Innovativeness (part 3 of 3): Innovation management. Forest Business Solutions Research Brief. Wood Science and Engineering. Forest Business Solutions 4(4):1-2.
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