Source: UNIV OF IDAHO submitted to
EFFICIENCY IN WOOD HARVEST, MANUFACTURE, AND CONSTRUCTION DESIGN
Sponsoring Institution
Other Cooperating Institutions
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0167825
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
IDAZ-ES-0503
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 1993
Project End Date
Dec 31, 2012
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Gorman, T.
Recipient Organization
UNIV OF IDAHO
875 PERIMETER DRIVE
MOSCOW,ID 83844-9803
Performing Department
Forest Products
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
(N/A)
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1230612202015%
1230650200020%
5110650200015%
6030612301020%
6030650301010%
6050612301010%
6050650310010%
Goals / Objectives
The overall objective is to contribute to both the efficient use of our renewable wood resource and to the economic vitality of the forest products industry.
Project Methods
1) Timber supply and harvesting: Design, develop and evaluate harvesting systems for operation in multi-structural stands of small and large diameter trees with emphasis on maintaining environmental quality. Mathematically model timber supply. 2) Wood products manufacture: Develop new wood products and improve physical and mechanical properties of existing products. Improve wood drying and quality/process control systems so that the recovery of the most valuable wood products is increased. Employ modeling approaches to analysis. Manufacturing processes and systems. 3) Wood construction and design: Improve wood design features and conducts life-cycle analysis to reduce costs and enhance thermal properties of wood buildings.

Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research was carried out in several areas: Wood materials improvement - Improving the properties and durability of wood and wood composites, especially in the emerging area of plastics derived from lignin and pine sawdust, was the focus of several research projects, resulting in publications and presentations to professionals at several national and international conferences. Industry analysis - Research in the area of sawmill operations effectiveness was carried out and published. Undergraduate students were involved in the development of new wood composites and in innovative utilization of structural components made from small diameter logs. Several of our students made presentations at regional and national conferences. PARTICIPANTS: We have partnered with the Idaho forest products industry to improve the utilization of waste wood for use as bio-based fuels. In addition, we have partnered with regional engineering firms in our collaborative project on structural components form small diameter logs. The outcomes have resulted in increased collaboration for continued research activities. TARGET AUDIENCES: Idaho's primary wood products industry are the target audience for our research related to bio-based energy from slash. Also, landowners may utilize slash that would otherwise be burned in the forest, thus avoiding critical safety and air quality issues related to in-woods burning of slash. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: No significant modifications have been necessary to deliver research outcomes that benefit the Idaho forest products industry.

Impacts
High-value wood-based products from waste wood, such as lignin-based plastics and nanomaterials, have been introduced to the Idaho and regional wood products industry. Currently, bio-based fuels are now being used by the forest products industry in Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. Regional interest in bio-fuels has been enhanced with the outcomes we provided on in-woods grinding of slash for use as a carbon-neutral, sustainable energy source. These outcomes help the US forest products industry complete on a global scale.

Publications

  • Dai, J., McDonald, A.G. (2012) Response surface optimization of hot water pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of hybrid poplar: first step of bioconversion of woody biomass to value added bioplastics. In: Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries, Ed. Zhen Fang, Springer-Verlag, Springer Asia Limited Beijing. ISBN 978-3-642-32734-6.
  • Sivasankarapillai, G., McDonald, A.G., and Li, H. (2012) Lignin valorization by forming toughened lignin-co-polymers: Development of hyperbranched prepolymers for cross-linking. Biomass & Bioenergy. 47: 99-108.


Progress 10/01/93 to 12/31/12

Outputs
Target Audience: 1. Wood products industry managers and professionals 2. Forestry and logging professionals 3. Scientists and professonals seeking research results to advance current technologies 4. General public with an interest in forestry and wood products Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? During the period of this project,four graduate students were involved in the research activites funded by this project. The students wre trained in research techniques such as research design using the scientific method, laboratory protocol and safe practices, data analysis, techical writing, and reseach presentaton. Nearly all of the graduates involved in these projects gained experience presenting at professional conferences and publishing their work in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? In addition to making presentations and producing publications on our research results, we responded to information requests from state and federal elected officials, industry representatives, agency personnel, and the general public throughout the Rocky Mountains and Pacific Coast states regarding the wood products industry, woody biomass availability, and timber harvesting research that the program conducts. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? A.Lignin based elastomers - We have successfully developed lignin-based copolymers using two strategies (i) forming lignincopolyesteramine- amide via a condensation process and (ii) forming lignin-xylaric acid-polyurethanes. These approaches gave materials that are thermo-responsive and have elastomeric properties and could be substituted for petroleum based polymers. Several papers have been published from this work and we have two further manuscripts in preparation. We have a PhD dissertation in progress and is expected to be completed byJune 2014. We have presented this work at two conferences. B.Upgrading wood derived biosyngas to gasoline - We developed a novel silica nanospring (NS) supported cobalt catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). FTS performance was evaluated in a quartz fixed-bed microreactor with a synthetic syn-gas (H2/CO 2:1) and produced semivolatile products ranging from C1 to C18 hydrocarbons and the product profile was comparable to jet fuel. A paper has been published from this work. We have presented this work at several conferences. We also developed a catalytic conversion process that utilizes methanol and glycerol mixtures. The process used a fixed bed reactor with a Zeolite catalyst (HZM5) and produced a range of methylated benzene products which is comparable to regular gasoline. A paper has been published from this work. We have presented this work at one conference. This work resulted in an M.S. thesis completed in 2012. C.Bioplastic biosynthesis from woody biomass - We were successfully able to convert poplar wood, via a hot-water pretreatment followed by an enzymatic (cellulase + xylanase) treatment, to sugars with very low levels of fermentation inhibitors. A maximum sugar yield of 96%, from theoretical, was obtained. A preliminary trial using wood hydrolysates in a fedbatch bioreactor using a mixed microbial consortia afforded the bioplastic, polyhydroxybuytrate (PHB) at 14% yield on biomass basis). This study shows that we can produce bioplastics from wood in a sustainable manner. A book chapter has been published on the wood pretreatment. We have also submitted a journal manuscript and is currently under review. We have a PhD dissertation in progress and is expected to be completed by May 2014. D.Development of a mechanical grading system for producing structural roundwood from Inland Northwest species - We developed a prototype mechanical grading machine for use in the production of structural roundwood. This low-cost, simple machine will allow the non-destructive stress rating of small diameter logs, similar to the Machine Stress Rating (MSR) system currently used for lumber. The results were presented at a regional conference on small diameter wood utilization and a manuscript was prepared and is currently under review at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin. Applications for stress-rated logs include roof and floor trusses, floor joists, and roof rafters. By utilizing roundwood in structural applications, greater fiber use is achieved, plus minimal machining is needed to produce the product. E.Economic Impacts of the Idaho Wood Products Industry - We monitored and reported on the condition and capability of the primary and secondary wood products industry in Idaho.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Pohjanlehto, H., Set�l�, H.M., Kiely, D.E., McDonald, A.G. (2014) Lignin-xylaric acid-polyurethane based polymer network systems: preparation and characterization. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 131(1): DOI: 10.1002/app.39714.
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Dai, J., McDonald, A.G. (2013) Response surface optimization of hot water pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of hybrid poplar  first step of bioconversion of woody biomass to value added bioplastics. In: Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries, Editor - Zhen Fang, Springer-Verlag, Springer Asia Limited Beijing. pp 183-195, ISBN 978-3-642-32734-6.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Luo, G., Kengne, B-A.F., McIlroy, D.N., McDonald, A.G. (2014) A novel nano Fischer-Tropsch catalyst for the production of hydrocarbons. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. DOI 10.1002/ep.11916.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Luo, G., McDonald, A.G. (2014) Conversion of methanol and glycerol into gasoline via ZSM-5 catalysis. Energy & Fuels. 28(1):600-606.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Morrow, C.D., T. M. Gorman, J. W. Evans, D. E. Kretschmann, and C.A. Hatfield. 2013. The prediction of wood quality in small diameter Douglas-fir using site and stand characteristics. Wood and Fiber Science, 45(1):49-61.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Morgan, T.A., S.W. Hayes, C.E. Keegan, J. O'Laughlin, R.G Taylor, P. Watson, T.M. Gorman, and S.R. Shook. 2013. Idaho's forest products industry current conditions and 2013 forecast. Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station, Moscow, ID. Station Bulletin 100 4 p.


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research was carried out in several areas: Wood materials improvement - Improving the properties and durability of wood and wood composites, especially in the emerging area of plastics derived from lignin and pine sawdust, was the focus of several research projects, resulting in publications and presentations to professionals at several national and international conferences. Industry analysis - Research in the area of sawmill operations effectiveness was carried out and published. Undergraduate students were involved in the development of new wood composites and in innovative utilization of structural components made from small diameter logs. Several of our students made presentations at regional and national conferences. PARTICIPANTS: We have partnered with the Idaho forest products industry to improve the utilization of waste wood for use as bio-based fuels. In addition, we have partnered with regional engineering firms in our collaborative project on structural components form small diamter logs. The outcomes have resulted in increased collaboration for continued research activities. TARGET AUDIENCES: Idaho's primary wood products industry are the target audience for our research related to bio-based energy from slash. Also, landowners may utilize slash that would otherwise be burned in the forest, thus avoiding critical safety and air quality issues related to in-woods burning of slash. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: We consistently request feedback from the Idaho wood products industry to ensure that our project directions are relevant and current with the industry's needs. No significant modifications have been necessary to deliver research outcomes that benefit the Idaho forest products industry.

Impacts
High-value wood-based products from waste wood, such as lignin-based plastics and nanomaterials, have been introduced to the Idaho and regional wood products industry. Currently, bio-based fuels are now being used by the forest products industry in Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. Regional interest in bio-fuels has been enhanced with the outcomes we provided on in-woods grinding of slash for use as a carbon-neutral, sustainable energy source. These outcomes help the US forest products industry complete on a global scale.

Publications

  • Morgan, T.A., C.E. Keegan, S.W. Hayes, C.B. Sorenson, S.R. Shook, F.G. Wagner, and J. O Laughlin. 2011. Idahos forest products industry current conditions and 2011 forecast. Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, Moscow, ID. Station Bulletin 97 4p.
  • Osman, N., McDonald, A.G., Laborie, M-P. (2011) Hybrid Poplar Wood Hot-Pressed: Polysaccharides Behaviour. In: Proceedings of the Forest Products Society 65th annual convention, June 19-21, Portland, OR.
  • Sivasankarapillai, G., McDonald, A.G. (2011) Synthesis and properties of lignin-highly branched poly(ester-amine) polymeric systems, Biomass and Bioenergy, 35:919-931.
  • Wei, L. (2011) Effects of Wood Fiber Esterification on Weatherability of Wood Plastic Composites. MS thesis in Natural Resources, University of Idaho, August, Moscow, ID.
  • Wei, L. and McDonald, A.G. (2011) Surface Characterization of Weathered WPCs Produced from Esterified Wood Flour. In: Proceeding of the 11th International Conference on Wood & Biofiber Plastic Composites & Cellulose Nanocomposites Symposium. May 16-18, Madison, WI.
  • McDonald, A.G. and Ma, L. (2011) Plastic moldable lignin. In: "Lignin: Properties and Applications in Biotechnology and Bioenergy". Ed. Paterson R.J., Nova Science Publishers, Inc. In press.


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research was carried out in several areas: Forest harvesting - Assessment of in-woods grinding of slash was carried out to explore the potential to utilize material that is otherwise left or burned in the forest. This material is useful as a carbon-neutral energy source and, if feasible, would also reduce or eliminate particulate emissions from in-woods burning of slash. The results were published and presented in public forums. Wood materials improvement - Improving the properties and durability of wood and wood composites, especially in the emerging area of plastics derived from lignin and pine sawdust, was the focus of several research projects, resulting in publications and presentations to professionals at several national and international conferences. Industry analysis - Research in the area of sawmill operations effectiveness was carried out and published. Undergraduate students were involved in the development of new wood composites and in innovative utilization of small diameter structural logs. Several of our students made presentations at regional and national conferences. PARTICIPANTS: We have partnered with the Idaho forest products industry to improve the efficiency and reduce costs related to in-woods grinding of slash for use as bio-based fuels. The outcomes have resulted in increased collaboration for continued research activities. TARGET AUDIENCES: Idaho's forest landowners and its primary products industry are the target audience for our research related to bio-based energy from slash. Landowners may utilize slash that would otherwise be burned in the forest, thus avoiding critical safety and air quality issues related to in-woods burning of slash. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: We consistently request feedback from the Idaho wood products industry to ensure that our project directions are relevant and current with the industry's needs. No significant modifications have been necessary to deliver research outcomes that benefit the Idaho forest products industry.

Impacts
Effective strategies for removing low-value material from forests to use as raw material for high-value products and bio-based fuels are now being used by the forest products industry in Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. Regional interest in bio-fuels has been enhanced with the outcomes we provided on in-woods grinding of slash for use as a carbon-neutral, sustainable energy source. These outcomes are resulting in a more competitive US forest products industry at a time when many forest operations are being curtailed due to the poor economy.

Publications

  • Brandt, J., Morgan, T., Keegan III, C., Wagner, F., and Shook, S. 2010. Idahos Forest Products Industry: Current Conditions and Forecast 2010 Contribution No. 1045 of the Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station, College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1132.
  • Fox, S.C., McDonald, A.G. (2010) Chemical and Thermal Characterizaion of three Industrial Lignins and their Corresponding Lignin Esters. BioResources J. 5(2):990-1009.
  • McDonald, A.G., and Ma, L. (2010) Plastic moldable pine fiber by benzylation. In: Wood: Types, Properties, and Uses. Ed. Lorenzo F. Botannini. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Chapter 8.
  • Morris, B. 2010. Best practices for cost-effective chipping of woody biomass in northern Idaho. Master of Science thesis in Forest Products, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho (May).
  • Osman N, (2010) Chemistry of Hotpressing Hybrid Poplar Wood. PhD Dissertation, College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho (December).
  • Osman N., McDonald, A.G., and Laborie M-P. (2010) Thermal Compression of Hybrid Poplar Wood: Cellulose Analysis. In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Wood Modification, Riga, Latvia, September 20-21, pp339-346.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research was carried out in several areas: Forest harvesting - In-woods assesment of standing trees to determine quality levels for high value product applicatons was completed, published, and presented at scientific outlets. Wood materials improvement - Improving the properties and durability of wood and wood composites, especially in the emerging area of UV laser grafting and electroheating of wood, was the focus of several research projects, resulting in publications and presentations to professionals at several national and international conferences. Industry analysis - Research in the area of sawmill operations effectiveness was carried out and published. Small diameter tree utilization - Research to develop improved dry kiln schedules to enhance the quality of lumber whle saving energy was published and presented at a national conference. Undergraduate students were involved in the development of new wood composties and in innovative utilization of small diamter structural logs. Several of these students made presentations at regional and national conferences. PARTICIPANTS: We have partnered with the Idaho forest products industry to enhance drying schedules for high-temperature drying of lumber to save energy and imprive lumber quality. These outcomes have resulted in increased collaboration for continued research activities. A private enterprise has begun the production of lumber with enhanced characteristics resuting from the resin impregnation process that we developed. Idaho's primary wood products producers now have additonal markets for their lumber as a result of the company's needs for raw material. An updated directory of Idaho wood products manufacturers was developed in colaboration with essentially all of the woodmanufacturing companies in the state, resulting in an improved, current, searchable, on-line directory of wood products manufacturers. TARGET AUDIENCES: Idaho's primary products industry is the target audience for our research outcomes in high-temperature kiln drying schedules, since they will benefit from the reduced operational costs and esulting higher qualty lumber output. The new online directory also benefits them as well as the secondary wood products industry in Idaho, which is also inlcued. Our Idaho Department of Commerce, as well as the Idaho Forest Products Commission, have provided a direct link to the online directory to enhance trade opportunities. The Idaho Department of Commerce showcased the online drectory at a November 2009 trade show in Taiwan, thus begining the delivery of that informatin to a world adience. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: We consistently request feedback from the Idaho wood products industry to ensure that our project directions are relevant and current with the industry's needs. No significant modifications have ben necessary to deliver reseach outcomes that benefit the Idaho forest products industry.

Impacts
Effective strategies for removing low-value material from forests to use as raw material for high-value products and bio-based fuels are now being used by the forest produsts industry in Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. The emphasis on using bio-based fuels in the western states has benefitted from our research results. A commercial operation to produce wood products with improved properties has begun full-scale production. Builders are now considering the use of exposed, small-diameter structural logs for use in home construction. These outcomes are resulting in a more competitive US forest products industry at a time when many forest operations are being curtailed due to the poor economy.

Publications

  • McDonald, A.G., Mangalam, A., Blengeri-Oyarce C.D., Shook S.R. (2008) Rapid Thermal Wood Modification by Electroheating. In Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on Environmentally-Compatible Forest Products., Porto, Portugal, September 10-12th, pp 189-194.
  • Morrow, C.D. 2009. The use of site and stand characteristics to predict stiffness in standing small diameter Inland Douglas-fir. M.S. Thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.
  • Osman N., McDonald A.G., and Laborie M-P. (2009) Thermal Compression of Hybrid Poplar: Analysis of extractable components after treatment. In: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Wood Modification, Stockholm, Sweden, April 27-29, pp 457-460.
  • Wagner, F.G., Smith, N.R., McDonald A.G., (2008) Initial high-temperature schedule to reduce drying time and control kiln brown stain in ponderosa pine shop lumber. Forest Products J. 58(12):29-32.
  • Brandt, J.P., T.A. Morgan, C.E. Keegan, F.G. Wagner, and S.R. Shook. 2009. Idaho forest products industry: current conditions and forecast 2009. Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, Moscow, ID. Station Bulletin 92. 4p.
  • Chestnut, I.M. 2009. Nondestructive assessment of standing Douglas-fir trees and logs to estimate lumber quality. M.S. Thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.
  • Dodson C., (2008) Modification of Wood Surface by UV Laser Induced Photografting. M.S. Thesis, Environmental Science, University of Idaho, December.
  • Dodson C., McDonald A.G., and McIlroy D. (2009) Modification of Wood Surfaces by UV Laser Induced Photografting. In: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Wood Modification, Stockholm, Sweden, April 27-29, pp277-282.


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research was carried out in several areas: Forest harvesting - Harvesting strategies to reduce costs and economically deliver biofuels for energy applications was carried out, published, and presented at the annual Inland Empire Forest Engineering Conference held in Moscow, ID in spring 2008. Other topics covered at the conference reflected outputs from this funded project. Wood materials improvement - Improving the properties and durability of wood and wood composites, especially in the area of weathering of wood composites, was the focus of several research projects, resulting in publications and presentations to professionals at several national and international conferences. Industry analysis - Research in the area of sawmill operations effectiveness was carried out and published. Small diameter tree utilization - Research to develop new projects from small diameter trees harvested as part of tree improvment activies was published and presented at two national conferences. Undergraduate students were involved in the development of new wood composties and in innovative utilization of small diamter structural logs. Several of these students made presentations at regional and national conferences. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Effective strategies for removing low-value material from forests to use as bio-based fuels are now being used by the forest produsts industry in Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. The emphasis on using bio-based fuels in the western states has benefitted from our research results. A commercial operation to produce wood products with improved properties is beginning full-scale production in December 2008. Builders are now considering the use of exposed, small-diamter structural logs for use in home construction. These outcomes are resulting in a more competitive US forest products industry at a time when many forest operations are being curtailed due to the poor economy.

Publications

  • Green, D.W.; Gorman, T.M.; Evans, J.W.; and Murphy, J.F. 2008. Grading and properties of small-diameter Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine tapered logs. Forest Prod. J. 58(11):33-41.
  • Gorman, T.M., D.W. Green, A.G. Cisternas, R. Hernandez, and E.C. Lowell. 2007. Structural lumber from suppressed growth ponderosa pine from northern Arizona. Forest Prod. J. 57(12):42-47.
  • Pan, F., L.R. Johnson, and C.J. Williams. 2008. A method for using multiple linear regression equations to make predictions. International Journal of Forest Engineering (Accepted, Scheduled for publication in November).
  • Pan, F., H-S Han, L.R. Johnson, and W.J. Elliot. 2008. Net energy output from harvesting small-diameter trees using a mechanized system. Forest Prod. J. 58 (1/2) 25-30.
  • Pan, F., H-S Han, L.R. Johnson, and W.J. Elliot. 2008. Production and cost of harvesting and transporting small-diameter trees for energy with a whole-tree system. Forest Prod. J. 58 (5) 47-53.
  • Soria, A.J., McDonald, A.G., Shook, S.J. (2008) Wood solubilization and depolymerization using supercritical methanol. Part 1: Process optimization and analysis of methanol insoluble components (bio-char) Holzforschung. 62: 402-408.
  • Soria, A.J., McDonald, A.G., He, B.B. (2008) Wood solubilization and depolymerization by supercritical methanol. Part 2: Analysis of methanol soluble compounds. Holzforschung. 62: 409-416.
  • Fabiyi, J.S., McDonald, A.G., Wolcott, M.P., Griffith, P.R. (2008) Wood Plastic Composites Weathering: Visual Appearance and Chemical Change. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 93:1405-1414.
  • Fabiyi J.S., McDonald A.G. (2007) Accelerated Weathering of Modified Wood Flour Plastic Composites. Advanced Materials Research. 29-30:315-318.
  • Coats, E.R., Loge, F.J., Wolcott, M.P., Englund, K., McDonald, A.G. (2007). Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates in municipal wastewater treatment. Water Environment Research 79(12):2396-2403.
  • Allen, Travis T., Han-Sup Han, and Steven R. Shook. 2008. A Structural Assessment of the Contract Logging Sector in the Inland Northwest," Forest Prod. J. 58(5):27-33.
  • Knowles, Chris, Eric Hansen, and Steven R. Shook. 2008. "Assessing Innovativeness in the North American Sawmilling Industry Using Three Methods," Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38(2):363-375.
  • Shook, Steven R., Jorge A. Soria, and Darek J. Nalle. 2007. "Examination of North American Softwood Lumber Species Substitution Using Discrete Choice Preferences and Disaggregated End-Use Markets," Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37(12):2521-2540.


Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
Research was carried out in several areas: Forest harvesting - Harvesting productivity to aid operations managers in Idaho and the Inland Northwest was carried out, published, and presented at the annual Inland Empire Forest Engineering Conference held in Moscow, ID in spring 2007. Other topics covered at the conference reflected outputs from this funded project. Wood materials improvement - Improving the properties and durability of wood and wood composites was the focus of additional research projects, resulting in presentations to professionals at several national and international conferences. Industry analysis - Surveys were carried out and the results analysed and published that focus on the health of the Idaho and Inland Northwest forest products industry. Innovative sawmilling techniques were identified and reported. Small diameter tree utilization - Research to develop new projects from small diameter trees harvested as part of tree improvment activies was carried out and published. Undergraduate students were involved in new product development research activity and ensuing busines plans. Severl aof these studnts have since graduated and are employed in the forest products industry.

Impacts
Reduced cost to harvest trees has offset increased fuel costs, thus contributing to lower cost raw materials for the wood products industry. Our work to improve properties of wood and wood composites is now partially supported by a private wood products company with expectations to commercialize in 2008. These outcomes are resuting in a more competitive US forest products industry. The students we have trained and placed in the forest products industry are providing fresh management skills to the industry for long-term success.

Publications

  • Fabiyi J.S., McDonald A.G. 2007. Accelerated Weathering of Modified Wood Flour Plastic Composites. Advanced Materials Research. 29-30:315-318.
  • Fabiyi,,J.S., McDonald, A.G. 2007. Effect of wood species on the weathering of WPC. In 2nd World Congress and Exhibit on Woodfiber/Plastic and related Composites. Seattle, WA, April 1-3, pp
  • Fabiyi, J.S., McDonald, A.G., Stark, N.M. 2007. Surface Characterization of Weathered Wood Plastic Composites Produced from Modified Wood Flour. In Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on Woodfiber-Plastic Composites, Madison, Wisconsin, May 21-23. Pp.
  • Gorman, T.M., D.W. Green, A.D. Cisternas, R. Hernandez, and E.C. Lowell. 2007. Structural lumber from surpressed growth ponderosa pine from northern Arizona. Forest Prod. J. 57(12):42-47.
  • Keegan, C.E. III, J.P. Brandt, F.G. Wagner, S.R. Shook, and K.Blatner. 2007. Idahos Forest Products Industry: Current Conditions and Forecast - 2007, Station Bulletin 89, Moscow, Idaho: Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, 4 pp.
  • Keyoumu, A., McDonald, A.G., Gorman, T. 2007. Ponderosa Pine Wood Enhancement by Resin Treatment. In European Conference on Wood Modification, Cardiff Wales, October 12-13. Pp 267-270.
  • Knowles, C., E. Hansen, and S.R. Shook. 2007. Assessing Innovativeness in the North American Sawmilling Industry Using Three Methods. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. In press.
  • Ma, L., McDonald, A.G. 2007. Moldable Wood Flour by Benzylation. In European Conference on Wood Modification, Cardiff Wales, October 12-13. Pp 255-259.
  • Ma, L., McDonald, A.G. 2007. Plasticization of Wood Fiber by Benzylation. In Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on Woodfiber-Plastic Composites, Madison, Wisconsin, May 21-23. Pp.
  • Mangalam, A., Blengeri-Oyarce C.D., McDonald, A.G., Shook S.R. 2007. Rapid Thermal Modification of Wood by Electroheating. In European Conference on Wood Modification, Cardiff, Wales, October 12-13. Pp 263-266.
  • Osman, N., McDonald, A.G. Laborie, M-P. 2007. Chemical degradation behavior of hot press hybrid poplar. In the Proceedings of the 41st Wood Composites Symposium, March 26-28, Seattle, Washington, pp.40.
  • Shook, S.R., J.A. Soria, and D.J. Nalle. 2007. Examination of North American Softwood Lumber Species Substitution Using Discrete Choice Preferences and Disaggregated End-Use Markets. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37(12):2521-2540.
  • Sundar, S.T., McDonald, A.G. 2007. Wood Fibre Surface Engineering for Use in Wood Plastic Composites. In European Conference on Wood Modification, Cardiff, Wales, October 12-13. Pp 115-122.
  • Adebola, B.A., H. Han, and L. Johnson. 2007. Productivity and cost of cut-to-length and whole-tree harvesting in a mixed conifer stand. Forest Prod. J. 57(6):59-69.
  • Blatner, K.A., C.E. Keegan, S.R. Shook, and F.G. Wagner. 2007. Washingtons Forest Products Industry: Current Conditions and Forecast, 2007, Pullman, Washington: Washington State University, Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Cooperative Extension Publication MISC0565E, 4 pp.
  • Coats, E.R., Loge, F.J., Wolcott, M.P., Englund, K., McDonald, A.G. 2007. Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates in municipal wastewater treatment. Water Environment Research. 79(12):2396-2403.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
A dry kiln study was completed, presented at an international conference and a regional dry kiln workshop, and published in a peer-reviewed outlet (Forest Products Journal). By drying softwood lumber at high temperatures, drying time and energy usage is reduced. Our continuing research to improve harvesting techniques for efficiency and minimal disruption to the site involves partners in the USDA Forest Service as well as the timber industry. One completed study was preented at a regional conference and published in an international journal. Our annual reporting on the state of the inland northwest forest products industry is was distributed to industry and legislative leaders, providng key information on the impact of the industry on our regional well-being. Our focus on finding new uses for small-diameter roundwood, involving partners at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory and in the roundwood pole industry continues in the area of developing structural design applications for material harvested to reduce fuels that otherwise would lead to wildfire.

Impacts
Our research is focused on forest products utilization probems, solutions, and oppprtunities for the Inland Northwest. The results are used by land managers, forest operations planners, wood products manufacturers, and government leaders to develop strategies for improving the efficent use of our renewable wood resource. Specific impacts include improvements to wood-plastic composite processing leading to improved utilization of waste wood; improved harvesting technologies; structural applications for small roundwood; development of lignin-based plastics; and conversion technologies for producing chemicals and fuels from woody biomass.

Publications

  • Deutschlander, H. M., Wagner, F. G., Folk, R. L., Shook, S. R., Everson, D. O. (2006). Impacts of High-Temperature and Restraint on Kiln-Dried Grand-fir Studs Curve Sawn from Small-Diameter Logs (pp. pp. 78-90). Corvalis, OR: Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Western Dry Kiln Association.
  • Green, D. W., Gorman, T. M., Evans, J. W., Murphy, J. F. (2006). Mechanical grading of round timber beams. J. Materials in Civil Engineering, 18(1), 1-10.
  • Han, H.-S., D. Page-Dumroese, S.-K. Han, and J. Tirocke. 2006. Effect of slash, machine passes, and moisture content on soil strength in a cut-to-length harvesting. International Journal of Forest Engineering, Vol. 17(2): 11-24.
  • Keegan, C. E., Brandt, J. P., Wagner, F. G., Pavia, J. K., Shook, S. R., Blatner, K. A. (2006). Idaho's Forest products Industry: Current conditions and Forecast 2006 (vol. Station Bulletin 86, pp. 4 pp.). Moscow, Idaho: Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
We completed several studies, and have presented results in conferences, scientific journals and news releases, and at outreach workshops and newsrelease. New processes for converting woody biomass to fuels, chemicals and plastics were developed; grading technologies for using small diameter roundwood in structural applications were verified, and harvesting efficiencies to improve productivity were addressed. We are continuing research in these areas to further our contributions and impacts.

Impacts
Our research is focused on forest products utilization probems, solutions, and oppprtunities for the Inland Northwest. The results are used by land managers, forest operations planners, wood products manufacturers, and government leaders to develop strategies for improving the efficent use of our renewable wood resource. Specific impacts include improvements to wood-plastic composite processing leading to improved utilization of waste wood; improved harvesting technologies; structural applications for small roundwood; development of lignin-based plastics; and conversion technologies for producing chemicals and fuels from woody biomass.

Publications

  • Keegan, C.E., T.A. Morgan, F.G. Wagner, P.J. Cohn, K.A. Blatner, T.P. Spoelma, and S.R. Shook. 2005. Capacity for utilization of USDA Forest Service Region 1 small-diameter timber. Forest Prod. J. 55(12):143-147.
  • Keegan, C.E., J.P. Brandt, F.G. Wagner, K.J. Pavia, S.R. Shook, and K.A. Blatner. 2005. Idaho's forest products industry: current conditions and forcaset 2005. Station Bulletin 83, Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 4 pp.
  • Gallagher, L.W., S.T. Smith, A.G. McDonald and M.P. Wolcott. 2005. The effect of particle size and wood surface modification on wood plastic composite performance. In: Proceedings of the pre-symposium of the 13th International Symposium of Woodfiber and Pulping Chemistry, 12-13 May, pp. 11-17.
  • Fox, S.C. and AG. McDonald (2005) The esterification of different industrial lignins to form lignin bioplastics. In Proceedings (CD-ROM) of the 37th SAMPE Fall Technical Conference, Seattle, Washington, October 31-November 2.
  • Soria, J.A., A.G. McDonald, S. Shook, and B. He (2005) Supercritical methanol for conversion of Ponderosa pine into chemicals and fuels. In the proceedings of the 13th Int. Symp. on Wood, Fibre and Pulping Chemistry, Auckland, New Zealand, May 16-19, Vol 3, pp369-374.
  • Coats, E.R., Loge, F.J., Englund, K., Wolcott, M.P. and McDonald, A.G. (2005) Sustainable, environmentally benign thermoplastics through coupled wastewater treatment. In Proceedings of the Engineering Sustainability Conference, 2005, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 12.
  • Gallagher, L.W., A.G., McDonald, and M.P. Wolcott (2005) Engineered Woodfiber Plastic Composites. In Proceedings of the 39th Wood Composites Symposium, April 4-7, Pullman, Washington, pp346-347.
  • Smith, S.T., A.G., McDonald, and M.P. Wolcott (2005) Wood Fiber Surface Engineering for Use in Wood Plastic Composites. In proceedings of the 39th Wood Composites Symposium, April 4-7, Pullman, Washington, pp343.
  • Fabiyi, J.S., A.G., McDonald, and M.P. Wolcott (2005) Effect of Weathering on the Surface Chemical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites. In proceedings of the 39th Wood Composites Symposium, April 4-7, Pullman, Washington, pp347-348.
  • Han, H.-S. and C. Renzie. 2005. Effect of ground slope, stump diameter, and species on stump height for chainsaw and feller-buncher felling. International J. of Forest Engineering 16(2):81-88.
  • Green, D.W., T.M. Gorman, J.W. Evans, J. F. Murphy. 2005. Mechanical Grading of Small-Diameter Logs for Engineered Roundwood Structures. Proceedings of the IUFRO XXII World Congress Meeting, Brisbane, Australia, August 8-13.
  • Green, Evans, Murphey, Hatfield, Gorman. 2005. Grading of 6-Inch Diameter Lodgepole Pine Logs for the Traveler's Rest and Rattlesnake Creek Bridges. USDA Forest Products Laboratory General Technical Report.
  • Sathre, R., and T. Gorman. 2005. Improving the performance of wooden journal bearings. Forest Prod. J. 55(11):41-47.


Progress 10/01/03 to 09/30/04

Outputs
We completed several studies during this time period. In the area of timber harvesting, a novel harvesting system was developed to reduce costs and environmental impacts. Two studies were completed in the area of kiln-drying. The first measured VOC emissions to begin to determine methods by which emissions can be reduced to improve air quality in this phase of lumber production. The second study developed a new kiln-drying method that improved lumber quality, reduces energy needs, and improves production throughput when drying lumber. A third area of focus was the development of a new method to grade structural logs for log homes and other structural uses; the new method allows greater realiability for design values and results in significantly higher loads per log.

Impacts
Our research results are providing important information for federal land managers and private sawmill managers. As the US Forest Service attempts to improve forest health through thinning of small-diameter trees, high-end uses of this material will be key to paying for the removal costs. In addition, sawmills are faced with ince4reasing log costs and reduced market value for their products. Our research is assisting mills in obtaining the most value from the changing resource, thus impacting the sustainability of forest lands, the forest products industry, and timber-dependent communities.

Publications

  • Han, H., H. Lee, and L. Johnson. 2004. Economic feasibility of an integrated harvesting system for small-diameter trees in southwest Idaho. Forest Prod. J. 54(2):21-27.
  • Fritz, B., B. Lamb., H. Westberg, R. Folk, B. Knighton, and E. rimstrud. 2004. Pilot-and full-scale measurements of VOC emissions from lumber drying of Inland Northwest species. Forest Prod. J. 54(6)50-56.
  • Green, D., T. Gormn, J. Evans, and J. Murphy. 2004. Improved grading system for structural logs for log homes. Forest Prod J. 54(9)52-62.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Several ongoing projects are underway to enhance the manufacturing and marketing capabilities of the state and regional forest products industry. Production of lumber from small diameter timber is a primary focus, and we are working with the US Forest Service and cooperative sawmills to determine the highest value uses for this resource. The impact of various manufacturing alternatives in primary wood production are also being assessed to accomplish similar objectives. Since marketing and market trends are critical to the overall success of the industry, another focus area is to identify market trends and opportunities. Finally, additional research is underway to assess the current condition of the forest products industry in Idaho and the interior northwest, in order to assist in long-term planning, both at the mill level and at state leadership roles.

Impacts
Our research results are providing important information for federal land managers and private sawmill managers. As the US Forest Service attempts to improve forest health through thinning of small-diameter trees, high-end uses of this material will be key to paying for the removal costs. In addition, sawmills are faced with ince4reasing log costs and reduced market value for their products. Our research is assisting mills in obtaining the most value from the changing resource, thus impacting the sustainability of forest lands, the forest products industry, and timber-dependent communities.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
Several ongoing projects are underway to enhance the manufacturing and marketing capabilities of the state and regional forest products industry. Production of lumber from small diameter timber is a primary focus, and we are working with the US Forest Service and cooperative sawmills to determine the highest value uses for this resource. The impact of various manufacturing alternatives in primary wood production are also being assessed to accomplish similar objectives. Since marketing and market trends are critical to the overall success of the industry, another focus area is to identify market trends and opportunities. Finally, additional research is underway to assess the current condition of the forest products industry in Idaho and the interior northwest, in order to assist in long-term planning, both at the mill level and at state leadership roles.

Impacts
Our research results are providing important information for federal land managers and private sawmill managers. As the US Forest Service attempts to improve forest health through thinning of small-diameter trees, high-end uses of this material will be key to paying for the removal costs. In addition, sawmills are faced with ince4reasing log costs and reduced market value for their products. Our research is assisting mills in obtaining the most value from the changing resource, thus impacting the sustainability of forest lands, the forest products industry, and timber-dependent communities.

Publications

  • Blatner, K.A., W.E. Schlosser, C.E. Keegan, III, S.R. Shook, and F.G.Wagner. 2002. Washington's Forest Products Industry: Current Conditions and Forecast 2002. Pullman, Washington: Washington State University, Department of Natural Resources, Cooperative Extension Publication MISC0484, 8 pp.
  • Gorman, T.M. and D.W. Green. 2002. Characterizing wood properties of small-diameter northwest trees. In: Proceedings of the Small Diameter Timber Symposium, February 25-27, 2002, Spokane, Washington.
  • Gorman, T.M. 2002. Glued laminated beams: design and applications. In: Proceedings of the Wood Building Design Seminar, sponsored by the Korea Wood Building Design Association, June 19, 2002, Seoul, South Korea.
  • Han, H.-S., H.W. Lee, and L.R. Johnson. 2002. Economic feasibility of small wood harvesting and utilization in southwest Idaho. International seminar on new roles of plantation forestry requiring appropriate tending and harvesting operations. Proc. Sep. 29th - Oct. 5th, 2002. Tokyo, Japan. 14 p.
  • Han, H.-S. 2002. Forestry education in the USA. International Symposium on the Forestry Education and Industry. Sep. 25th - 28th. 2002. Proc. Chuncheon, Korea. 12 p.
  • Han, H.-S. 2002. The Forest Resources and Management in the USA. International Symposium on the Forestry Education and Industry. Sep. 25th - 28th. 2002. Proc. Chuncheon, Korea. 12 p.
  • Han, H.-S., H.W. Lee, L.R. Johnson, R.L. Folk, J.M. Hinson, and G.R. Jackson. 2002. Economic feasibility of small wood harvesting and utilization on the Boise National Forest, Cascade City, Idaho City, and Emmett Ranger Districts. The final report prepared for Gem County Commissioners. 62 p.
  • Hartley, D., L.R. Johnson, H.-S. Han. 2002. Harvesting productivity and cost of tractor-based machines for small scale operations. Small Wood Conference. Proc. Spokane. March 3-5, 2002. 10 p.
  • Keegan, C.E.,III, T.A. Morgan, S.R. Shook, F.G. Wagner, and K. Blatner. 2002. Idaho's Forest Products Industry: Current Conditions and Forecast 2002. Moscow, Idaho,: Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, Station Bulletin 77, 4 pp.
  • Keegan, C.E.,III, T.A. Morgan, S.R. Shook, F.G. Wagner, and K. Blatner. 2002. Montana's Forest Products Industry: Current Conditions and Forecast 2002. Missoula, Montana: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, 3 pp.
  • Schlosser, W.E., J.H. Bassman, F.G. Wagner, and P.R. Wandschneider. 2002. Increasing long-term storage of carbon sequestered in Russian softwood logs through enhanced lumber recovery. Forest Products Journal 52(9): 51-59.
  • Shook, S.R., Y. Zhang, R. Braden, and J. Baldridge. 2002. The use of e-business in the Pacific Northwest secondary forest products industry. Forest Products Journal 52(1): 59-66.
  • Wagner, F.G., T.M. Gorman, K.L.Pratt, and C.E. Keegan, III. 2002. Warp, MOE, and grade of structural lumber curve sawn from small diameter Douglas-fir logs. Forest Products Journal 52(1): 27-31.
  • Wagner, F., T. Gorman, S-Y. Wu. 2002. Assessment of intensive stress-wave scanning if Douglas-fir trees for predicting lumber MOE. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing of Wood, August 19-20, 2002, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
Several ongoing projects are underway to enhance the manufacturing and marketing capabilities of the state and regional forest products industry. Production of lumber from small diameter timber is a primary focus, and we are working with the US Forest Service and cooperative sawmills to determine the highest value uses for this resource. The impact various manufacturing alternatives in primary wood production are also being assessed to accomplish similar objectives. Since marketing and market trends are critical to the overall success of the industry, another focus area is to identify market trends and opportunities. Finally, additional research is underway to assess the current condition of the forest products industry in Idaho and the interior northwest, in order to assist in long-term planning, both at the mill level and at state leadership roles.

Impacts
Our research results are providing important information for federal land managers and private sawmill managers. As the US Forest Service attempts to improve forest health through thinning of small-diameter trees, high-end uses of this material will be key to paying for the removal costs. In addition, sawmills are faced with ince4reasing log costs and reduced market value for their products. Our research is assisting mills in obtaining the most value from the changing resource, thus impacting the sustainability of forest lands, the forest products industry, and timber-dependent communities.

Publications

  • Eastin, I.L., S.R. Shook, and S.J. Fleishman. 2001. Material substitution in the US residential construction industry - 1994 versus 1998. Forest Prod. J. 51(9):30-37.
  • Ganus, L.C., S.R. Shook, and T.M. Gorman. 2001. Alternative wood products feasibility study - City of Cascade, Idaho. University of Idaho, Department of Forest Products, Moscow, Idaho. 68 pp.
  • Keegan, C.E., K. Gebert, S.R. Shook, F.G. Wagner, and K.A. Blatner. 2001. Idaho's forest products industry: current conditions and forecast 2001. Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station, Station Bulletin 75, Moscow, ID. 4 p.
  • Keegan, C.E., A. Chase, S.R. Shook, and D.D. Van Hooser. 2001. Montanas Log Home Industry: developments over the last three decades. Montana Business Quarterly 38(Winter): 2-9.
  • Shook, S.R. 2001. Will lumber substitutes continue to take market share? in, World Wood Summit 2001 Conference Proceedings, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: PaperLoop.com, 20 pp.
  • Shook, S.R., and I.L. Eastin. 2001. A characterization of the US residential deck material market. Forest Prod. J. 51(4):28-36.
  • Shook, S.R., Y. Yang, and F.G. Wagner. 2001. Wood products cooperatives: overview and exploratory analysis. Forest Prod. Journal 51(3):25-33.
  • Wagner, F.G., T.M. Gorman, K.L. Pratt, and C.E. Keegan. 2002. Warp, MOE, and grade of structural lumber curve sawn small-diameter Douglas-fir logs. Forest Prod. J. 52(1)27-31.


Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

Outputs
Several ongoing research projects are underway to enhance the manufacturing and marketing capabilities of the state and regional forest products industry. Production of lumber from small-diameter timber is a primary focus, and we are working with the U.S. Forest Service and cooperating sawmills to determine the highest-value uses for this resource. The impact of various manufacturing alternatives in primary wood production are also being assessed to accomplish similar objectives. Since marketing and market trends are critical to the overall success of the industry, another focus area is to identify market trends and opportunities. Finally, additional research is underway to assess the current condition of the forest products industry in Idaho and the interior northwest, in order to assist in long-term planning, both at the mill level and at state leadership levels.

Impacts
Our research results are providing important information for federal land managers and private sawmill managers. As the US Forest Service attempts to improve forest health through thinning of small-diameter trees, high-end uses of this material will be key to paying for the removal costs. In addition, sawmills are faced with increasing log costs and reduced market value for their products. Our research is assisting mills in obtaining the most value from the changing resource. This impacts the sustainability of forest lands, the forest products industry, and timber-dependent communities.

Publications

  • Eastin, I.L., S.R. Shook, S.J. Fleishman. 2000. Material substitution in the U.S. residential construction industry: 1995 versus 1998. In: Proceedings of the 34th International Particleboard/Composite Materials Symposium, Pullman, Washington: Washington State University, 7-21.
  • Eastin, I.L., S.R. Shook, and S.J. Fleishman. 2000. . Material substitution in the U.S. residential construction industry: 1995 versus 1998. Working Paper 73, Center for International Trade in Forest Products (CINTRFOR), Seattle, Washington. 76 pp.
  • Keegan, C.E. III, S.R. Shook, F.G. Wagner, and K.A. Blatner. 2000. Montana?s forest products industry. Montana Business Quarterly. 38(Spring): 34-36.
  • Keegan, C.E. III, S.R. Shook, F.G. Wagner, and K.A. Blatner. 2000. Idaho?s wood products industry: current conditions and forecast 2000. Station Bulletin 71, Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 3 pp.
  • Keegan, C.E. III, S.R. Shook, F.G. Wagner, and K.A. Blatner. 2000. Idaho forest industry report. Timber/West 25 (March): 36-38.
  • Eastin, I., S. Fleishman, and S. Shook. 2000. Change of plans: material substitution in the residential construction industry. Engineered Wood Journal 3(Fall):34,35,37.
  • Rippy, R.C., F.G. Wagner, T.M. Gorman, H.D. Layton, and T. Bodenheimer. 2000. Stress-wave analysis of Douglas-fir logs for veneer properties. Forest products Journal 50(4): 49-52.
  • Shook, S.R. 2000. Market dynamics and competitive position of wood fiber-cement siding products. In: Inorganic-Bonded Wood and Fiber Composite Materials, Volume 7, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 258-274.
  • Shook, S.R. and F.G. Wagner. 2000. Directory of Idaho Wood Products Manufacturers: 2000. Station Publication Misc. 21, Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 105 pp.
  • Wagner, F.G., C.E. Fiedler, and C.E. Keegan III. 2000. Processing value of small-diameter sawtimber at conventional stud sawmills and modern high-speed sawmills in the western U.S ? a comparison. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 15(4): 208-212.


Progress 10/01/98 to 09/30/99

Outputs
Field work was completed on a project focused on evaluating the effectiveness of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of standing trees to determine the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of lumber subsequently sawn from those same trees. Results indicate that stress-wave analysis of standing trees can be a reasonable predictor (R2 = 0.88) of lumber stiffness, though the required number and type of measurements to obtain good correlation is not practical at this point. Further research efforts will focus on minimizing the number of measurements needed to accurately predict lumber properties from standing trees. NDE of standing trees may result in better management of existing forests and increase the quality of manufactured wood products. Another project determined the impact of log sweep on warp, grade, and value of structural lumber curve sawn from small-diameter Douglas-fir logs. Results from this study indicate that grade of lumber sawn from logs containing sweep is not compromised; in fact, mean twist was lower in the group of lumber sawn from trees with maximum sweep, thus yielding a more desirable lumber product.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Eastin, Ivan L., Steven R. Shook, and Douglas D. Simon. 1999. Softwood Lumber Substitution in the U.S. Residential Construction Industry in 1994. Forest Products Journal 49(5):21-27.
  • Gorman, T.M. 1999. Non-destructive Evaluation of Structural Logs for Log Homes. In: Proceedings of the International Congress of Effective Utilization of Plantation Timber, Chi-Tou, Taiwan, May 21-23, 1999. The Forest Products Association of the R.O.C. Bulletin No. 16.
  • Gorman, T.M. 1999. Structural Design and Durability. In: Proceedings of the International Congress of Effective Utilization of Plantation Timber, Chi-Tou, Taiwan, May 21-23, 1999. The Forest Products Association of the R.O.C. Bulletin No. 16.
  • Keegan, Charles E. III, Francis G. Wagner, Keith A. Blatner, and Steven R. Shook. 1999. Idaho's Wood Products Industry: Current Conditions and Forecast. Station Bulletin 69, Moscow, Idaho: Idaho Forestry, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, 3 pp.
  • Shook, Steven R. 1999. Forecasting Adoption and Substitution of Successive Generations of Structural Wood Panel Products in the United States. Forest Science 45(2):232-248.
  • Shook, Steven R. 1999. Profile of the Pacific Coast Manufactured Firelog Market. Forest Products Journal 49(11/12):35-44.


Progress 10/01/97 to 09/30/98

Outputs
1) Field work was completed on two projects. One, involving a Master of Science student, involved production differences resulting from alternate silvicultural prescriptions. A mechanized harvesting system was used to cut and process timber ranging from 12" to 28" in diameter when silvicultural prescriptions ranging from thinning to group selection to clearcut were prescribed. Results are now being analyzed. The second study compared cable yarding and mechanized forwarding of trees and logs that had to be harvested mechanically on slopes ranging from 35 to 50 percent. Results are being processed. The study will continue this coming summer with operations on gentle terrain. 2) Wood Products Manufacture: Two Ph.D students competed work in the area of inorganic-bonded wood and fiber composites. One student looked at the mechanical properties of fiber-cement sheets. The other looked at the market diffusion of cement bonded cellulose fiberboard. An M.S. students is near completion on a study investigating the use of non destructive techniques to determine properties of standing trees and logs in a log yard. Work continues on the mechanical grading and properties of small diameter, slow-grown trees. Work is also continuing on the economic potential of small-diameter timber for utilization by sawmills designed around smaller-diameter material.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Campbell, A.G., R.L. Folk, and R.R. Tripepi. 1997 Wood Ash as an Amendment in Sludge and Yard Waste Composting. Compost Science and Utilization, 5(1): 62-73.
  • Kurpiel, Frederick T. 1998. Adoption and Diffusion of Cement Cellulose Fiberboard (CFB) Siding Products in North America. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Idaho. August.
  • Moslemi, A.A. (Editor) 1998. Proceedings: Inorganic Bonded Wood and Fiber Composite Materials. University of Idaho, Moscow, idaho. 401p.
  • Teixeira, Divino Eterno 1998. Mechanical Analysis of Wood-Fiber Cement Sheets under Constant and Repeated Loading. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Idaho. October
  • Teixera, Divino Eterno 1998. Mechanical Analysis of Fiber-Cement Sheets. Inorganic-bonded Wood and Fiber Composite Proceedings. Volume 6; pp. 278-286.
  • Wagner, F.G., C.E. Keegan, R.D. Fight, and S. Willits. 1998. Potential for small-diameter sawtimber utilization by the current sawmill industry in western North America. Forest Products J. 48 (9): 30-34


Progress 10/01/96 to 09/30/97

Outputs
1) Timber Harvesting: A Master of Science student completed work on a project involving prebunching small trees to a forwarding trail, processing with a cut-to-length processor and forwarding of processed logs to the landing. Costs and production of this system were compared to the costs of cut-to-length harvesting in an adjacent stand. Total costs to harvest cut-to-length stands were less than for the combination of prebunching and cut-to-length harvesting, but the forwarder trail spacing was increased from an average of 60 feet in the cut-to-length units to 300 feet in the prebunch units. Field work on two studies investigating harvesting costs under alternative equipment and silvicultural prescriptions will be conducted this summer. One looks at harvesting costs differences between five different silvicultural prescriptions. The other will look at different harvesting systems to harvest and handle small trees. 2)Wood Products Manufacture: One Master of Science student finished a project on mechanical grading opportunities of lumber from small diameter trees. Another completed a thesis on the use of old corrugated containers as a supply for fiber cement products. The mechanical grading project is part of a larger project looking at strength properties of lumber from small trees in various parts of the inland northwest. Work is continuing on fiber cement products and properties. Work was completed on a revision of the Forest Products Directory of manufacturers in the state of Idaho. Other proj.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • JOHNSON, LEONARD R. Harvesting Technologies Overview. IN Forest Management into the Next Century. Forest Products Society Conference. Forest Products Society. In Press.
  • JOHNSON, LEONARD R. 1997. Book Review: Reinventing the Forest Products Industry. Forest Products Journal. 47:11-12(10).
  • GEIMER, R.; SOUZA, M.R. AND MOSLEMI, A.A. 1997. Accelerated Aging of Low-Density Cement-Bonded Wood Composites Made Conventionally and With Carbon Dioxide. Drevna Industrija. 47(2):55-62.
  • MOSLEMI, A.A. (Editor) 1997. Inorganic-Bonded Wood and Fiber Composite Materials. Forest Products Society. Madison, Wisconsin.
  • TURPEINEN, PEKKA. 1997. Production Analysis of Prebunching and Cut-to-length Harvesting Systems. Unpublished M.S. Thesis. University
  • ERIKSON, ROBERT G. 1997. Mechanical Grading Opportunities for Lumber Sawn from Small-diameter Logs. Unpublished M.S. Thesis. University of
  • TEIXEIRA, DIVINO. 1997. Fiber Refining and Fractionating of Recycled Old Corrugated Containers (OCC) for Wood-Fiber Cement (WFC) Sheets. Unpublished M.S. Thesis. July.
  • GORMAN, T.M. 1997. Relationship Between Moisture Changes and Dimensional Change in Wood. In: National Educator's Workshop: Update 97. NASA Conference Publication (in press). National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C.
  • KEEGAN, C., D. WICHMAN, D. VAN HOOSER, T. GORMAN, F. WAGNER, AND P. POLZIN. 1997. Idaho's Forest Products Industry: A descriptive Analysis 1995. Bureau of Business and Economic Research, University
  • SCHRODER, PETER AND LEONARD R. JOHNSON. 1997. Production Functions for Cut-to- Length Harvesting in Bunched and Unbunched Material. IN Proceedings of Council on Forest Engineering. 20th Annual Meeting. South Dakota State University. pp. 52-61.
  • JOHNSON, LEONARD R. 1997. COFE Regional Report for the Inland West. IN Proceedings of Council on Forest Engineering. 20th Annual Meeting. South Dakota State University. pp. 178- 179.
  • MOSLEMI, A.A. 1997. Fiber-Cement: New Kid on the Building Block. Wood Technology. September. pp. 48-50.
  • MOSLEMI, A.A. 1997. Cementing a Relationship with the North American Building Industry. Wood-Based panels International. October/November.
  • WAGNER, F. G., AND J. O'LAUGHLIN. 1997. Idaho's 1997 Timber Harvest. Contribution No. 838, Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, 6 pp.
  • GORMAN, T.M., F.G. WAGNER, AND D.P. WICHMAN. 1997. Directory of Idaho Wood Products Manufacturers. Miscellaneous Publication 19 (Revised), Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, 89 pp.
  • WAGNER, F.G., C.E. KEEGAN, R.D. FIGHT, AND S. WILLITS. 1997. Potential for Small- Diameter Sawtimber Utilization by the Current Industry Infrastructure in Western North America. Proceedings of the Forest Management into the Next Century Conference, Doubletree Hotel-Spokane City Center, Spokane, Washington, November 19-21, 1997.


Progress 10/01/95 to 09/30/96

Outputs
1) Timber Harvesting: Extension publications to assist landowners in estimating timber harvesting costs and in developing timber sale contracts, both for harvest prescriptions that meet the objectives of ecosystem management were completed and published. A master of science student completed work on a project designed to investigate equipment and system options for handling small trees. The completed thesis for this project includes an annotated bibliography of equipment that might be used in small tree harvesting systems. A second student is now continuing this work to focus on the components of potential systems that might work in small timber where good data is lacking The thirteenth annual Forest Engineering Conference was held in February and involved presentations on new harvesting equipment. In addition, the department organized and coordinated a joint two-day meeting of the Forest Products Society, Society of American Foresters and Montana Loggers Association that focused on ecosystem management. 2) Wood Products Manufacture: Work was completed and published on two projects involving lumber drying. One dealt with kiln factors affecting drying efficiency; the other dealt with VOC emissions from lumber drying. Work continues on establishment of VOC emission levels for drying various species of lumber. Work is being completed on an update of a directory of Idaho's primary and secondary wood product manufacturers. A graduate student project was completed on the influence of an internal grad.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Schroder, Peter C. 1996. Small Scale Systems for Applications to Overstocked, Small-Diameter Stands. Unpublished M.S. Thesis. University of Idaho. December 1996.
  • Wilding, Blair. 1996. Influence of Internal Moisture Gradient on the Stiffness Properties of Kiln-Dried Douglas-Fir Lumber. Unpublished M.S. Thesis. University of Idaho. May 1996.
  • Lee, Harry W. and Leonard R. Johnson. Calculating timber removal costs under ecosystem management. Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. Bulletin No. 62. University of Idaho. Moscow, Idaho. May 1996. 16 pp.
  • Lee, Harry W. and Leonard R. Johnson. Contracting for timber harvest under ecosystem management. Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. Bulletin No. 63. University of Idaho. Moscow, Idaho. June 1996. 6 pp.
  • Johnson, Leonard R. Forest Operations in the Intermountain West. Forest Products Journal. 46(6):17-20.
  • Schroder, Peter and Leonard R. Johnson. Small scale systems for applications to overstocked, small-diameter stands - Phase 1. Final Report. Submitted to USDA Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Research Station. Seattle, Washington. June 1996
  • Moslemi, A. A. and Teixeira, D. 1996. The use of OCC fibers in fiber-cement products. Submitted to Port Townsend Pulp & Paper Co. 66 pp.


Progress 10/01/94 to 09/30/95

Outputs
1) Timber Supply and harvesting: Work is underway in two areas. The first involves development of a guidelines for estimating costs of logging under the prescriptions of ecosystem management. These guidelines will be published by the UI Extension System as part of a larger project designed to provide information on the implementation of ecosystem management to private forest landowners. The second project investigates methods of harvesting and handling small trees from dense timber stands. Preliminary data has been collected on methods for moving trees to a main skid trail. A literature search will result in an assessment of other potential removal and processing equipment. These data will be combined to produce cost estimates for the most likely systems. The twelfth annual forest engineering conference was held in March. It facilitates transfer of new information in the area of timber harvesting. 2) Wood Products Manufacture: cooperative project investigated factors affecting the drying of grand fir lumber. A complementary project followed that looked at emissions from dry kilns and factors that affected the level of emisisons. Both projects are currently being documented through various publication outlets. Work was completed on a project investigating the impact of log sweep on warp in structural lumber. Results have been published for southern pine and are in-press for the work on Douglas-fir. Work was also completed and published on projections of Idaho's timber harvest to the year 2000.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications