Source: UNIV OF MINNESOTA submitted to
FACTORS AFFECTING BIOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE BEEF CATTLE ENTERPRISE
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0155111
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
MIN-16-044
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2011
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2016
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Dicostanzo, A.
Recipient Organization
UNIV OF MINNESOTA
(N/A)
ST PAUL,MN 55108
Performing Department
Animal Science
Non Technical Summary
The U.S. beef industry has gained production and economic efficiency through application of genetics, disease preventative measures, enhanced feed additives and growth-promoting agents, and managed nutrition interventions that capitalize on economic feed resources while enhancing feed efficiency. Continued emphasis on improving production efficiency is necessary to offset the inherently low production efficiency of both cow-calf and feedlot sectors of the industry. Increased reliance on corn co-products from ethanol production promises to improve production efficiency as the energy value of these co-products is similar to that of the grain they replace (corn or sorghum). However, health of the rumen and animal are sometimes compromised by their use; primarily from excesses of sulfur and phosphorus, plus the increased acidity derived from fast fermentation of these co-products in the rumen. Therefore, this project will contribute to increasing our understanding of feeding strategies and interventions to ameliorate negative factors associated with feeding DGS, and to step up intervention procedures to enhance production efficiency using alternative rumen modifiers. Incorporation of acute phase protein response will facilitate evaluation of remedies and alternative rumen modifiers while providing another tool to facilitate adoption of newly developed feeding and management strategies and interventions to include corn co-products and newly developed rumen modifiers by cattle producers. Under the following two objectives: 1) to study effects of feed grade mineral oxides and multivalent avian-derived antibodies to reduce the effects of S on rumen fermentation and performance of cattle fed high concentrations of corn co-products from ethanol production; and 2) to determine effects of S inclusion, particle size, concentration of roughage, and inclusion of rumen modifiers such as ionophores and multivalent avian-derived antibodies on APP response and behavioral changes. I expect to determine the maximum nutritionally and physiologically permitted inclusion of corn co-products from ethanol production to facilitate economically efficient operation of feedlots as corn grain price rises. I also expect to develop strategies for use of rumen fermentation modifiers both conventional (roughage inclusion, ionophores and antibiotics) and alternative (multivalent avian-derived antibodies, essential oils, etc) to reduce health related effects of use of corn co-products from ethanol production.
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
38%
Applied
52%
Developmental
10%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3023310101033%
3053310102027%
3073310310020%
3153310310010%
7123320110010%
Goals / Objectives
Increased pressure to enhance production efficiency while requiring utilization of corn co-products from ethanol production will emphasize a greater need in our understanding of feeding strategies and interventions to ameliorate negative factors associated with feeding DGS, and to step up intervention procedures to enhance production efficiency using alternative rumen modifiers. Incorporation of acute phase protein response will facilitate evaluation of remedies and alternative rumen modifiers while providing another tool to facilitate adoption of newly developed feeding and management strategies and interventions to include corn co-products and newly developed rumen modifiers by cattle producers. To study effects of feed grade mineral oxides and multivalent avian-derived antibodies to reduce the effects of S on rumen fermentation and performance of cattle fed high concentrations of corn co-products from ethanol production. To determine effects of S inclusion, particle size, concentration of roughage, and inclusion of rumen modifiers such as ionophores and multivalent avian-derived antibodies on APP response and behavioral changes. I expect to determine the maximum nutritionally and physiologically permitted inclusion of corn co-products from ethanol production to facilitate economically efficient operation of feedlots as corn grain price rises. I also expect to develop strategies for use of rumen fermentation modifiers both conventional (roughage inclusion, ionophores and antibiotics) and alternative (multivalent avian-derived antibodies, essential oils, etc) to reduce health related effects of use of corn co-products from ethanol production.
Project Methods
Experiments to address objectives outlined above will be based on three types: acute response metabolism studies and long-term feedlot studies. Acute studies are proposed to determine mechanisms of action of interventions or stress factors on rumen metabolism and blood metabolite, including APP changes. Long-term feedlot studies are designed to test effects of interventions to feedlot performance prior to releasing results and recommendations to wider audiences. Lastly, super-imposing behavioral observations on acute and long-term studies will provide additional data regarding cattle adaptation to newly devised interventions and management strategies. An additional benefit of behavioral observations is acquisition of intervention-response data to share with feedlot operators so that they may better manage their feedlots.

Progress 10/01/11 to 09/30/16

Outputs
Target Audience:Scientists. Ruminant nutritionists or related nutrition specialty by training conducting research or providing technical expertise in support of cattle nutrition research, education and technical service to the industry at large. Venues by which this audience was reached included: regional research projects, scientific meetings of regional or national scope, through professional conferences and resulting publications, and producer-oriented meetings. Nutritionists. University-trained and practically trained personnel involved in providing technical service, support and sales of products and services to cattle producers. This audience is primarily reached via producer-oriented meetings, popular press media including radio, short articles and quotes by popular press editors. Graduate students. Enrolled in universities undergoing training in a field of nutrition or veterinary medicine where lectures or segments of courses are dedicated to nutrition. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Professionals representing allied industry serving the beef cattle industry of the US are represented at local, state, regional and national meetings I have invited to speak at or at meetings I have organized. These individuals impact over 6 million head of cattle fed in the Upper Midwest and Southern Plains. Additionally, many academic peers and their graduate students participate both in regional and national research meetings wherein they participate as audiences in scientific presentations either orally or on posters. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Yearly meetings are held to communicate results of our research to cattle feeders and cow-calf operators in Minnesota and South Dakota. Additionally, regional and national meetings organized by other institutions where I am invited to speak are venues by which results are communicated to broader audiences. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Through a survey of packing plants and feedlots, discovered that feeding distillers grains with solubles to finishing cattle did not elicit a response by E. coli O157:H7 as was observed in other locations. Interactions between feeding environment and climate may effect differences in response to feeding distillers grains with solubles to finishing cattle. Additionally, we discovered that effects of excessive S on ruminal fermentation by cattle fed high-energy diets could be ameliorated by increasing forage concentration in diet. Although this strategy may reduce cattle performance by increasing the amount of feed required per lb gain. Through a meta-analysis, we revealed that many yeast and bacterial feed additives available today, when fed to cattle consuming high-energy diets, yield inconsistent results on dry matter intake and daily gain.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Binversie, E. Y., M. Ruiz-Moreno, A. J. Carpenter, B. J. Heins, G. I. Crawford, A. DiCostanzo, and M. D. Stern. 2016. Effects of dietary roughage and sulfur in diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles on hydrogen sulfide production and fermentation by rumen microbes in vitro. J. Anim. Sci. 94:3883-3893. Carvalho, P.H.V., W. T. Meteer, A. R. Schroeder, A. DiCostanzo, and T. L. Felix. 2017. Effects of feeding corn plant residues during the growing phase on steer growth performance and feedlot economics. Prof. Anim. Sci. 33:668-679. Fink, R.C., J.M. Popowski, J.E. Anderson, J.L. Tran, S. Kalyanikutty, G.I. Crawford, A.DiCostanzo, R.B. Cox and F. Diez-Gonzalez. 2017. Impact of distillers grain solids (DGS) and seasonality on the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 at an abattoir in the U. S. Upper Midwest. J. App. Anim. Res. 46:237-241.


Progress 10/01/14 to 09/30/15

Outputs
Target Audience:Scientists. Ruminant nutritionists or related nutrition specialty by training conducting research or providing technical expertise in support of cattle nutrition research, education and technical service to the industry at large. Venues by which this audience was reached included: regional research projects, scientific meetings of regional or national scope, through professional conferences and resulting publications, and producer-oriented meetings. Nutritionists. University-trained and practically trained personnel involved in providing technical service, support and sales of products and services to cattle producers. This audience is primarily reached via producer-oriented meetings, popular press media including radio, short articles and quotes by popular press editors. Graduate students. Enrolled in universities undergoing training in a field of nutrition or veterinary medicine where lectures or segments of courses are dedicated to nutrition. General public. Through casual conversations with the public during social interaction. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Professionals attend scientific meetings, technical conferences and producer meetings throughout the year. We are responsible for planning, organizing and implementing over 12 producer meetings which are attended by over 50 professional and technical service experts. During these meetings, these experts receive information derived from our research and research applications and are poised to gain further knowledge and training from this exposure. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?A set of three Minnesota Cattle Feeder Day meetings and 10 Minnesota Cow-Calf Day meetings exist for us to reach over 700 people in a year to disseminate results to producers who ultimately use and apply this information. Similarly, through scientific meetings and professional conferences, we reach over 500 professional and technical services people who further multiply this knowledge through their own venues. In addition, a 700- to 1,000-word count column appears in popular media where we regularly present results of research to an audience of over 10,000 readers in the area of influence of this publication. Additionally, through the U of M extension website, Facebook and Twitter accounts, we disseminate information to producers via Internet access. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?A comparison of impact of choosing an endpoint for the corn crop is being completed and will be disseminated shortly. We evaluated choice of endpoint (corn silage, earlage, high moisture corn or corn) on performance and economic return to corn acres. Data analyses are nearly completed and will be used to develop a strategic, sustainable decision-making plan to dedicate corn acreage for feedlot production. Two meta-analyses are under way to determine each impact of fiber content and source on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics and impact of heavy weight on nutrient requirements of finishing beef cattle.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? We determined the energy value of distillers grains (various moisture concentrations) as affected by extraction of oil from the co-product. A net change in metabolizable energy value of 0.06 Mcal/kg results from a change in ether extract concentration of 1 percentage unit. This has implications on energy content of resulting ether-extracted distillers co-products. At commonly found ether extract concentrations of 6% to 8%, the energy content of distillers grains is similar to that of dry rolled corn. Using calcium hyrdoxide instead of calcium oxide, to prevent handling dangerous chemicals when extrapolating to on-farm situations, to treat corn stover changed chemical structure of fiber so that NDF digestion was greater; yet, this change was not sufficiently large to effect an improvement in feed efficiency (by lowering feed required per lb gain) in a 50-d growing study with lightweight calves. Alternatively, treatment of corn stover with water improved palatability as indicated by greater intake, yet it had an apparent negative effect on digestibility of the fiber, such that cattle fed water-treated corn stover gained more weight at greater intakes. This improvement in gain was not accompanied by an improvement in feed conversion efficiency.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Hales, K. E.; Jaderborg, J. P.; Crawford, G. I.; DiCostanzo, A.; Spiehs, M. J.; Brown-Brandl, T. M.; Freetly, H. C. 2015. Effects of dry-rolled or high-moisture corn with twenty-five or forty-five percent wet distillers grains with solubles on energy metabolism, nutrient digestibility, and macromineral balance in finishing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 93: 4995-5005. Millen, D. D.; Pacheco, R. D. L.; DiLorenzo, N.; Martins, C. L.; Marino, C.T.; Bastos, J. P. S. T.; Mariani, T. M.; Barducci, R. S.; Sarti, L. M. N.; DiCostanzo, A.; Rodrigues, P. H. M.; Arrigoni, M. D. B. 2015. Effects of feeding a spray-dried multivalent polyclonal antibody preparation on feedlot performance, feeding behavior, carcass characteristics, rumenitis, and blood gas profile of Brangus and Nellore yearling bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 93: 4387-4400. Ceconi, I.; Ruiz-Moreno, M. J.; DiLorenzo, N.; DiCostanzo, A.; Crawford, G. I. 2015. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 93: 4058-4069. Ceconi, I.; Ruiz-Moreno, M. J.; DiLorenzo, N.; DiCostanzo, A.; Crawford, G. I. 2015. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index. J. Anim. Sci. 93: 357-369.


Progress 10/01/13 to 09/30/14

Outputs
Target Audience: Cattle owners and operators of feeding facilities and technical service staff from private consulting firms and feed manufacturing companies providing service to this audience. Technical service staff and veterinarians from drug manufacturing companies providing service to the US beef industry. Agricultural engineers and staff of agricultural engineering firms working in the area of feedlot facilities design and management. Fellow academicians representing departments of animal science, agricultural engineering, veterinary medicine, and food science. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Professionals in the nutrition industry representing feed and drug manufacturing companies, manure handling companies and building companies have been present during extension and outreach presentations in 2014. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Through a variety of formalized, periodic presentations: Cattle Feeder Days in Minnesota, and the value of manure as fertilizer days and open houses. In addition, through scientific presentations in the American Society of Animal Science and Plains Nutrition Conference. Also, during our own Minnesota Nutrition Conference. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? We will continue to research the value of manure as fertilizer as it integrates in the financial sustainability calculations of feedlots operating corn acres to various corn crop endpoints. We will complete another study where oil-extracted distillers grains substitute both full-fat distillers grains and/or corn in a group of Dairy-X cattle to further substantiate response or lack thereof to oil extraction on energy value of distillers grains. We will continue to submit additional studies to a meta-analysis on effects of removing oil in distillers grains on performance, carcass characteristics and energy value.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? We have demonstrated that when oil-extracted distillers grains with solubles are fed, rumen microbial populations may actually respond positively as ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acid concentrations were similar to those measured in cattle fed a corn grain-based control diet. In contrast, ruminal ammonia nitrogen was greater and voltatile fatty acid concentration was lower than those reported for control cattle in cattle fed traditional full-fat distillers grains. This observation derived from a ruminal fermentation study supports that either no difference in performance or a slight advantage in performance should occur when cattle are fed oil-extracted distillers grains. We proved this to be the case in a subsequent study where full-fat distillers grains were replaced both as dietary distillers grains concentrations at equal DM or ether extract inclusion with no impact on performance or carcass characteristics. A meta-analysis to determine effects of extracting oil from distillers grains did not support these findings as measures of ether extract impacted both performance and estimated energy value. Further studies on impact of removing oil from distillers grains will continue to clarify when ruminal fermentation changes effect response to oil-extracted distillers grains. Results from a survey conducted on manure samples provided by a commercial engineering firm from feedlots representing open lots, manure pack lots and confined over a pit lots pointed to differences in value of manure as fertilzer. Where manure is contained to a greater extent (confined lots on pits) and moderate extent (manure pack lots), value of manure as fertilizer is greater. Economic considerations resulting from these analyses reflect benefits of capturing manure value as fertilizer especially in years where fertilizer prices are high.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Bjorklund, E.A., B.J. Heins, A. DiCostanzo, and H. Chester-Jones. 2014. Fatty acid profiles, meat quality, and sensory attributes of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers. J. Dairy Sci. 97:1828-1834.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Bjorklund, E.A., B.J. Heins, A. DiCostanzo, and H. Chester-Jones. 2014. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers. J. Dairy Sci. 97:1817-1827.


Progress 01/01/13 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: Cattle owners and operators of feeding facilities and technical service staff from private consulting firms and feed manufacturing companies providing service to this audience. Technical service staff and veterinarians from drug manufacturing companies providing service to the US beef industry. Agricultural engineers and staff of agricultural engineering firms working in the area of feedlot facilities design and management. Fellow academicians representing departments of animal science, agricultural engineering, veterinary medicine, and food science. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Nothing Reported How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Nothing Reported What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? We had demonstrated that cattle fed diets containing 20% distillers grains with solubles (DGS) required additional degradable protein supply to generate sufficient bacterial crude protein synthesis for optimized performance. Utilization of commercially manufactured protected urea products was tested in a similar model. We concluded that slowing urea release by protecting it from rumen fermentation for a short or long period of time had no influence on volatile fatty acid or ammonia concentration in the rumen. It is possible that diets in need of degradable protein supplementation may not benefit as much if urea degradation is slowed down. Our continued evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this time as the live cells, led us to determine lack of significant effects on growth in spite of an intake response when feeding it in diets of growing cattle. Thus, feed conversion efficiency was affected negatively. In situations where greater intake is desired, such as when adverse weather and compromised immunity exist, feeding live Saccharomyces cerevisiae is advisable. Yet, there should be no expectation of enhanced feed efficiency, rather of greater response to medications and perhaps less morbidity and mortality. This hypothesis should be tested at a later time.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Fink, R. C., Popowski, J. M., Dahlberg, J. L., Kalyanikutty, S., Crawford, G. I., DiCostanzo, A., Cox, R. B., Diez- Gonzalez, F. 2013. Impact of Management Practices and Distillers' Grains Feeding on the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in Feedlot Cattle in Minnesota. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 10:559-565. Spiehs, M. J. T. M. Brown-Brandl, D. B. Parker, D. N. Miller, J. P. Jaderborg, A. DiCostanzo, E. D. Berry, and J. E. Wells. 2013. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 1. Effect on ammonia, total reduced sulfide, and greenhouse gas concentrations. J. Environ. Quality. doi:10.2134/jeq2013.05.0164. Spiehs, M. J. T. M. Brown-Brandl, E. D. Berry, J. E. Wells, D. B. Parker, D. N. Miller, J. P. Jaderborg, and A. DiCostanzo. 2013. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 2. Effect on odorous volatile organic compounds, odor activity value, escherichia coli, and nutrient concentrations. J. Environ. Quality. doi:10.2134/jeq2013.05.0165.


Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Findings were or will be reported during the Midwestern Section and the National Meetings of the American Society of Animal Science via abstracts and oral or poster presentations. In addition, several conference proceedings reported results of these investigations reaching multiplier audiences (feedlot consultants and feed industry representatives). Lastly, end-point users, cattle feeders, were informed of these findings via local meetings. PARTICIPANTS: Jolene Kelzer. Graduate Student, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Jeff Jaderborg. Graduate Student, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Devan Paulus. Graduate Student, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Jackie Popowski. Graduate Student, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. German Huber, Graduate Student, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Ryan C. Fink. Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Grant Crawford. Extension Animal Scientist, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Ryan B. Cox. Assistant Professor, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Francisco Diez-Gonzales, Professor, University of Minnesota, St. Paul TARGET AUDIENCES: Industry professionals, Academicians, Scientists, Undergraduate students, Graduate students, Consultants, Feed manufacturing nutritionists, Feedlot operators PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
We conclude that use of live yeast may only be warranted during cases of severe receiving stress in the feedlot. We confirmed that use of distillers grains diets at inclusion concentrations below 25% of diet DM dictates incorporation of urea to enhance microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. We have evidence of low frequency of distillers grains samples containing antibiotic residues with low concentrations of antibiotics. We also observed no serious evidence of microbial inhibitory concentrations in these samples.

Publications

  • Rodgers, J. C., S. L. Bird, J. E. Larson, N. DiLorenzo, C. R. Dahlen, A. DiCostanzo, and G.C. Lamb. 2012. An economic evaluation of estrous synchronization and timed artificial insemination in suckled beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 90:4055-4062.
  • Ceconi, I., A.DiCostanzo, and G.I. Crawford. 2012. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. J. Anim. Sci. 90:(Suppl. 2). Abstract 113.
  • Crawford, G.I., J.M. Kelzer, J. Jaderborg, and A. DiCostanzo. 2012. Effects of dietary inclusion of manganese oxide in beef cattle feedlot diets containing high concentrations of sulfur. J. Anim. Sci. 90:(Suppl. 2). Abstract 114.
  • Huber, G.M., A. DiCostanzo, and G.I. Crawford. 2012. Interaction of dietary roughage and sulfur concentration on performance of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 90:(Suppl. 2). Abstract 117.
  • Kelzer, J.M., M. Ruiz-Moreno, G.I. Crawford, A. DiCostanzo, and G.C. Lamb. 2012. Effects of supplemental manganese oxide on ruminal hydrogen sulfide concentration, ruminal pH, and feedlot performance of beef cattle fed high-sulfur finishing diets. J. Anim. Sci. 90:(Suppl. 2). Abstract 116.
  • Paulus, D.M., J.M. Kelzer, M.V. Fossa, C. Belknap, G.I. Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2012. Effect of inclusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in beef cattle feedlot diets with two different sulfur concentrations on nutrient metabolism. J. Anim. Sci. 90:(Suppl. 2). Abstract 18.
  • Ceconi, I., A. DiCostanzo, and G.I. Crawford. 2012. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics. Univ. of MN Beef Res. Rep. BR-1207.
  • Crawford, G.I., J.M. Kelzer, J.P. Jaderborg, and A. DiCostanzo. 2012. Effects of dietary inclusion of manganese oxide in beef cattle feedlot diets containing high dietary concentrations of sulfur. Univ. of MN Beef Res. Rep. BR-1208.
  • DiCostanzo, A., G.I. Crawford, and R.B. Cox. 2012. Distillers grains research results at University of Minnesota-A Review. In Proc. Plains Nutrition Conference. Texas Agri Life Pub AREC 2012-26. pp 108-120. April 12-13, San Antonio, TX.
  • Huber, G.M., A. DiCostanzo, and G.I. Crawford. 2012. Interaction of dietary roughage and sulfur concentration on performance of beef feedlot cattle. Univ. of MN Beef Res. Rep. BR-1206.
  • Jaderborg, J.P. and A. DiCostanzo. 2012. Managing feed storage, mixing and delivery for efficiency. In: Proc. 73rd Minnesota Nutrition Conference. Sep 18-19. Owatonna, MN.
  • Jaderborg, J.P., D.M. Paulus, G.I. Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2012. Substitution of distillers grains and glycerin for steam flaked corn in finishing cattle diets on performance and carcass characteristics. Univ. of MN Beef Res. Rep. BR-1209.
  • Paulus, D.M., R. Fink, F. Diez-Gonzalez, J.P. Jaderborg, G.I. Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2012. Impact of corn processing method and soy glycerin on fecal shedding from cattle inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Univ. of MN Beef Res. Rep. BR-1204.
  • Paulus, D.M., J.M. Kelzer, J.P. Jaderborg, M.V. Fossa, M. Ruiz Moreno, C. Belknap, G.I. Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2012. Effect of inclusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in beef cattle feedlot diets with two different sulfur concentrations on nutrient metabolism. Univ. of MN Beef Res. Rep. BR-1205.
  • Popowski, J.M., J.M. Kelzer, G.I. Crawford, A. DiCostanzo, and R.B. Cox. 2012. Effect of feeding high protein dried distillers grains in beef cattle finishing diets on carcass characteristics, shear force, moisture loss, and sensory attributes. Univ. of MN Beef Res. Rep. BR-1210.
  • Popowski, J.M., J.M. Kelzer, G.I. Crawford, A. DiCostanzo, and R.B. Cox. 2012. Effect of feeding high protein dried distillers grains in beef cattle finishing diets on fatty acid profile and retail shelf life of fresh and further processed beef products. Univ. of MN Beef Res. Rep. BR-1211.
  • McClelland, K.M., J.P. Jaderborg, D.M. Paulus, J.M. Popowski, G.I. Crawford, A. DiCostanzo, and R.B. Cox. 2012. Effect of modified distillers grains with solubles and crude glycerin in finishing diets on fatty acid composition and oxidation of fresh beef. J. Anim. Sci. 90:(Suppl. 2). Abstract 242P.
  • Pacheco, R.D.L., D.D. Millen, N. DiLorenzo, C.L. Martins, C.T. Marino, M.V. Fossa, S.L. Beier, A. DiCostanzo, P.H.M. Rodrigues, and M.D.B. Arrigoni. 2012. Effects of feeding a multivalent polyclonal antibody preparation on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, rumenitis and blood gas profile in Bos indicus biotype yearling bulls. J. Anim. Sci. doi:10.2527/jas.2010-3521.
  • Otero, W.G., C.T. Marino, C. Barreto, V.H. Pellizari, D.D. Millen, R.D.L. Pacheco, F.L. Ferreira, A. DiCostanzo, M.D.B. Arrigoni, and P.H.M. Rodrigues. 2012. Rumen microbial diversity under influence of a polyclonal antibody preparation against lactate-producing and proteolytic bacteria in cows fed different energy sources. Rev. Bras. Saude Prod. Anim. 13:491-502.


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Findings were or will be reported during the Midwestern Section and the National Meetings of the American Society of Animal Science via abstracts and oral or poster presentations. In addition, several conference proceedings reported results of these investigations reaching multiplier audiences (feedlot consultants and feed industry representatives). Lastly, end-point users, cattle feeders, were informed of these findings via local meetings. PARTICIPANTS: Jolene Kelzer. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Jeff Jaderborg. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Devan Paulus. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Jackie Popowski. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. German Huber, Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Ryan C. Fink. Postdoctoral Fellow. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Grant Crawford. Extension Animal Scientist. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Ryan B. Cox. Assistant Professor. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Francisco Diez-Gonzales, Professor, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. TARGET AUDIENCES: Industry professionals, Academicians, Scientists, Undergraduate students, Graduate students, Consultants, Feed manufacturing nutritionists, Feedlot operators PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Use of manganese oxide (MnO) to ameliorate effects of sulfur (S) in distillers grains diets demonstrated a positive response when fed at 1,000 ppm Mn in the first 28 days. Beyond this period, effects of MnO were not evident. This indicates that during the first 28 days on feed when high S distillers grains are fed, MnO may help cattle adapt to high S diets. In another study, neither S fed at 0.55% of diet DM had nor did this level interact with roughage content of the diet to affect feedlot performance. Increasing roughage content from 5% to 10% or 15% increased intake but reduced feed conversion efficiency. When finishing diets contain 20% distillers grains, inclusion of 0.6% urea (approximately 0.17 lb/d) led to greater feed conversion efficiency than when only 0.4% or no urea were supplemented. This revealed that efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in finishing cattle with high intakes may be underestimated thereby leading to poor supplementation of degradable intake protein. We have proven through 2-year surveys of cattle populations in the feedlot or processed through a local abattoir that the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 is not associated with concentrations of distillers grains in the diet. Also, a survey of antibiotic residue in distillers grains and concurrent evaluation of antibiotic residue effects on two sentinel bacteria species (Listeria monocytogenes ATTC 19115 and E. coli O157:H7 ATTC 8739) revealed that penicillin, erythromycin, virginiamycin, and tylosin concentrations were at least three fold lower than concentrations approved by FDA for feeding livestock and poultry. Of all samples collected, only one contained sufficient residue to inhibit E. coli. Reducing the negative impact of high concentrations of S in distillers grains is a possibility using an oxidative agent such as MnO. Roughage inclusion is independent of effects of S in distillers grains diets on their effects on performance. Use of distillers grains diets at inclusion concentrations below 25% of diet DM may necessitate incorporation of urea to enhance microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. We have found no evidence of a link between feeding distillers grains and incidence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feedlot or in a commercial abattoir. Further, we have found no evidence of high concentrations of antibiotic residues in distillers grains samples nor did we find an extremely inhibitory concentration in these samples.

Publications

  • Marino, C.T., W.G. Otero, P.H.M. Rodrigues, A. DiCostanzo, D.D. Millen, R.L.D. Pacheco, N. DiLorenzo, C.L. Martins, and M.D.B. Arrigoni. 2011. Effects of adding polyclonal antibody preparations on ruminal fermentation patterns and digestibility of cows fed different energy sources. J.Anim. Sci. 89:3228-3235.
  • DiCostanzo, A. and C.L. Wright. 2011. Distillers Grains for Beef Cattle. In: Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization. (K. Liu and K.A. Rosentrater, editors). AOCS Publishing. 2011.
  • Jaderborg, J., G. Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2011. Access time to hay feeder by gestating beef cows affects dry matter intake and hay waste. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):151 (Abstract 318).
  • Ruiz-Moreno, M., E. Seitz, G. Crawford, A. DiCostanzo, and M.D. Stern. 2011. In vitro effect of starch and sulfur on rumen gas production and hydrogen sulfide release. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):150 (Abstract 312).
  • Fink, R.C., J.M. Popowski, J.P. Jaderborg, D.M. Paulus, K.M. McClelland, J.L. Dahlberg, G.I. Crawford, A. DiCostanzo, R.B. Cox, and F. Diez-Gonzalez. 2011. The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle fed distillers grains and harvested through a commercial abattoir in Minnesota. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):147 (Abstract 305).
  • Popowski, J.M., R.C. Fink, J.P. Jaderborg, D.M. Paulus, K.M. McClelland, J.L. Dahlberg, G.I. Crawford, A. DiCostanzo, R.B. Cox, and F. Diez-Gonzalez. 2011. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle fed distillers grains Minnesota feedlots. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):147 (Abstract 304).
  • Popowski, J.M., J.M. Kelzer, G.I. Crawford, A. DiCostanzo, and R.B. Cox. 2011. Effect of low fat dried distillers grains on consumer sensory characteristics on Longissimus strip steaks and cooked sausage. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):93 (Abstract 149).
  • Kelzer, J.M., J.M. Popowski, S. Bird, R. Cox, G.I. Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2011. Effects of including low fat dried distillers grains in finishing diets on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):78 (Abstract 104).
  • Paulus, D.M., J.P. Jaderborg, C. Belknap, G.I. Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2011. Effects of inclusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in feedlot diets with two different sulfur concentrations. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):75 (Abstract 96).


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Findings were reported during the Midwestern Section of the American Society of Animal Science via abstracts and oral or poster presentations. In addition, several conference proceedings reported results of these investigations reaching multiplier audiences (feedlot consultants and feed industry representatives). Lastly, end-point users, cattle feeders, were informed of these findings via local meetings. PARTICIPANTS: C.R. Dahlen. Coordinator, Livestock Research. NWROC, Crookston. Jolene Kelzer. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Jeff Jaderborg. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Grant Crawford. Extension Animal Scientist. University of Minnesota, St. Paul TARGET AUDIENCES: Industry professionals, Academicians, Scientists, Undergraduate students, Graduate students, Consultants, Feed manufacturing nutritionists, Feedlot operators PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Our work with Escherichia coli O157:H7 is helping determine whether there is an environmental by feed ingredient interaction on prevalence of this pathogen. Our results do not support findings made elsewhere regarding distillers grains and Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence. This should help support sales of this important co-product of the biofuels industry. Reduction in hydrogen sulfide emissions in vivo were recorded with the use of 1,000 ppm manganese oxide during the initial 28 days on feed. This level shows promise to reduce toxic effects of hydrogen sulfide in cattle fed high grain diets supplemented with distillers grains containing high sulfur.

Publications

  • Jaderborg, J. P., S. L. Bird, G. I. Crawford, R. Walker, B. J. Funnell, and A. DiCostanzo. 2010. Effects of feeding site and hay processing on dry matter intake and hay waste by wintering beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):132(Abstract 294).
  • Jaderborg, J. P., S. L. Bird, G. I. Crawford, R. Walker, B. J. Funnell, and A. DiCostanzo. 2010. Supplement moisture and feeding site affect feed intake and waste by wintering beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):66(Abstract 85).
  • Jaderborg, J. P., G. I. Crawford, C. Lahr, H. Blalock, and A. DiCostanzo. 2010. Nutrient concentration as affected by supplement form (liquid vs dry) in a high moisture finishing ration. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):139(Abstract 323)
  • Kelzer, J. M., C. R. Dahlen, G. I. Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2010. Effects of spaying and terminal implant strategy on performance and carcass characteristics of beef feedlot heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):71(Abstract 97).
  • Kelzer, J.M., M. V. Fossa, M. Ruiz-Moreno, G. I. Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2010. Effect of dehydrated yeast culture on in vitro gas and hydrogen sulfide production in cultures using low- or high-sulfur feedlot diets as substrate. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):125(Abstract 266).
  • Kelzer, J.M., T. D. Maddock, T. N. Holt, A. DiCostanzo, G. I. Crawford, and G. C. Lamb. 2010. Effects of supplemental manganese on performance and stress responses in beef cattle fed low- and high-sulfur finishing diets containing distillers grains plus solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 2):512 (Abstract 556).
  • Kelzer, J. M., T. D. Maddock, M. Ruiz-Moreno, A. DiCostanzo, G. I. Crawford, and G. C. Lamb. 2010. Effects of supplemental manganese on ruminal pH and hydrogen sulfide concentration in beef steers fed high-sulfur diets containing distillers grains plus solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 2):512 (Abstract 555).
  • Kelzer, J.M., M. Ruiz-Moreno, A. DiCostanzo, and G. I. Crawford. 2010. Effect of manganese oxide on in vitro gas and hydrogen sulfide production in cultures using high-sulfur distillers grains based substrate. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):125(Abstract 267).
  • DiCostanzo, A., and G. I. Crawford. 2010. Considerations on feedlot facility design, retrofitting, and maintenance. Proc. 2010 Cargill Feedlot Conference.
  • Zehnder, C. M., T. D. Maddock, A. DiCostanzo, L. R. Miller, J. M. Hall and G. C. Lamb. 2010. Using alfalfa leaf meal as a supplement in late-gestation beef heifer and nursing beef calf diets. J. Anim. Sci. 88:2132-2138.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Findings were reported during the Midwestern Section of the American Society of Animal Science via abstracts and oral or poster presentations. In addition, several conference proceedings reported results of these investigations reaching multiplier audiences (feedlot consultants and feed industry representatives). Lastly, end-point users, cattle feeders, were informed of these findings via local meetings. PARTICIPANTS: C.R. Dahlen. Coordinator, Livestock Research. NWROC, Crookston. Jolene Kelzer. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Jeff Jaderborg. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Grant Crawford. Extension Animal Scientist. University of Minnesota, St. Paul TARGET AUDIENCES: Industry professionals Academicians Scientists Undergraduate students Graduate students Consultants Feed manufacturing nutritionists Feedlot operators PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Hydrogen sulfide is produced in cattle fed high grain diets containing distillers grains containing high sulfur and can lead to toxic effects in the animal. Batch culture assays were used to determine efficacy of two potential rumen hydrogen sulfide production modifiers. One is manganese oxide, and the other one is a commercially available yeast culture feed additive. These two additives were presented as potential modifiers through two successful grant proposals. These additives are currently being tested in vivo in feedlot experiments. Results will be completed by the end of 2010. From our previous work with polyclonal antibodies to manipulate rumen bacteria, CAMAS, Inc, the company associated with developing polyclonal antibody preparations is now marketing their products for the dairy industry. Over 500,000 dairy calves and 100,000 cows are currently on their products. Testimonials from the field include a better transition from dry to lactating cow, and healthier calves. Reduction in hydrogen sulfide emissions in vivo were recorded with the use of 1,000 ppm manganese oxide. This level shows promise to reduce toxic effects of hydrogen sulfide in cattle fed high grain diets supplemented with distillers grains containing high sulfur.

Publications

  • M. Blanch, S. Calsamiglia, N. DiLorenzo, A. DiCostanzo, S. Muetzel and R. J. Wallace. 2009. Physiological changes in rumen fermentation during acidosis induction and its control using a multivalent polyclonal antibody preparation in heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1722-1730.
  • J. M. Kelzer, C. R. Dahlen, G. I. Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2009. Timing of Optaflexx inclusion in feedlot diets on performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87E(Suppl. 3.):79-80.
  • DiCostanzo, A. 2009. Nutritional Effects of Cow Size. MN Cow-Calf and Cattle Feeder Days Proceedings. 2009. CD format.
  • DiCostanzo, A. 2009. Variables affecting beef profits: What's changed and what's not. Interstate Land O'Lakes-QLF Feedlot Symposium. Cedar Rapids and Council Bluffs, IA, and Sioux Falls, SD. March, 2009.
  • DiCostanzo, A. 2009. Formulation of diets and receiving nutrition challenges. Land O'Lakes Alpharma Symposium. July, 2009.
  • DiCostanzo, A. 2009. Managing diets in receiving cattle. Alpharma Feedlot Symposium. Des Moines, IA. September, 2009.
  • DiCostanzo, A. 2009. Stepping cattle up on feed and effects of diet (intake) changes on performance. 95th Annual Meeting. Lewis and Clark Conference. Interstate Veterinary Medical Association, Inc. Sioux City, NE. October, 2009.
  • J. M. Cassady, T. D. Maddock, A. DiCostanzo and G. C. Lamb. 2009. Body composition and estrous cyclicity responses of heifers of distinct body conditions to energy restriction and repletion. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2255-2261.
  • J. M. Cassady, T. D. Maddock, A. DiCostanzo and G. C. Lamb. 2009. Initial body condition score affects hormone and metabolite response to nutritional restriction and repletion in yearling postpubertal beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2262-2273.


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Findings were reported during the Midwestern Section and National meetings of the American Society of Animal Science via abstracts and oral or poster presentations. In addition, several conference proceedings reported results of these investigations reaching multiplier audiences (feedlot consultants and feed industry representatives). Lastly, end-point users, cattle feeders, were informed of these findings via local meetings. PARTICIPANTS: C.R. Dahlen. Coordinator, Livestock Research. NWROC, Crookston. Jolene Kelzer. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. N. DiLorenzo. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. J.E. Larson. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul. R. Pacheco. Graduate Student. Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Sao Paolo, Brazil. D. Millen. Graduate Student. Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Sao Paolo, Brazil. M. de Beni Arrigoni. Professor. Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Sao Paolo, Brazil. C.T. Marino. Universidade Sao Paolo, Pirassununga, Sao Paolo, Brazil. W.G. Otero. Universidade Sao Paolo, Pirassununga, Sao Paolo, Brazil. P. H. Mazza Rodrigues. Universidade Sao Paolo, Pirassununga, Sao Paolo, Brazil. TARGET AUDIENCES: Industry professionals, Academicians, Scientists, Undergraduate students, Graduate students, Consultants, Feed manufacturing, nutritionists, Feedlot operators PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Continued work with batch culture techniques to predict response by rumen fluid to utilization of polyclonal antibodies against specific rumen bacteria led to field studies in Brazil to test efficacy of presenting these antibodies as dried feed additives. Studies are currently under way in Brazil to test dried antibody preparations. The technique of batch culture assays was also used to determine efficacy of two potential rumen hydrogen sulfide production modifiers. One is manganese oxide, and the other one is a commercially available yeast culture feed additive. These two additives were presented as potential modifiers through two successful grant proposals. In addition, the company that develops these preparations was advised on the type of bacteria from which to derive additional preparations to assimilate hydrogen sulfide in the rumen of cattle exposed to high sulfur levels. The company associated with developing polyclonal antibody preparations is now marketing their products for the dairy industry. Approximately 100,000 cows are currently on the product. Testimonials from the field include a better transition from dry to lactating cow. Discussion with Brazilian and Argentinean companies continues for introduction of these preparations in those countries. Laboratory tests for efficacy of the preparation to reduce hydrogen sulfide in the rumen are under way.

Publications

  • DiLorenzo, N. C.R. Dahlen, F. Diez-Gonzalez, G.C. Lamb, J.E. Larson, and A. DiCostanzo. 2008. Effects of feeding polyclonal antibody preparations on rumen fermentation patterns, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 86: 3023-3032.
  • Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2008. Effect of Optaflexx inclusion on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 86 (Suppl. 3):113
  • Dahlen, C.R., G.I. Crawford, and A. DiCostanzo. 2008. Effect of Optaflexx inclusion on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 86 (E Suppl. 3):113.
  • Dahlen, C.R., N. DiLorenzo, and A. DiCostanzo. 2008. Efficacy of a polyclonal antibody preparation against respiratory disease pathogens on cattle morbidity and performance during the step-up period. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 86 (E Suppl. 2):195.
  • Gill, R.K., D. L. VanOverbeke, B. Depenbusch, J. S. Drouillard and A. DiCostanzo. 2008. Impact of beef cattle diets containing corn or sorghum distillers grains on beef color, fatty acid profiles, and sensory attributes. J Anim Sci 86:923-935.
  • Lamb, G.C., D.R. Brown, J.E. Larson, C.R. Dahlen, N. DiLorenzo, J.D. Arthington, and A. DiCostanzo. 2008. Effect of organic or inorganic trace mineral supplementation on follicular response, ovulation, and embryo production in superovulated Angus heifers. Anim. Repro. Sci. 106:221-231.
  • Dahlen, C.R., G. Marquezini, A. DiCostanzo, S. L. Bird, and G. C. Lamb. 2008. Administering human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 7 d prior to initiating a CO-Synch protocol. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 86 (E Suppl. 2):249.
  • DiLorenzo, N., C. R. Dahlen, and A. DiCostanzo. 2008. Effects of feeding a polyclonal antibody preparation against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on performance, carcass characteristics and E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding of feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 86 (E Suppl. 2):281.
  • Fossa, M.V., R.D.L. Pacheco, D.D. Millen, T.M. da Cunha Leme, M.P. de Oliveira, C. R. de Oliveira, A. E. Mathias, J. C. Hadlich, A. DiCostanzo, N. DiLorenzo, M. De Beni Arrigoni, C.L. Martins, M. Parrili, and S.A. Matsuhara. 2008. Fatty acid profile, meat cholesterol and total lipids of Bos indicus based types bullocks fed monensin or polyclonal antibodies against lactate-producing rumen bacteria. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 86 (E Suppl. 2):200.
  • Millen, D.D., R.D.L. Pacheco, M. De Beni Arrigoni, A. DiCostanzo, N. DiLorenzo, C. T. Marino, S.A. Matsuhara, M. Parrili, L.M.N. Sarti, M.V. Fossa, H.N. de Oliveira, S.L. Beier, C.L. Martins, T.M. Mariani, and J.P.S.T. Bastos. 2008. Intake fluctuations of feedlot cattle supplemented with monensin or polyclonal antibodies preparations against lactate producing rumen bacteria during diet step-up. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 86 (E Suppl. 2):285.
  • Millen, D.D., R.D.L. Pacheco, M. De Beni Arrigoni, A. DiCostanzo, C. T. Marino, N. DiLorenzo, S.A. Matsuhara, M. Parrili, M.V. Fossa, L.M.N. Sarti, S.L. Beier, H.N. de Oliveira, C.L. Martins, T.M. Mariani, and J.P.S.T. Bastos. 2008. Blood metabolic profile of feedlot cattle supplemented with monensin or polyclonal antibodies preparations against lactate producing rumen bacteria during diet step-up. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 86 (E Suppl. 2):285.
  • Pacheco, R.d.L., D.D. Millen, T.M. da Cunha Leme, M.P. de Oliveira, C. R. de Oliveira, A. E. Mathias, J. C. Hadlich, A. DiCostanzo, N. DiLorenzo, M. De Beni Arrigoni, C.L. Martins, M. Parrili, and S.A. Matsuhara, M. Parrili, M.V. Fossa, J.P.S.T. de Bastos, and T. M. Mariani. 2008. Evaluation of growth, carcass characteristics and meat tenderness of bullocks fed monensin or polyclonal antibodies against lactate-producing rumen bacteria. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 86 (E Suppl. 2):200.
  • Formulating Diets to Meet Rumen Degradable and Metabolizable Protein Requirements. 2008. MN Cow-Calf and Cattle Feeder Days Proceedings. CD format.
  • Feedlot Facilities and Management: Design, retrofitting and maintenance. 2008. In: Proc. 69th MN Nutr. Conf. Owatonna, MN. pp 178-186.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: High-sensitivity techniques to determine efficacy of polyclonal antibodies against species of rumen bacteria associated with acidosis were developed. These techniques are based on in vitro, batch culture fermentations conducted over a 12 h-period, and with minimum inputs, and inexpensive measurement techniques (pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids). Using modifications of these techniques, nitrogen sources were tested for their ability to release ammonia within a 24 h period. Nitrogen sources were then ranked against soybean meal as a control. Effects of feeding distillers grains on performance and carcass characteristics were measured using a mixed model procedure. In addition, using a similar technique, protein fractions associated with protein degradable in the rumen and metabolizable protein were tested to determine interactions between grain processing and protein fraction adequacy relative to feedlot performance. Efficacy of rumen-protected choline was measured in cattle fed high-grain diets. The model used consisted of feeding cattle from weaning to slaughter. Findings were reported during the Midwestern Section and National meetings of the American Society of Animal Science via abstracts and oral or poster presentations. In addition, several conference proceedings reported results of these investigations reaching multiplier audiences (feedlot consultants and feed industry representatives). Lastly, end-point users, cattle feeders, were informed of these findings via local meetings. PARTICIPANTS: C.R. Dahlen. Coordinator, Livestock Research. NWROC, Crookston.; R.K. Gill. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul.; N. DiLorenzo. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul.; J.E. Larson. Graduate Student. University of Minnesota, St. Paul.; C. Reinhardt. Assistant Professor. Kansas State University, Mannhattan.; G. Milliken. Professor. Kansas State University, Mannhattan.; R. Pacheco. Graduate Student. Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Sao Paolo, Brazil.; D. Millen. Graduate Student. Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Sao Paolo, Brazil.; M. de Beni Arrigoni. Professor. Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Sao Paolo, Brazil.; C.T. Marino. Universidade Sao Paolo, Pirassununga, Sao Paolo, Brazil.; W.G. Otero. Universidade Sao Paolo, Pirassununga, Sao Paolo, Brazil.; P. H. Mazza Rodrigues. Universidade Sao Paolo, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo, Brazil.; February 2007. Implications of Balancing Feedlot Diets for Protein Fractions (RDP and RUP) or Amino Acids. Southwest Nutrition Conference Speaker. 100 attendees. Tempe, AZ.; April 2007. Seminario Produccion de Carne Alimental. Universidad Catolica de Buenos Aires Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires. Trained 100 technical service professionals for 16 hours. Buenos Aires, Argentina.; May 2007. Protein and Energy Utilization in the Feedlot. 25 graduate students (24 hours). Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Sao Paolo, Brazil.; May 2007. Does Feeding Distillers Grains to Cattle Affect Carcass Quality? Distillers Grains Technology Council Conference Speaker. 100 attendees. Louisville, KY. ; July 2007. Uso de Granos de Destileria en Engorde. US Grains Council Trade Mission to Torreon, Mexico. Speaker. 80 attendees.; September 2007. Feeding to Meet Protein Fractions and Amino Acid Needs in Feedlot Cattle. Minnesota Nutrition Conference Speaker. 60 attendees. Brooklyn Center, MN.; November 2007. Formulating to Meet Protein Needs of Beef Cattle. Land O' Lakes Technical Service Personnel Training. 35 attendees. Fairmont, MN.; November 2007. Experiencias Practicas en el Uso de Granos de Destileria en Bovinos de Engorde y Lecheros. Biocyclos Conference Speaker. 100 attendees. Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. TARGET AUDIENCES: Industry professionals, Academicians, Scientists, Undergraduate students, Graduate students, Consultants, Feed manufacturing nutritionists, Feedlot operators

Impacts
During 2007, techniques used to determine efficacy of polyclonal antibody preparations against rumen bacteria associated with acidosis were used to refine feeding doses both of the liquid and dry preparations. These doses were then implemented during feeding studies conducted in Brazil. Late in 2007, company officials began talks about importing antibodies into Brazil for commercial use. Commercial use during the Brazil feedlot feeding session of 2008 is expected to occur as early as May. Concurrently, results from previous analysis of similar preparations designed to abate populations of respiratory pathogens were used to clear licensing use by USDA. Polyclonal antibody preparations against respiratory diseases of feedlot cattle should be available to cattle feeders by the end of 2008. Results of evaluation of distillers grains on carcass characteristics and performance were used by university personnel and industry professional to debunk the myth, generated by some industry professionals, that distillers grains negatively affects USDA grade of beef carcasses. Results from previous research evaluating effects of distillers grains were used to design additional research in this area by scientists from other Land Grant universities in 2007. Requirements of rumen bacteria for degradable protein were and continue to be extended to feed industry professionals. These individuals, in turn, are modifying the way cattle are fed, especially those fed distillers grains, so that degradable protein intake is not limiting in feedlot cattle.

Publications

  • Reinhardt, C.D., A. DiCostanzo, and G. Milliken. 2007. Distillers byproducts alters carcass fat distribution of feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 85(Suppl. 2):132.
  • DiLorenzo, N., C. R. Dahlen, J. E. Larson, R. K. Gill, and A. DiCostanzo. 2007. Effects of feeding a polyclonal antibody preparation against selected rumen bacteria on rumen pH of lactating dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 85 (Suppl. 2):135.
  • DiLorenzo, N. and A. DiCostanzo. 2007. In vitro release of ammonia nitrogen from various nitrogen sources in batch culture. J. Anim. Sci. 85 (Suppl. 2):138.
  • Gill, R. K., C. R. Dahlen, N. DiLorenzo, and A. DiCostanzo. 2007. Effects of feeding protected choline on arrival or during Optaexx feeding on performance or carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 85 (Suppl. 1):355.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Studies with polyclonal antibody preparations against multiple bacteria (primarily Streptococcus bovis) were undertaken to determine a rapid bioassay to test preparation effectiveness, & further understand effects of these preparations in vitro. Polyclonal preparations against S. bovis alone or in combination with antibodies against other rumen bacteria increased rumen pH 6h post-infusion. Total VFA were greater in cultures infused with eggs containing polyclonal antibodies against S. bovis at 9h post-infusion than in those infused with non-immunized eggs. Greater acetate concentration at 9h post-infusion in cultures infused with immunized eggs was responsible for greater total VFA concentration. In spite of this increase, the acetate-to-propionate ratio wasn't affected. In cooperation with S. Calsamiglia of Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain), the effects of feeding an avian-derived polyclonal antibody preparation against S. bovis, and other rumen bacteria (RMT) on rumen fermentation were studied in heifers. Heifers were subjected to an acidosis-induction protocol with (RMT, n=6) or without (CTL, n=6) RMT treatment. Heifers fed RMT had greater pH values at 0h post-feeding on D16, 18 and 19. Heifers fed RMT had higher concentrations of acetic acid and total VFA at 6h post-feeding throughout the grain challenge-feeding period. Polyclonal preparations are effective in preventing excessive reductions in pH & maintaining rumen function in cattle challenged with acute grain feeding. Data reported in various university studies published since 93 in journals & research reports were compiled & analyzed to determine effects of type and concentration of wet corn distillers' grains (WDG) on gain, intake and feed efficiency of feedlot cattle. Max. ADG occurred when WDG content of the diet was 17% (DM basis). Similarly feed efficiency was improved with diminishing gains as WDG content of the diet approached 27% (DM basis). Effects of forage-to-grain ratios & intake manipulations on performance & carcass traits of Holstein steers were assessed by regression procedures. Maximum ADG response was achieved when forage concentration of growing & finishing diet was kept to 17% & 4% of diet DM, respectively. Rolled, steam-flaked corn, whole corn and corn silage supported similar gains that were greater & more efficient than feeding either of these grains combined with built-in roughage systems, hay or haylage. Resulting values for net energy for gain of corn silage & alfalfa were 43 Mcal/cwt & 30 Mcal/cwt, respectively. The response by dressing percentage & yield grade or marbling to greater forage content in the growing diet and finishing period, respectively, were negative. Protected choline may enhance response to Optaflexx, a beta-agonist recently approved for enhanced feed conversion & beef production during the last 28 to 42 days on feed. Therefore, we designed a study to test feedlot and carcass response by feedlot cattle to feeding 5 g protected choline/head daily at strategic times during the feeding period. At 42D on feed, feeding protected choline (n=8 pens) had no effect (P>0.10) on ADG, DMI or FTG (analyzed as gain-to-feed).

Impacts
International collaboration with two research teams (Sergio Calsamiglia, Spain and Mario Arrigoni, Brazil) was undertaken to bring these polyclonal antibody preparations to commercial use internationally. In addition, continued work on a meta-analyses of effects of distillers' grains on feedlot performance and beef quality has led to participation in a national research effort to study effects of distillers' grains on marbling deposition. Additionally, meta-analyses of Holstein steer data set laid out groundwork for recommendations on managing forage: concentrate ratios in Holstein steer diets.

Publications

  • Larson, J.E., G. C. Lamb, J. S. Stevenson, S. K. Johnson, M. L. Day, T. W. Geary, D. J. Kesler, J. M. DeJarnette, F. N. Schrick, A. DiCostanzo, and J. D. Arseneau. 2006. Synchronization of estrus in suckled beef cows for detected estrus and artificial insemination and timed artificial insemination using gonadotropin-releasing hormone, prostaglandin F2 , and progesterone. J. Anim. Sci. 84: 332-342.
  • DiLorenzo, N., F. Diez-Gonzalez, and A. DiCostanzo. 2006. Effects of feeding polyclonal antibody preparations on ruminal bacteria populations and rumen pH of steers fed high-grain diets. J. Anim. Sci. 84:2178-2185.
  • Gill, R.K., D.L. VanOverbeke, and A. DiCostanzo. 2006. Impacts of beef cattle diets containing corn or sorghum distillers grains on beef color, fatty acid profiles, and sensory attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 84(Suppl. 1):114.
  • Blanch, M., S. Calsamiglia, N DiLorenzo, and A. DiCostanzo. 2006. Effects of feeding a polyclonal antibody preparation against Streptococcus bovis on rumen fermentation of heifers switched from a high forage to a high concentrate diet. J. Anim. Sci. 84(Suppl. 1):128.
  • Pacheco, R.D.L., D.D. Millen, N.DiLorenzo, and A. DiCostanzo. 2006. In vitro evaluation of various energy supplements for tropical and temperate forages. J. Anim. Sci. 84(Suppl. 1):23.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Continued work on feeding and testing preparations of polyclonal antibodies (PAP) specific to various rumen bacteria led to development of bench-top, batch culture quick tests for efficacy. Several studies were conducted utilizing rumen fermentation batch-culture systems to determine efficacy of a new blend of PAP against several rumen bacteria. Preliminary findings indicate that rumen pH was greater (P < 0.05) and rumen ammonia concentrations were lower (P < 0.05) in flasks where the blend was added than in those where a control blend was added. Laboratory analyses of rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations are pending. This finding has tremendous implications. Rumen pH of feedlot steers and dairy cows may be compromised because of rapid carbohydrate fermentation or a combination of high intakes and rumen digestibility, respectively. A feed additive that controls pH, such as PAP, can play a significant role in managing pH and reducing the negative effects of high rumen pH on feedlot performance and milk production. Field tests of this PAP are planned for the coming year. A summary of research results using PAP against respiratory pathogens was completed. Seven studies conducted in commercial feedlots were summarized. Results demonstrated that using PAP against respiratory pathogens (under the commercial name of NPCoat) in combination with conventional health procedures such as vaccination against respiratory and digestive system pathogens with or without methaphylactic antibiotic dosing reduced (P < 0.05) morbidity when morbidity levels were below 50%, and reduced (P < 0.05) mortality when morbidity levels were greater than 50%. This commercial preparation is now in full use for preventative treatment of over 1 million head of feedlot cattle in the U.S. Collaborative work with Brazilian scientists led to evaluation of alternative energy sources for tropical forages. An in-vitro study was designed to evaluate effects of corn, citrus pulp, or soyhulls at low inclusion levels on digestion of brachiaria (Brachiaria bryzantha). Preliminary results indicate that at low inclusion levels (approximately .2% of the animal's BW) of energy-containing supplements, there were no differences in rates of in-vitro digestion of the mixed diet or forage only.

Impacts
Polyclonal antibody preparations have been successfully introduced for prevention of respiratory disease at a commercial scale. Continued sales of these products in the marketplace will help to finance projects to expand their use in ruminant nutrition applications. International collaboration with two research teams (Sergio Calsamiglia, Spain and Mario Arrigoni, Brazil) to bring these preparations to commercial use internationally. In addition, work initiated in evaluating energy supplements for tropical forages will lead to further collaborations with Brazilian scientists, and defined energy supplementation strategies for low-quality tropical forages growing rapidly during the monsoon seasons in Brazil.

Publications

  • Dahlen, C.R., C. M. Zehnder, K. A. Hachmeister, M. E. Dikeman, A. DiCostanzo, G. C. Lamb, L. R. Miller, and H. Chester-Jones. 2005. Effects of including malting industry byproducts in feedlot diets on performance and beef quality. Prof. Anim. Sci. 21:22-29.
  • DiLorenzo, N., F. Diez-Gonzalez, and A. DiCostanzo. 2006. Effects of feeding oral preparations of polyclonal antibodies against rumen bacteria on target populations and rumen pH. J. Anim. Sci. (accepted).
  • Larson, J.E., G. C. Lamb, J. S. Stevenson, S. K. Johnson, M. L. Day, T. W. Geary, D. J. Kesler, J. M. DeJarnette, F. N. Schrick, J. D. Arseneau, and A. DiCostanzo. 2005. Synchronization of estrus in suckled beef cows for detected estrus and artificial insemination (AI) and (or) timed AI using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PG), and progesterone (CIDR). J. Anim. Sci. (In Press).
  • Roeber, D.L., R.K. Gill, and A. DiCostanzo. 2005. Meat quality responses to feeding distiller's grains to finishing Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2455-2460.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Preparations of polyclonal antibodies (PAP) specific to various rumen bacteria are currently available. Avian antibodies are known for their ability to remain active in spite of severe environmental challenges. These characteristics make avian antibodies suitable for dosing orally into ruminant animals. A study was conducted recently with steers fed a 100% corn silage based diet. The study was designed as a 5 x 5 Latin Square design to determine response to increasing doses of PAPSb (1X, 2X, 3X or 4X of 2.5 ml PAPSb/hd/d) in 50% forage diets. Rumen fluid samples were collected pre-feeding, .5, 2, and 4 h post-feeding to determine concentrations of S. bovis, and pH. Steers fed PAPSb had rumen concentrations of S. bovis reduced (P < 0.001) from 63% to 92%. There were cubic responses by rumen S. bovis populations (P < 0.05) and pH (P < 0.10) to dose. Greatest reductions in S. bovis populations were achieved when dosing 1X or 4X dose, while greatest rumen pH was achieved when dosing 1X dose. During two consecutive years, Angus crossbred steer calves (267 kg) were stratified by weight, and assigned to one of sixteen (year 1) or twelve pens (year 2) in a study designed to determine the impact of feeding PAPSb or PAPFn on performance and carcass characteristics of steers fed high-grain diets. Feeding either PAP enhanced (P < 0.05) feed conversion (analyzed as kg gain/kg feed DM; PAP interaction P-value = 0.04). Feeding PAPSb tended (P < 0.10) to improve carcass gain-adjusted feed conversion (PAP interaction P-value = 0.12). Dressing percentage of steers fed PAPFn was lower (P < 0.05) than that of steers fed no PAPFn. Only subcutaneous fat was affected by feeding PAP. Steers fed PAPSb had carcasses with greater (P < 0.05) fat depth than those of steers fed no PAP, while those fed PAPFn had carcass fat that tended (P < 0.10) to be greater than that of steers fed no PAP (PAP interaction P-value = 0.03). No other carcass traits were affected by feeding PAP. Incidence of liver abscesses was not collected during year 1 due to implications of the US-Canadian border closure in response to Canada's only BSE case on kill schedule. During year 2, liver abscess incidence was lower (P < 0.05) for steers fed PAPFn with or without PAPSb than those fed no PAP and PAPSb.

Impacts
These findings are significant because it is the first time that manipulation of bacterial populations with the use of oral antibodies were confirmed by microbiology measurements and led to effects on feedlot performance. Effects observed in these and previous studies are similar to those of feeding currently available ionophores, in spite of the fact that cattle in these studies were receiving ionophores. Thus, the potential exists to continue to improve rumen fermentation patterns, enhance production efficiency, and reduce nutrient loss by use of polyclonal antibodies against specific rumen bacteria.

Publications

  • Dahlen, C.R., Zehnder, C.M., Hachmeister, K.A., Dikeman, M.E., DiCostanzo, A., Lamb, G.C., Miller, L.R. and Chester-Jones, H. 2004. Effects of including malting industry byproducts in feedlot diets on performance and beef quality. Prof. Anim. Sci. Accepted for publication.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
A series of studies were designed to determine the efficacy of preparations of polyclonal antibodies (PAP; administered orally) made against specific target bacteria in the rumen. Three rumen metabolism studies, a lactation study and a feedlot study were conducted. Metabolism studies were conducted to determine effects of feeding PAP against Streptococcus bovis or Fusobacterium necrophorum on rumen concentrations of these bacteria. Preparations against Streptococcus bovis or Fusobacterium necrophorum were effective, at the recommended dose, in reducing (P < 0.05) concentrations of Streptococcus bovis or Fusobacterium necrophorum by 80% or 75%, respectively. Effects of feeding PAP were reversed within 5 days of withdrawal. Feeding PAP against Streptococcus bovis or Fusobacterium necrophorum affected pH and profile of rumen volatile fatty acids. Data on in situ and whole tract digestibility of dry matter, starch, protein and fiber are pending. Based on live weight gain, steers supplemented with a PAP against Streptococcus bovis or Fusobacterium necrophorum were heavier (P < 0.05) at slaughter as a result of daily gains that were 4.3% or 3.8% faster (P < 0.05), respectively. When evaluating carcass-adjusted final weight and gain, only the PAP against Streptococcus bovis was effective (P = 0.07) at enhancing daily gain. Final weights of steers fed PAPSb were heavier (P < 0.05) than those fed no PAP or those fed both PAP. Interestingly, steers supplemented with both preparations (PAPFn+Sb) gained similarly (P > 0.05) as steers fed no PAP. Interaction terms tended (P < 0.10) to be significant for DM required/lb gain and carcass-adjusted DM required/lb gain. Steers supplemented with PAPSb consumed 4% less (P < 0.05) feed DM/lb gain than those supplemented with PAPFn+Sb, and consumed 3% less (P = 0.08) feed DM/lb gain than those fed no PAP. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in feed DM required/lb gain between steers fed PAPFn and those fed PAPSb. When evaluating results based on carcass-adjusted gain, steers supplemented with PAPSb consumed 4% less (P < 0.05) feed DM/lb gain than those fed PAPFn+Sb. As a result of greater live and carcass-adjusted gains, steers supplemented with PAPSb had carcasses that were heavier (P < 0.05), had greater (P < 0.05) accumulations of subcutaneous fat, and greater (P < 0.05) yield grades than those of steers fed PAPFn, PAPFn+Sb or those not fed PAP. There were no differences in dressing percentage due to treatment.

Impacts
In a short-term lactation study, the impact of utilizing a PAP against proteolytic bacteria led to a tendency for greater milk yield by cows in early lactation only. However, impact of feeding a PAP against proteolytic bacteria had positive results on DMI. Feeding a PAP specific against proteolytic bacteria had no effect on absolute concentrations or proportions of each volatile fatty acid measured (no lactic acid was measured). Similarly, ammonia concentrations or pH were not affected by feeding a PAP specific against proteolytic bacteria.

Publications

  • Dahlen, C.R., DiCostanzo, A., Mitteness, B.M., Nash, P., Larson, J.E., DiLorenzo, N. and Marx, G.D. 2003. Influence of a polyclonal antibody preparation against rumen proteolytic bacteria on rumen fermentation and yield of milk and milk components. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl.1):58.
  • Dahlen, C.R., DiCostanzo, A., Ethington, R.T., Durham, T.L., Larson, J.E. and Lamb, G.C. 2003. Evaluation of forage sources for finishing diets containing wet corn gluten feed. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl.1):111.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
A study was designed to evaluate effects of feeding wet corn gluten feed alone or in combination with corn silage, mixed hay, or both on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Steers fed the diet containing wet corn gluten feed had similar (P > .05) performance and carcass characteristics as those fed the corn grain and corn silage diet. Steers fed the diet containing wet corn gluten feed without added forage gained faster (P = .05), required fewer (P = .01) lb DM/lb gain and were heavier at slaughter (live and carcass weights; P = 02) than steers fed diets containing wet corn gluten feed with additional forage. Feeding diets containing corn, wet corn gluten feed and corn silage either alone or with hay resulted in negative associative effects on estimated energy content of the diet. The magnitude of this effect was greater (more negative) for the diet containing corn silage without hay. Based on these results, prices of forage sources must be re-evaluated when considering forage inclusion to corn and wet corn gluten feed diets. A study was designed to evaluate protected choline supplementation on feedlot performance of yearling steers. Supplementing diets of feedlot cattle with protected choline for 100 days improved (P = .06) the incidence of carcasses reaching Choice Y3 or better. This improvement was equivalent to a difference in 7.6 percentage points between treated and untreated cattle. A lower number (P = .05) of carcasses from cattle supplemented with protected choline were categorized into severe discounts. This difference was equivalent to 2.5 percentage points. At a current price discount for select or severely discounted carcasses, this difference would translate into an advantage of $11.77/head during a 100-day feeding period for cattle (850 lb carcasses) supplemented with protected choline.

Impacts
Knowing how to price forage sources in corn and corn gluten feed-based diets will help make cattle feeding a more economically efficient process. Also, with potential changes to our ability to feed antibiotics and ionophores, it behooves us to study alternative additive options that do not impact microbial selection. Feeding protected choline may be one way cattle feeders can enhance value of cattle without affecting microbial populations.

Publications

  • DiCostanzo, A. and Dahlen, C.R. 2002. Adequacy of the 1996 Beef NRC model to predict feedlot performance. Plains Nutrition Conference. San Antonio, TX. P 125


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Two studies were designed to evaluate the impact of reducing N intake on N output by steers or lambs, respectively. Additionally, N retention and excretion were measured either directly (metabolic balance, steers, or serial slaughter, lambs) or indirectly by empirical equations to validate indirect measurement techniques. Total daily N output tended (P = .055) to be less for steers fed a constant crude protein (CP) intake vs a constant CP percentage (131.5 g vs 151.2 g N/hd/d) because of a difference in urinary N output. Daily urinary N output was less (P = .012; 43 vs 63 g N/hd/d) for steers fed a constant CP intake. Efficiencies of N retention were greater (33% of N intake) in steers when determined by direct measurements, which contrasts with efficiencies of N retention (22% of N intake) obtained by an empirical approach. Reducing N intake in lambs did not affect N retention or excretion as measured by serial slaughter. The NRC (1985) formula overestimated N retention and erroneously detected a significant difference in N retention between dietary CP treatments. In a subsequent study, steers fed 1,064 g CP/hd/d performed similarly to steers fed 1,241 g CP/hd/d. It was hypothesized that dietary CP may be reduced in diets of finishing steers as long as the degradable intake protein requirement is met. A study was conducted to evaluate effects of feeding a malting byproduct on carcass traits and beef quality and tenderness. Dietary treatment did not (P > .05) influence carcass traits. Neither cooking loss nor WB shear force was affected (P > .05) by treatment. Steaks from steers fed wet corn gluten feed had more desirable scores for myofibrillar tenderness and overall tenderness than those from steers fed Control (P < .01). Steaks were found to be moderately juicy and intense in flavor, with practically no connective tissue or off-flavors regardless of treatment. Steaks from steers fed malting byproduct and condensed distiller soluble diets were redder (a* values, P < .05) during display than those from steers fed wet corn gluten feed. Feeding steers malting byproducts had no adverse effects on longissimus muscle tenderness or sensory traits.

Impacts
Future efforts to reduce N output must consider choice of empirical formulas to determine N balance. Application of a validation method concurrent with use of empirical approaches is recommended to verify results until a suitable empirical method is developed. Use of malting byproduct in the cattle feeding industry is justified based on performance and carcass quality.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
A study was conducted to determine the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) on feedlot performance and liver abscess incidence. Treatments resulted from the factorial arrangement of protein source (ALM vs. vegetable protein blend) and ionophore (Rumensin vs. Cattlyst). There were no significant (P > .05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or feed DM required/kg of gain. There were no significant (P > .05) dietary treatment effects on carcass characteristics. Results were not conclusive with regards to effects of ALM on incidence of liver abscesses. Steers supplemented with ALM and Cattlyst had a 13.2% incidence while steers supplemented with the vegetable blend and Cattlyst had a 38.8% incidence (P < .05). This is similar to results reported previously. However, 31.5% of steers supplemented with ALM and Rumensin had liver abscesses and only 9.6% of the steers supplemented with the vegetable blend and Rumensin had liver abscesses (P < .05). Effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) on ruminal pH, VFA concentration, liver enzyme concentrations in blood, and Fusobacterium necrophorum concentrations in ruminal fluid were determined during a 42-day in vivo study. Protein source was either ALM or soybean meal. Calves fed soybean meal consumed more (P < .05) DM and required fewer lb DM/lb gain. Neither ruminal pH nor VFA concentrations differed (P > .05) due to protein source. Concentrations of liver enzymes or counts of Fusobacterium necrophorum in ruminal fluid were not (P > .05) affected by protein source. A study was conducted with yearling steers to study utilization of malting byproducts in finishing diets. Dietary treatments consisted of a ration balanced using corn silage (20%) and corn grain (corn control); or 20% (DM basis) barley byproduct blend (dry barley byproducts blended with malting bio-solids), barley byproduct:thin stillage (dry barley byproducts blended with thin stillage), or wet corn gluten feed (corn gluten feed control), varying proportions of corn grain, corn silage, and a protein, vitamin and mineral supplement on a dry basis. Steers fed malting byproducts with or without thin stillage tended (P = .09) to have slower ADG than those fed control diets. However, because DMI was similar across treatments, steers fed malting byproducts required 12% more (P < .05) feed DM/kg gain. Feeding malting byproducts did not (P > .05) affect carcass characteristics, tenderness, or sensory traits of loin samples collected after a 24-hr chill and aged for 14 days. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adjusting protein supplementation (constant dietary protein intake vs constant dietary proportion) on performance and nitrogen excretion of steer calves. Steers were scheduled to consume 1,250 g CP/head/day vs observed practice of feeding a constant proportion of CP daily (14%) during a 145-d finishing phase. There was no difference in rate of gain; but, steers fed a constant dietary proportion of CP consumed more feed (P < .05); therefore, they required 7% additional kg feed DM/kg gain.

Impacts
Research-based knowledge is now available to position and market alfalfa leaf meal and malting industry byproducts in the beef cattle industry. Knowledge that protein may be supplemented at less than the industry recommended standard should permit reduction of N output into the environment.

Publications

  • Zehnder, C., DiCostanzo, A., Thate, K., Gilland, R., Murphy, M. and Halbach, T. 2000. Health and environmental implications of using composted municipal solid waste as bedding in cattle feedlots. J. Anim. Sci. 78:495-503.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of including alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving or finishing diets of steers on feedlot performance. Treatments were control (100% of supplemental protein from soybean meal) or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 100% of supplemental protein during the receiving period, or control (supplemental protein from soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. During the receiving phase, steers fed 100% ALM diets consumed more (P < .05) DM than steers fed soybean meal. Although steers fed 100% ALM consumed more DM, steers fed soybean meal had similar ADG and, therefore, required less (P < .05) feed DM/lb gain. During the finishing period, there were no significant (P > .05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or feed DM required/lb of gain. Dry matter consumption increased linearly (P < .05) with increasing proportion of ALM. There were no significant (P > .05) dietary treatment effects on marbling, kidney, pelvic, heart, fat depot percentage, yield grade, quality grade or incidence of liver abscesses. However, there was an apparent trend in reduced liver abscess incidence in steers fed 100% ALM. Substituting alfalfa leaf meal for soybean meal increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain that resulted in similar feed efficiency. In gestating cows, supplementing diets with alfalfa leaf meal or a protein blend had no effect on weight or condition score change, calf birth weight, calf vigor or calving score. Similarly, incorporating alfalfa leaf meal in creep feeds resulted in similar gains at slightly lower creep feed intakes. From these studies, it is concluded that alfalfa leaf meal is a suitable protein source for beef cattle diets.

Impacts
Forage producers in central Minnesota who joined the Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producer Cooperative are now informed about the value and potential uses for one of their primary products-alfalfa leaf meal. Research-based knowledge this project discovered will be used to position and market alfalfa leaf meal in the beef cattle industry.

Publications

  • DiCostanzo, A., Williams, J.E. and Keisler, D.H. 1999. Effects of short- or long-term infusions of acetate or propionate on luteinizing hormone, insulin and metabolite concentrations in beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3050-3056.
  • DiCostanzo, A. and Zehnder, C.M. 1999. Estimation of protein requirements of feedlot steers. Prof. Anim. Sci. 15:116-123.


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
A study evaluating municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) indicated that MSWC is a viable bedding alternative to corn stalks. However, potential users of MSWC must be aware that although MSWC had no impact on animal health or tissue accumulation of regulated elements beyond concentrations considered normal, additional information on tissue accumulation of regulated elements must be obtained on cattle bedded with MSWC for periods longer than 105 d. Also, potential users must recognize the fact that greater bedding rates are required when using MSWC. This increased bedding rate does not appear to affect manure (as-is), N or P output. Alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) was evaluated as a protein supplement in suckling calf, and feedlot rations. As a protein supplement for suckling calves, ALM permits gains similar to those obtained with a commercial supplement of similar nutrient concentration. Calves fed the ALM-based supplement consume less feed; thus, are more efficient. Receiving steers fed ALM as the sole protein source consumed more feed than steers fed soybean meal. Gains were similar between the two groups. Thus, although ALM enhances intake in receiving steers, this intake response is not accompanied by a gain response resulting in lower feed efficiency. Substituting ALM for soybean meal in finishing steer rations increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain, which resulted in similar feed efficiency. Steers fed diets containing 100% ALM had reduced liver abscess incidence. Results of research undertaken over the last two years to evaluate effects of corn silage hybrid (leafy vs regular dent) on feedlot performance indicate that choosing a given proportion of corn silage in the diet of yearling steers is independent of the hybrid that is used. Indeed, if greater forage tonnage is obtained from leafy hybrids and performance is not different, then beef production per acre should be higher with these than for regular dent hybrids. However, other economic considerations need to be made when changing corn silage proportion as daily gain, feed efficiency and ribeye area were decreased with increasing proportion of corn silage.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • DiCostanzo, A., J. M. Cassady, and C. M. Zehnder. 1998. A review of effects of approved feed additives on performance and health of growing and finishing cattle. Prof. Anim. Sci. (Accepted).
  • Johnson, B. J., N. Halstead, M. E. White, M. R. Hathaway, A. DiCostanzo, and W. R. Dayton. 1998. Activation state of muscle satellite cells isolated from steers implanted with a combined trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2779-2786.
  • Stordahl, J. L., C. C. Sheaffer, and A. DiCostanzo. 1998. Entry and maturity affect amaranth forage yield and quality. J. Prod. Agr. (In Press).
  • DiCostanzo, A., J. E. Williams, and D. H. Keisler. 1998. Effects of short- or long-term infusions of acetate or propionate on luteinizing hormone, insulin and metabolite concentrations in beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. (Accepted).
  • DiCostanzo, A. and C. M. Zehnder. 1998. Estimation of protein requirements of feedlot steers. Prof. Anim. Sci. (Accepted).
  • Zehnder, C. M., A. DiCostanzo, K. Thate, R. Gilland, M. J. Murphy, and T. R. Halbach. 1998. Health and environmental implications of using composted municipal solid waste as bedding in cattle feedlots. 1998. J. Anim. Sci. (Submitted).


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
A study to evaluate effects of body composition on response of heifers to energyrestriction and refeeding indicated that initial body condition affected days to become anestrous and body composition upon return to estrus. Heifers in fat condition remained cyclic longer and regained cyclicity at a leaner composition than when the study began. Statistical analysis of published data on effects of dietary protein concentration or implanting strategy on feedlot performance indicated that implanted steer had heavier carcasses that were leaner and had greater loin eye areas (muscling). However, increased protein concentration in diets of implanted steers increased carcass fat deposition. Further analysis of these data revealed that crude and metabolizable protein requirements of implanted steers for a given rate of gain were actually lower for steers implanted with trenbolone aceate-based implants. A study is underway to evaluate municipal solid waste compost as a bedding material for beef feedlots. Preliminary data indicated that heavy element content of bedding is reduced when used as bedding and discarded in the manure. Concentration of PCBs in subcutaneous fat of cattle bedded with compost was below detectable limits. Three studies are underway to evaluate alfalfa leaf meal, a byproduct of biomass electric energy generation, in diets of beef cows and feedlot steers. A study is under way to evaluate economics of various proportions of forage corn silage in diets of feedlot steers.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • CASSADY, J.M., DICOSTANZO, A., CROOKER, B.A., AND WHEATON, J.E. 1996. Influence of body composition of reproductive response of heifers subject to energy restriction and refeeding. J. Anim. Sci. 74(Suppl. 1):211.
  • DICOSTANZO, A. 1996. Effects of protein supplementation and implanting strategy on performance of feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 74(Suppl. 1):76.
  • DICOSTANZO, A. 1996. Evaluation of supplemental protein source and concentrationon performance of feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 74(Suppl. 1):275.
  • DICOSTANZO, A., JOHNSTON, L.J., WINDELS, H.F., AND MURPHY, M.J. 1996. A review of the effects of molds and mycotoxins in ruminants. Prof. Anim. Sci. 12:138.


Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

Outputs
Data from a feedlot study completed in 1994 were analyzed to determine whether increasing concentrations of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in barley-based diets affected feedlot performance or carcass characteristics of steers fed for 135 days, or whether vomitoxin accumulated in muscle from these steers. Results indicated that consumption of up to 26 ppm vomitoxin (600 mg/head daily) did not affect health or performance of steers. Although yet preliminary, ELISA results indicated that vomitoxin accumulation in meat of cattle exposed to vomitoxin contained less than 1 ppm vomitoxin (minimum detectable limit). The field portion of a study designed to evaluate modulating effects of body composition on response of heifers to energy restriction was completed. Preliminary results indicated that heifers carrying more condition (fat) were able to remain reproductively active longer than heifer is moderate condition. Laboratory and computer analyses are under way to determine the amount of fat present when reproductive activity stopped and restarted (upon refeeding) occurred. A study was completed that compiled results from various published trials on effects of protein intake and implant strategy on gain of feedlot steers. Over 170 experiments were summarized and analyzed by regression procedures. Results indicated that gain and feed efficiency responded positively to increasing protein intake or to implant strategies. Protein requirements were estimated at 1,250 g/head/day.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • DICOSTANZO, A. 1996. Effects of protein supplementation and implanting strategy on performance of feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. (Abstr.) submitted to the Midwest Section Meetings of the American Society of Animal Science.
  • DICOSTANZO, A., JOHNSTON, L.J., WINDELS, H.F., AND MURPHY, M.J. 1996. A review of the effects of molds and mycotoxins in ruminants. Prof. Anim. Sci. (submitted as an invited review).


Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

Outputs
Holstein steers were used two consecutive years to evaluate gain response (from 1 wk to 340 kg) to starter and grower diets containing SBM vs calcium ligno-sulfate treated SBM(L-SBM) with and without soy hulls(SH). Calves fed L-SBM tended to gain faster than those fed L-SBM+SH(P<.07) or SBM (P<.08) fed calves during the remaining starter period to 179 kg. In the growing period calves fed L-SBM tneded to gain slower (P<.07) than those fed SBM. No overall differences in gain response were found for both periods. In another trial, yearling steers (initial wt 311 kg) were fed diets that contained 10.5, 12.0, 13.5 or 15% CP (DM basis). Steers fed 10.5% protein gained slower (P<.01) and required more feed per unit gain than those fed the other diets. It appeared that diets of 11 to 12% crude protein are sufficient for cattle of this type.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

    Outputs
    Large-frame crossbred steer calves (300 kg) were used to determine effects of two implant strategies and two grains. Steers were implanted on d 3 and d 105 either with trenbolone acetate plus estradiol (TBA+E; Revalor-S) or estradiol (E; Synovex-S) and fed corn- or barley-based finishing diets in a 195-d trial. TBA+E increased (P<.0001) ADG 9.5% over E (1.67 vs 1.53 kg/d) and improved (P<.05) feed conversion 5% (587 vs 619 kg feed/100 k gain). Steers fed corn gained 6.7% faster (P<.001) than those fed barley. No significant carcass differences were found. In another trial, yearling steers (initial wt 311 kg) were fed diets that contained 10.5, 12.0, 13.5 or 15% CP (DM basis). Steers fed 10.5% protein gained slower (P<.O1) and required more feed per unit gain than those fed the other diets. It appeared that diets of 11 to 12% crude protein are sufficient for cattle of this type.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • WINDELS, H. F., WOODWARD, B. W., MEISKE, J. C., and GOODRICH, R.D. 1994. The effect of combined use of trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants on response of large-frame crossbred steers to dietary energy sources. 1994 Minnesota Cattle.
    • JOHNSTON, L. D., GOODRICH, R. D., MEISKE, J. C., and WOODWARD, B. W. 1994. Dietary protein percentages for rapidly growing steers. 1994 Minnesota Cattle Feeders Rpt. B-411.
    • JOHNSON, B. J., HATHAWAY, M. R., ANDERSON, P. T., MEISKE, J. C., FREY, R. S., and DAYTON, W. R. 1993. Effect of combined trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants on growth, carcass characteristics and biochemical parameters of steers.