Source: RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY submitted to
MANAGEMENT OF THE BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
REVISED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1001717
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
NJ08225
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
NEERA-1306
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2013
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2018
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Nielsen, AN, .
Recipient Organization
RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY
3 RUTGERS PLZA
NEW BRUNSWICK,NJ 08901-8559
Performing Department
Entomology
Non Technical Summary
The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a major invasive polyphagous pest of many economically important crops throughout the mid-Atlantic states. Control tactics are difficult and generally include repeated chemical sprays. However, with the potential risks pesticides pose to the environment and non-target organisms, more research is needed onBMSB behavior, seasonal biology, economic impact, and alternative control methods. Here we propose to: a) assess the extent and nature of injury caused by BMSB on vegetables, tree fruit, blueberries, and grapes, b) develop and compare monitoring methods (light based/pheromone based traps, visual and knockdown assessments) for BMSB that can be used to assess emergence from overwintering sites, conduct population assessments and evaluate movement between different crops, c) determine the potential for biological control of the BMSB, d) develop best management practices for the BMSB in fruit, e) deliver research based IPM recommendations to growers, f) determine host plant characteristics that impact attractiveness to BMSB and identify species that could potentially be used as a trap crop, etc., and g) identify the impacts of insecticide applications to manage BMSB on non-targets insects.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
21111991130100%
Goals / Objectives
Assess the extent and nature of injury caused brown marmorated stink bug Determine the potential for biological control of the brown marmorated stink bug Develop and compare monitoring methods (light based/pheromone based traps, visual and knockdown assessments) for brown marmorated stink bug that can be used to assess emergence from overwintering sites, conduct population assessments and evaluate movement between different crops. Develop best management practices for the brown marmorated stink bug in field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables Deliver research based IPM recommendations to growers Determine host plant characteristics that impact attractiveness to BMSB and identify species that could potentially be used as a trap crop, etc. Identify the impacts of insecticide applications to manage BMSB on non-targets insects.
Project Methods
Beginning with the first appearance of adults, eggs or nymphs in plots, vegetables, tree fruit, blueberriers and grapes will be evaluated for populations on a weekly basis. Weekly evaluations, depending on the crop sampled, will be made using visual, beat sample or sweep net sampling techniques. Damage estimates will be visually made at harvest. Various densities of caged bugs will also be evaluated at important phenological stages of blueberry and grape fruit development to identify the critical potential injury periods. At harvest, yield estimates and damage evaluations from a subsample of plants within each plot will be conducted. To assess the seasonality of BMSB in apples, soybeans and vegetables, peach and grapes, we will conduct twice weekly 3-minute visual samples and record all life stages present, replicated. In apples, soybeans and vegetables, peach/nectarine, this will be compared to beat samples. Landscape level BMSB populations located at the RAREC and Cream Ridge stations will be monitored with a black light trap which research shows is an effective monitoring tool. The relationship between visual, beat and black light samples will be investigated through statistical methods. We willstudy BMSB dispersalbehavior in peach, vegetables and apples through the use of protein markers on the border and interior of fields. Markers (egg white, soy milk, milk, wheat etc.) will be applied using an airblast sprayer at hypothesized key dispersal event periods. As BMSB moves through treated trees, they pick up the protein marker which can be detected through ELISA. Trees will be sampled daily for one week after application and all individuals will be collected and frozen. It is expected that we will be able to identify the persistence of this "edge effect" and determine what proportion of individuals (adults and nymphs) are dispersing from the edge to the interior. Surveys of multiple host plants with sentinel egg masses will be conducted for assessment of parasitism and predation rates. This will be initiated when naturally colonizing adults are observed in the plots and will be repeated every other week throughout the growing season. After 48 h, all egg masses will be collected, brought to the laboratory, examined for predation and then, held for emergence of adult parasitoids. The frequency of egg parasitization by a single parasitoid or combination of parasitoids will be calculated for the sentinel egg masses. Video documentation on select egg masses will quantify the natural enemy complex, diurnal activity and seasonality of key natural enemies. Depending on the availability of egg masses, we will do all but the video documentation in apples, soybeans and various vegetables. We will also determine whether BMSB induce volatiles in bush bean and how a widespread natural enemy (Orius spp.) responds to host plant cues. We will also identify volatiles involved with attraction by collecting volatile headspace. Damage will be caused by 48 hours of prior BMSB feeding. Prey will be European corn borer eggs or BMSB eggs depending on availability. Treatments will be fully crossed and include 1) damaged plants, 2) undamaged plants, 3) prey (eggs) and 4) no prey. We will conduct small-plot field experiments in peach and grape at experimental farms to evaluate the efficacy of both conventional and organic insecticides/materials against brown marmorated stink bug nymphs and adults. The efficacy of insecticide treatments on BMSB will be evaluated through a randomized complete block design with tree row as the blocking factor (based on predicted BMSB density), replicated at least 4 times applied with an airblast sprayer. At commercial farms we will investigate the development of a reduced-risk management program for BMSB that incorporates mating disruption for moth pests, ground cover management and insecticides applied at the borders for BMSB in peach and apple. The goal of this work is maintain the same level of control for BMSB with border sprays than with whole-block or alternate row middle applications. A border treatment is estimated to apply about 25% amount of active ingredient, which would result in ecological and economic benefit to the farm. Populations will be monitored through weekly visual counts, sweep nets, and pheromone traps throughout the growing season. Catfacing and Lepidopteran injury to fruit will be assessed at harvest by cutting and peeling fruit (25/tree for at least 10 samples per block). We will incorporate the information and BMP's developed by this project into current grower recommendations. We will also deliver this information via websites, emails, newsletters, grower meetings, etc. Pest management information and recommendations will be transferred to extension educators -- county agents and IPM coordinators -- and to growers directly. This will be accomplished through twilight meetings, commodity meetings, horticultural conferences and field days. When appropriate, written or on-line surveys of stakeholders will be conducted to identify priorities and to rate the implementation of research results provided. Pesticide recommendations will be updated annually in the Rutgers Tree Fruit Production Guide and contributions will be made to the Mid-Atlantic Berry Guide for small fruits. We will contribute information to the Tree Fruit and Vegetable Production guides when appropriate. The selection of trap crops will be conducted to identify the most suitable phenological stage and layout of trap crops. A successful trap crop will delay movement into a crop and provide management of the "trapped" bugs through natural enemies or management. Initial studies will evaluate plant species for their relative attractiveness to BMSB such as sunflower (Helianthus annuus), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum sp.) and a polyculture in a Latin Square design. Once the optimum trap crop is selected, management within the trap crop will be investigated to control BMSB within the trap crop to prevent dispersal into the cash crop. Management tactics will include organic insecticides, vacuuming, and flaming. Current management of BMSB relies exclusively on repeated applications of broad-spectrum insecticides. This management practice has spurred non-target impacts, specifically by flaring populations of secondary pests such as scale, mites and aphids. In commercial and experimental orchards populations of white peach scale and San Jose scale are being reported. Both insect species have not been significant pests since the adoption of reduced-risk programs over the last decade. Another potential nontarget is the impact of insecticide regimes on non-target hymenoptera including parasitoids and pollinators. Neonicotinoids are currently being watched closely for their impacts on pollinators, specifically honey bees. While peaches and grapes do not need supplemental pollination, foraging bees are frequently within the orchard feeding on extrafloral nectaries or wildflowers within the rows. Hymenoptera parasitoids such as Trichogramma sp. can provide >40% parasitism of other orchard pests such as Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth. We will investigate the impact of intensive and reduced-input spray methods on these non-targets. This will be accomplished through surveys of infested blocks. Scale crawlers will be assessed throughout the season to identify population changes between treatments. Levels of predation and parasitism will be monitored at four times during the season. Yellow sticky cards will be used to monitor the levels of natural enemies present in the blocks and will be supplemented with visual samples. To identify the impact of spray programs on parasitoid and predation of key Lepidopteran pests, sentinel eggs will be placed in the orchard and assessed during key egg laying periods.

Progress 10/01/16 to 09/30/17

Outputs
Target Audience: Specialty crop producers in the mid-Atlantic states are the primary targets of this research. Research findings on the biology and behavior of BMSB are integrated into management tactics and recommendations for tree fruit and may also benefit homeowners. Efforts of this project include newsletter articles (published electronically through Rutgers Plant Pest Advisory), on-farm research with collaborating growers, and extension meetings. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?This project has provided training on molecular methods, field biology, and behavior of BMSB to undergraduates. Additionally, a postdoctoral researcher is coordinating a regional investigation on the use of border sprays for BMSB management in peach and apple. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Drs. Nielsen and Hamilton disseminated research findings through grower meetings, extension meetings, and research meetings. As part of a national collaborative effort, the StopBMSB.org website published three electronic fact sheets on BMSB biology and management in orchards and vineyard crops, available in English and Spanish. Dr. Nielsen shared knowledge on biology and management with concerned stakeholders, industry, and federal groups in New Zealand as they prepare biosecurity protocols to prevent and/or stop the invasion of BMSB. Dr. Nielsen also shred similar information with 90+ apple growers in Michigan at a daylong workshop. At the regional level, Dr. Nielsen presented methods to integrate BMSB management while protecting pollinators and natural enemies to 200+ growers at the Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Within NJ, we provided 100+ growers with management updates through annual meetings and twilight talks. The Rutgers Fruit Production Guide was updated for BMSB management recommendations and is available in print and online. The Nielsen lab published a blog post on the important finding of the parasitoid Trissolcus japonicus which was picked up by the trade magazine Growing Produce. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We will finalize the gut content analysis to detect predation of BMSB in the field. We will refine placement of baited traps for management decisions and refine timing of applications incorporating a phenological based degree-day model and incidence sampling through pheromone traps. We will investigate the distribution and ecology of Trissolucs japinoicus in peaches. We will conduct on-farm trials (year 2) investigating border sprays in peaches at scale of up to 20 acres. We will analyze a 10 year dataset on BMSB populations as measured through black light traps throughout NJ and identify abiotic parameters that influence population dynamics and densities.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? This year, Nielsen and Hamilton deployed yellow sticky cards and over 435 sentinel BMSB egg masses as part of a state-wide survey for the egg parasitoid Trissolcus japonicus. This is the primary parasitoid species of BMSB in Asia and is responsible for maintaining populations below economic injury levels. A taxonomist is identifying Specimens found on the yellow sticky cards but 3 egg parasitized masses were identified in peaches indicating that T. japonicus can attack BMSB eggs within agricultural production systems. Significant progress has been made in using molecular markers (qPCR) to identify key predators of BMSB in the field. To date we have tested 400+ predators, of which 14% tested positive for BMSB DNA indicating that they had consumed BMSB within the last 48-72h. Key predatory taxa identified were damsel bugs, katydids, earwigs, and assassin bugs. Ants and spider specimens will be analyzed in 2018. This matches with the laboratory work on stage-specific predation that found that the key generalist predators identified (katydids, damsel bugs, assassin bugs, lady beetles) preferred to feed on different life stages of BMSB (egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar nymphs) and that previous estimates using sentinel egg masses underestimated predation. We compared the population response of BMSB to two commercially available pheromone lures relative to the populations within the peach tree and injury. This information will provide the basis for trap-based monitoring programs for BMSB, a critical part of IPM programs. We identified that the high release rate lure sampled from a larger area than was resident within the peach orchard, perhaps inflating perceived pest densities. A slow release rate lure best represented local population densities and did not inflate injury. To complement these findings, we investigated the spillover distance of the aggregation pheromone lure when placed in peaches. We found that injury spillover occurs to at minimum the adjacent trees. At four commercial apple orchards, we evaluated the application of insecticide to only orchard borders for management of BMSB. We found that damage was equal or less relative to that of grower's standard practices, despite not treating the interior of the orchard. This approach reduces the amount of insecticide applied and benefits beneficial insects such as predators and bees. At 5 commercial peach orchards we investigate the use of border sprays to manage BMSB and reintroduced mating disruption for internal worms and managed flowering weeds within the row middles to reduce foraging pollinators within the orchard post-bloom. We found equal or less stink bug injury at harvest for growers using border sprays to manage BMSB relative to their standard management. Border sprays have the potential to reduce insecticide sprays 25-50% over the standard. Unfortunately, no impact was seen on the beneficial insect community after 1 year. Natural enemy populations did not differ between the two management tactics, however the parasitized eggs with T. japonicus were only within the border spray plots. Pollinators sampling was done with blue vane traps at 3 time periods post bloom. We have identified over 800 bee specimens to genus. There was no impact on diversity or abundance between plots with and without flowering weeds. Bees will be identified to species to determine if diversity indices differ at a higher taxonomic level. We expect that beneficial insects will benefit long-term from this strategy. In 2017, we collected host plant volatiles during different growth of apple and peach to identify key olfactory cues responsible for dispersal or host plant selection. In previous research, nymphs had demonstrated attraction to volatiles produced during fruiting, although with less attractive hosts.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Abram, P.K., K. A. Hoelmer, A. Acebes-Doria, H. Andrews, E. H. Beers, J. C. Bergh, R. Bessin, D. Biddinger, P. Botch, M. L. Buffington, M. L. Cornelius, E. Costi, E. S. Delfosse, C. Dieckhoff, R. Dobson, Z. Donais, M. Grieshop, G. Hamilton, T. Haye, C. Hedstrom, M. V. Herlihy, M. S. Hoddle, C. R. R. Hooks, P. Jentsch, N. K. Joshi, T. P. Kuhar, J. Lara, J. C. Lee, A. Legrand, T. C. Leskey, D. Lowenstein, L. Maistrello, C. R. Mathews, J. M. Milnes, W. R. Morrison III, A. L. Nielsen, E. C. Ogburn, C. H. Pickett, K. Poley, J. Pote, J. Radl, P. M. Shrewsbury, E. Talamas, L. Tavella, J. F. Walgenbach, R. Waterworth, D. C. Weber, C. Welty, N. G. Wiman. 2017. Indigenous arthropod natural enemies of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe. J Pest Sci (2017) 90: 10091020. doi:10.1007/s10340-017-0891-7
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Blaauw B*, C Mathews, T Leskey, RW Morrison, AL Nielsen. 2017. Measuring host plant selection and retention of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by a trap crop. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 163: 197208
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Cambridge, J.E, L. Francouer, and G.C. Hamilton. 2017. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Attraction to Different Light Stimuli. Florida Entomologist 100: 583-588.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Hahn, N.G., C. Rodriguez-Saona and G.C. Hamilton. 2017. Characterizing the Spatial Distribution of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys St�l (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Populations in Peach Orchards. PloS ONE. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170889.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Pote, J. M., and A. L. Nielsen. 2017. Life stage specific predation of Halyomorpha halys (St�l) by generalist predators. Biological Control 114: 1-7.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Valentin, R, AL Nielsen, N Wiman, D-H Lee, DM Fonseca. 2017. Global invasion network of the brown marmorated stink bug. Scientific Reports 7: 9866 1-12
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Weber D, WR Morrison III, A Khrimian, K Rice, TC Leskey, C Rodriguez-Saona, AL Nielsen, BR Blaauw. 2017. Chemical ecology of Halyomorpha halys: Discoveries and applications J. Pest Science 90:9891008 DOI: 10.1007/s10340-017-0876-6.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Blaauw, B., C. Rodriguez, G.C. Hamilton and A. Nielsen. 2016. When stink bugs react: Host stimuli and the brown marmorated stink bug. 2016 International conference of Entomology. Orlando, FL
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nielsen, A.L. 2017 Integrating biological and behavioral information into management programs for Halyomorpha halys New Zealand Pipfruit Growers, Napier, New Zealand
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nielsen, A.L. 2017 Seasonality and management of BMSB in fruit Horticulture New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Nielsen, A.L., S Chen, S Fleischer. 2017 Factors influencing H. halys population development and size New Zealand - United States Invasive Species Workshop, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Leskey, T.C., BD Short, WR Morrison III, AL Nielsen, B Blaauw, G Krawczyk, JC Bergh. 2016. Behaviorally-based management of brown marmorated stink bug. XXV International Congress of Entomology, Orlando, FL.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Nielsen, A.L., S Fleischer, S Chen. 2016 Deciphering an invaders population ecology: Halyomorpha halys. XXV International Congress of Entomology, Orlando, FL.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Pote, J, AL Nielsen, DM Fonseca 2016 Using gut content analysis to identify predators of Halyomorpha halys. XXV International Congress of Entomology, Orlando, FL.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: WR Morrison III, BD Short, BR. Blaauw, JC Bergh, AL Nielsen, G Krawczyk, Y-L Park, B Butler TC Leskey. 2017. Using pheromone-based technology to manage the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in commercial apple orchards in an attract-and-kill approach. Entomological Society America North Central Branch Meeting, Indianapolis, IN
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: AL Nielsen, S Chen, SJ Fleischer, G Von Kuster. 2017. Agent-based model of BMSB phenology, dynamics, and voltinism under current climate conditions. International Heteroptera Symposium. Monterrey, CA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: J Kaser, P Abram, A Nielsen. 2017. Parasitoid-induced host egg abortion and enemy-mediated indirect effects. Entomological Society America Eastern Branch Meeting, Newport, RI
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: A Nielsen, J Kaser, C Akotsen-Mensah. 2016 Differences in population response of Halyomorpha halys to pheromone traps in apple and peach. Annual Cumberland-Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conf
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: WR Morrison III, A Nielsen, C Bergh, G Krawczyk, B Short, K Rice TC Leskey. 2016 Efficacy of attract-and-kill in commercial apple orchards: SARE Project Update. December BMSB Working Group Meeting, Winchester, VA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: AL Nielsen, B Blaauw, M Toews. 2017. A recipe for detection: Using milk and egg to track stink bug movement patterns. Entomological Society America Eastern Branch Meeting, Newport, RI
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: C Akotsen-Mensah, AL Nielsen, R Morrison, TC Leskey, C Bergh. 2017. Re-introducing IPM post BMSB detection in apples Entomological Society America Eastern Branch Meeting, Newport, RI
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: R Valentin, J Lockwood, B Maslo, AL Nielsen, DM Fonseca. 2017. Utility of eDNA in conducting surveillance of agricultural pests. Entomological Society America Eastern Branch Meeting, Newport, RI


Progress 10/01/15 to 09/30/16

Outputs
Target Audience: Specialty crop producers in the mid-Atlantic states are the primary targets of this research. Research findings on the biology and behavior of BMSB also impact management in field crops and homeowners. Efforts of this project include newsletter articles, on-farm research with collaborating growers and extension meetings. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?This project has provided training on molecular methods on field biology and behavior of BMSB to undergraduates. Additionally, a postdoctoral researcher has been trained on some of these objectives. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results have been disseminated through grower meetings, extension meetings,and research meetings. Two electronic fact sheets on BMSB biology and management in orchards and vineyard crops were developed in English and Spanish. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We will finalize the gut content analysis to detect predation of BMSB in the field. We will compare aggregation pheromone lures for trap-based decision management. We will survey for the egg parasitoid Trissolcus japonicus. We will investigate border sprays in peaches at scale of up to 20 acres.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? A survey was conducted in untreated peaches and the adjoining woods for the egg parasitoid Trissolcus japonicus. No parasitism was found and predation was recorded as low. Significant progress was made in using molecular markers (qPCR) to identify key predators of BMSB in the field. To date we have tested 400+ predators, of which 15% tested positive for BMSB DNA indicating that they had consumed BMSB within the last 48-72h. This matches with the laboratory work on stage-specific predation that was conducted which found that thekey generalist predators identified (katydids, damsel bugs, assassin bugs, lady beetles) preferred to feed on different life stages of BMSB (egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar nymphs) and that previous estimates using sentinel egg masses underestimated predation. A stage-specific predictive model was developed for BMSB at 8 geographic locations in the US. It predictedtwo generations per year in all locations however, due to abiotic conditions, population sizes were significantly different across locations. This suggests that the range will not be throughout the entire US but that it could still have significant impacts in critical agricultural areas. Rutgers utilized a state-wide system of blacklight traps to monitor BMSB on vegetable and fruit farms. Populations were higher this year than in previous years, but still lower than the "outbreak" years of 2009-2011. We compared the population response of BMSB to two commercially available pheromone lures relative to the populations within the peach tree and injury. This information will provide the basis for trap-based monitoring programs for BMSB, a critical part of IPM programs. We identified that the high release rate lure sampled from a larger area than was resident within the peach orchard, perhaps inflating perceived pest densities. A slow release rate lure best represented local population densities and did not inflate injury. At four commercial apple orchards we evaluated the application of insecticide to only orchard borders for management of BMSB. We found that damage was equal or less relative to that of grower's standard practices, despite not treating the interior of the orchard. This approach reduces the amount of insecticide applied and benefits beneficial insects such as predators and bees. Host plant volatiles were collected during different growth stages of corn, soybean, pepper, and swiss chard. In previous research, nymphs had demonstrated attraction to these plants at the growth stage where they were producing fruit. In the greenhouse, blends of five host plant volatiles that were most attractive were compared to a control. There was a significant negative dose response suggesting that the higher concentrations were repellant. These same blends were evaluated in a mark-release-recapture scenario in the field but were not found to be more attractive than the control at 5m distances.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Ogburn EC, R Bessin, C Dieckhoff, R Dobson, M Grieshop, KA Hoelmer, C Mathews, J Moore, AL Nielsen, JM Pote*, C Welty, JF Walgenbach. 2016. Natural enemy impact on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (St�l) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in organic agroecosystems: A regional assessment. Biological Control 101:39-51.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Blaauw BR, V Jones, AL Nielsen. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) dispersal within a peach orchard. PeerJ 4:e1997 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1997
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Nielsen AL, S Chen, S Fleischer. 2016. Coupling developmental physiology, photoperiod, and temperature to model phenology and dynamics of an invasive Heteropteran, Halyomorpha halys. Frontiers in Physiology 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00165
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: A Nielsen Invasion Biology of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: A Behavioral and Ecological Perspective 2016 ESA North Central Branch Mtg, Cleveland, OH
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: A. Nielsen, S. Chen, S. Fleischer. 2016 Individual-based modeling of H. halys population phenology and dynamics NE Plant, Pest, and Soils Conference, Philadelphia, PA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: JM Pote, AL Nielsen 2016 Life stage specific predation of Halyomorpha halys (St�l) 2016 NE Plant, Pest, and Soils Conference, Philadelphia, PA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: TC Leskey, R Morrison, BD Short, AL Nielsen, BR Blaauw, J Bergh, G Krawczyk Evaluating an attract & kill system for the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in commercial apple orchards 2016 NE Plant, Pest, and Soils Conference, Philadelphia, PA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: A Nielsen, S Chen, S Fleischer. Developing a phenological model for H. halys 2015. Annual Cumberland-Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conf
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: B Blaauw, AL Nielsen Supporting natural enemies and their services with native wildflowers 2016 NE Plant, Pest, and Soils Conference, Philadelphia, PA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: Ogburn E, R Bessin, M Grieshop, C Mathews, J Moore, A Nielsen, C Welty and J Walgenbach. Natural enemies impact on invasive brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) eggs in organic agroecosystems: a multistate assessment. 2015 ESA Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: JM Pote, DM Fonseca, R Valentin, AL Nielsen. Identifying predators of Halyomorpha halys using molecular gut content analysis. 2015 Entomol. Soc. Am, Portland, OR
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: BR Blaauw, C Rodrigeuz-Saona, G Hamilton, A Nielsen. Making scents of brown marmorated stink bug host selection 2015 Entomol. Soc. Am, Portland, OR
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Hahn, NG, AJ Kaufman, C. Rodriguez-Saona, AL Nielsen, J LaForest, GC Hamilton. 2016. Exploring the spread of brown marmorated stink bug in New Jersey through the use of crowdsourced reports. Am Entomol 62: 36-45


Progress 10/01/14 to 09/30/15

Outputs
Target Audience:Sepcialty crop producers in the mid-Atlantic states, primarily pepper, apple, peach and blueberry growers, are the primary targets of this research. However, research findings on thebiology and behavior of BMSB also impact management in field crops and homeowners. Efforts of this project include newsletter articles, on-farm research with collaborating growers and extension meetings. Changes/Problems:A significant change in this research is that small fruit, specifically blueberry, will not be included going forward due to changes in the pest complex and grower priorities. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?This project has provided funding to partially support 2 PhD students in the department of entomology and a post-doctoral resesarcher. Research related to this project has also provided training opporutnities for 3 undergraduate students throughout New Jersey. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Science-based materials have been disseminate through collaboration with NJ growers through on-farm evaluation and demonstration trials. Growers have also permitted access to their land and crops for additional surveys. A factsheet on IPM-CPR, an approach utilizing border sprays in peaches for BMSB management, was published on the NE SARE website.Participating growers will continue in 2016 indicating a high level of satisfaction with the project. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Research will continue on the identification and impact of natural enemies for BMSB. The dispersal behavior of adults is also being investigated in peach orchards. Host plant characterstics, specifically chemical odor cues, are being explored for behavioral response by BMSB. Monitoring methods, particularily in peach, are being investigated to relate catches in trap to population estimates and injury within a tree to develop decision tools.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? 1)Assess the extent and nature of injury caused brown marmorated stink bug: Patterns of injury within field and the diel activity were studied. It was identified that BMSB nymphs are primarily active at nightand that adults are equally active throughout the day. (2)Determine the potential for biological control of the brown marmorated stink bug: Laboratory bioassays were conducted to identify feeding preferences of generalist predators. Specifically, we identified that predators showed preference for BMSB lifes tages. For example, katydids preferred to feed upon eggs while Damsel bugs preferred nymphs. Field collection of predators continued for a second year. Specimens will be processed to identify if they have consumed BMSB through molecular gut content analysis. Twoprimers for gut content analysis have been identified and refined for this purpose. (3)Develop and compare monitoring methods (light based/pheromone based traps, visual and knockdown assessments) for brown marmorated stink bug that can be used to assess emergence from overwintering sites, conduct population assessments and evaluate movement between different crops: Different commercial lures were compared in blueberries and along field edges. We also monitored BMSB abundance in blueberries using black light traps. In general, BMSB populations were very low in blueberries. (4)Develop best management practices for the brown marmorated stink bug in field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables: Trap cropping in vegetables was researched at RAREC using a sorghum and sunflower trap crop. The addition of pheromone traps within the trap crop was also assessed. There was no distinct advantage of including pheromone traps in terms of reducing stink bug injury in peppers. However, using the sorghum and sunflower trap crop increased natural enemy abundance and reduced stink bu feeding injury in 2015. The BMSB populations were much lower than native sitnk bug populations this year and the majority of the injury may have been caused by native stink bugs. (5)Deliver research based IPM recommendations to growers: Information was devlivered to growers throughout NJ at various extension meetings, particularily the North and South NJ Fruit Growers meetings and summer twilight meetings. Timely information on pest populations was delievered through the online Plant-Pest-Advisory blog and a factsheet on border-spray management was published through NE SARE. (6)Determine host plant characteristics that impact attractiveness to BMSB and identify species that could potentially be used as a trap crop, etc.: A study was initiated on comparing aggregation pheromone lures in peaches relative to observed opulations and injury. This will lead to the development of decision-based mangement programs for BMSB in peaches, which is a primary host and highly susceptible to injury. (7)Identify the impacts of insecticide applications to manage BMSB on non-targets insects.: N/A

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Blaauw, BR, D. Polk, and AL Nielsen. 2015. IPM-CPR for peaches: utilizing behaviorally-based methods to manage key peach pests; brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) and Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta). Pest Management Science 71:1513-22
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: J Pote, AL Nielsen, DM Fonseca, R Valentin Using Molecular Techniques to Identify Natural Enemies of BMSB 2015 BMSB Working Group Meeting, Beltsville, MD
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: DF Fraga, C Rodriguez-Saona, AL Nielsen, GC Hamilton, AC Busoli "O papel de vol�teis de Halyomorpha halys na capacidade preda��o de ovos de Orius insidiosus" 2015 Siconbio, Rio de Janiero, Brazil
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: B Blaauw, AL Nielsen "Understanding dispersal behavior to enhance the sustainability of brown marmorated stink bug management" 2015 EB ESA Meeting, Rehobeth Beach, DE
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: AL Nielsen 2015 Progress in IPM techniques for managing brown marmorated stink bug in mid-Atlantic orchards, 8th International IPM Symposium, Salt Lake City, Utah
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: AL Nielsen 2015 Organic management of BMSB, 8th International IPM Symposium, Salt Lake City, Utah
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: AL Nielsen, BR Blaauw, D Polk Steps towards a systems-level approach to invasive species management for brown marmorated stink bug 2014 Entomol. Soc. Am, Portland, OR
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: Pote, J and AL Nielsen Identifying the predators of brown marmorated stink bug 2014 Entomol. Soc. Am, Portland, OR
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: AL Nielsen, J Pote, S. Chen, S Fleischer 2014 Developing a phenological model for the invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in peaches IOBC WPRS Vienna, Austria


Progress 10/01/13 to 09/30/14

Outputs
Target Audience: The target audience for this work is researchers and extension educators. The results of our work will be critical in developing IPM programs for brown marmorated stink bug, an invasive pest which has been devastating to established pest management systems. While our research at this time is primarily shared with researchers and those involved in the BMSB stakeholder group, the results are picked up by this group of 50+ researchers and shared through their own extension programs. This is accomplished through undergraduate students, international graduate student exchange program and graduate student mentoring. Additionally, information is disseminated to growers at twlight meetings, regional grower meetings and through blog posts. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? This project has trained 3 graduate students, 2 postdoctoral scholars and numerous undergraduates. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Research results from laboratory and field trials in peaches, grapes and organic production were disseminated to growers via two primary mechanisms: the online newsletters and grower talks. Additionally members of the group participate in the BMSB Working Group which meets twice per year to discuss and share knowledge learned regarding BMSB biology, behavior and management across commodities. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Research will continue on all objectives.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? 1. Feeding injury diagnostics by plant phenology were conducted this year and it was determined that early season feeding was highly injurious where as feeding just prior to harvest did not cause significant injury. Phenological stage dependent injury by BMSB to wine grapes was evaluated in 4 varieties at a commercial vineyard. This was the second year of data collection for this project and it validated previous year's data demonstrating that white varietals are more susceptible to BMSB feeding and that injury beginning at veraison can lead to reduced yield. 2. Natural enemy surveys using sentinel BMSB egg masses identified that predation, while low, remains the key mortality agent. Katydids were a primary predator. However, egg mortality due to predation was found at about 6% under organic management, which is significantly less disruptive to natural enemies than conventional programs. This work will be expanded to include gut content analysis and to include additional life stages of BMSB. 3. Utilize black light traps for monitoring flight activity and identify risk periods During the summer of 2014, a network of 60+ blacklight traps were installed on vegetable farms throughout NJ. These traps were used to monitor weekly BMSB activity and to create weekly geospatial maps of BMSB distribution and density. These maps were provided to growers via a website (http://www.pestmanagement.rutgers.edu/IPM/Vegetable/Pest%20Maps/maparchive.htm#2014) and PPA Vegetable Blog (http://plant-pest-advisory.rutgers.edu/rss-2/). This work showed that BMSB populations were the lowest they have been since before 2010 (<5 BMSB per night) presenting little or no risk to vegetable crops. Because of this no maps were distributed. Locations (3-6 per week) with the highest densities were presented in the PPA Vegetable blog in tabular format. Calculate the diurnal activity of BMSB adults and nymphs to identify key sampling periods A second year examining the diurnal activity of BMSB adults/nymphs was completed using 100+ tree peach orchards located at the Rutgers Agricultural Research & Extension Centers located in Cream Ridge and Upper Deerfield, NJ. This research showed that adult activity remains constant throughout the day. However, nymphs were most active 7 to 10 hours after sunrise. These results agree with results obtained in 2013. These results are currently being summarized for publication. Identify the dispersal behavior of BMSB in peach orchards A second year examining the dispersal behavior of BMSB adults/nymphs was completed using 100+ tree peach orchards located at the Rutgers Agricultural Research & Extension Centers located in Cream Ridge and Upper Deerfield, NJ. This research showed that adults and nymphs within orchards can be related to surrounding land use and varietal ripening dates and agree with results obtained in 2013. These results are currently being summarized for publication. We have completed our study on dispersal behavior of BMSB in peach using protein markers, a mark-recapture technique. Our findings suggest that there is a strong edge effect, with 85% of insects stopping at the orchard edge before moving ot the interior. Surprisingly some individuals stayed at the edge for one week. This supports work by Nielsen and Blaauw on the use of border sprays to manage BMSB. Identify the key predators of BMSB through gut content analysis Genetic markers using a short sequence of mtCOI gene have been developed and optimized for BMSB. a BLAST search in the NIH database suggests that this sequence is unique to BMSB and can be used to identify BMSB-specific DNA in predator guts. They are currently being tested for specificity. 4 and 5. Research is being conduted at multiple states on best management practices. Discussions in tree fruit are currently underway to develop recommendations for growers impacted by BMSB. 6. Identify host plant volatiles that stimulate dispersal of BMSB nymphs Work by our group has demonstrated that BMSB nymphs make host plant decisions and that these decisions correspond to maturation of fruiting structures. In 2014 we collected head space volatiles from swiss chard, sweet corn, bell peppers and soybean every two weeks throughout the growing season. The goal is to identify any chemical odors that might be driving this movement to a more suitable host plant. Samples are currently being analyzed with GC-Mass Spectrometry. 7. Assess the response of white-peach scale and San Jose scale in peaches to BMSB treatments Due to a devastating hailstorm at the end of May 2014, we were unable to conduct this research as planned. The hailstorm damaged 95% of the fruit and there was insufficient fruit to treat. Studies will be conducted in 2015.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Lee, D-H, BD Short, AL Nielsen, TC Leskey. 2014. Impact of organic insecticides on the survivorship and mobility of Halyomorpha halys (St�l) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the laboratory. Fla Entomol. 97:414-421
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Lee, D-H, AL Nielsen and TC Leskey. 2014. Dispersal capacity of nymphal stages of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). J Insect Behav. DOI 10.1007/s10905-014-9456-2
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Rice, KB, CJ Bergh, EJ Bergmann, DJ Biddinger, C Dieckhoff, G Dively, H Fraser, T Garie, JF Tooker. 2014. Biology, Ecology, and Management of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). J Integ Pest Manag. 5:A1-A13
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2014 Citation: Blaauw, BR, D. Polk, and AL Nielsen. Accepted. IPM-CPR for peaches: utilizing behaviorally-based methods to manage key peach pests; brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) and Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta). Pest Manag Sci. 2014 Dec 5. doi: 10.1002/ps.3955. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: AL Nielsen, BR Blaauw, D Polk Steps towards a systems-level approach to invasive species management for brown marmorated stink bug 2014 Entomol. Soc. Am, Portland, OR
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: AL Nielsen, J Pote, S. Chen, S Fleischer 2014 Developing a phenological model for the invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in peaches IOBC WPRS Vienna, Austria
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Pote J and AL Nielsen Determining the predators of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: a multidisciplinary approach 2014. Entomol. Soc Am Eastern Branch
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: DF Fraga, C Rodriguez-Sanoa, GC Hamilton, AL Nielsen, AC Busoli. The role of volatiles from brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, on host location and egg predation by minute pirate bug, Orius insidiosus. 2014 Entomol. Soc. Am, Portland, O