Source: UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE submitted to
OVERCOMING OBSTACLES TO ADOPTION OF ANAEROBIC SOIL DISINFESTATION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0231484
Grant No.
2012-51102-20293
Project No.
TEN02012-03539
Proposal No.
2012-03539
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
112.C
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2012
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2016
Grant Year
2012
Project Director
Butler, D. M.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE
2621 MORGAN CIR
KNOXVILLE,TN 37996-4540
Performing Department
Plant Sciences
Non Technical Summary
There is a critical need for economically-feasible soil fumigant alternatives that will provide vegetable, strawberry, and ornamental growers, who currently depend on the broad-spectrum soil fumigant methyl bromide, with a sustainable alternative to chemical soil fumigants. This is especially true due to the stringent regulatory restrictions with which these materials must be applied, as well as the current limitations of existing chemical alternatives to methyl bromide. An alternative approach to soil disinfestation, known as anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) involves the addition of an easily-decomposable carbon source to the soil (to stimulate microbial growth and respiration), tarping with plastic to limit gas exchange, and irrigation to saturation of the topsoil (or raised-bed) to provide adequate moisture for microbial growth, allow for transport of decomposition by-products through the soil solution, and to limit soil oxygen. The ASD approach to soil disinfestation can be used near residential and other sensitive areas where buffer restrictions would limit the use of chemical fumigants. ASD does not present any worker safety concerns outside of those typically associated with agricultural production, and due to the potential for use of locally-available organic wastes as carbon sources, ASD is considered more economically and environmentally sustainable. The short-term goal addressed in this proposal is to overcome the grower-identified obstacles that hinder the adoption of anaerobic soil disinfestation by growers in Tennessee, Florida, and other southeastern states. To meet this goal, we have the following four objectives: (1) evaluate and optimize the carbon to nitrogen ratio of soil amendments used in ASD to maintain pathogen, nematode, and weed control as well as to improve crop performance following ASD treatment, (2) evaluate food safety concerns related to the use of partially-composted animal manures as augmentative ASD amendments and evaluate alternative nitrogenous amendments for ASD treatment, (3) determine if ASD treatment can be improved through the addition of organic acids with treatment irrigation, and (4) provide immediate solutions to conventional commercial growers who want to adopt long-term sustainable solutions by outreach to growers, industry personnel, and fellow researchers through replicated on-farm demonstrations, extension presentations and publications, journal publications, economic analysis, and online publications.
Animal Health Component
75%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
75%
Developmental
25%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2122410116020%
2132410114020%
2122410112010%
2052410107010%
6012410301010%
1022410200020%
1022410107010%
Goals / Objectives
The goal of this project is to develop solutions to obstacles that hinder the adoption of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) by growers in Tennessee, Florida, and other southeastern states, especially those who currently utilize methyl bromide. To meet our goal, we have the following objectives: (1) evaluate and optimize the carbon to nitrogen ratio of carbon-source amendments used in ASD to maintain pathogen, nematode, and weed control as well as to improve plant nutrition and crop performance following ASD treatment, (2) evaluate food safety concerns of the use of partially-composted animal manures as augmentative ASD amendments and evaluate alternative organic amendments for ASD treatment, (3) evaluate if ASD treatment can be improved through the introduction of organic acids with treatment irrigation, and (4) use the results of the first three objectives to provide outreach to growers, industry personnel, and fellow researchers through replicated on-farm demonstrations, extension presentations and publications, research journal publications, economic analysis, and online publications.
Project Methods
In objective 1 we will evaluate and optimize the carbon to nitrogen ratio of carbon-source amendments used in ASD to maintain pathogen, nematode, and weed control as well as to improve soil fertility/plant nutrition and crop performance following ASD treatment. This question will be evaluated in (a) replicated and repeated pot studies in environmentally-controlled growth chambers and (b) a replicated and repeated research-station field trial in Tennessee. In objective 2, we will evaluate (a) food safety concerns of the use of partially-composted animal manures as augmentative ASD amendments and (b) alternative organic amendments for ASD treatment in a replicated and repeated Florida field trial. In objective 3, we will evaluate if ASD treatment can be improved through the introduction of organic acids with treatment irrigation in a replicated, repeated greenhouse trial. In objective 4, we will utilize the results of the first three objectives to provide outreach to growers, industry personnel, and fellow researchers through replicated on-farm demonstrations, extension presentations and publications, journal publications, economic analysis, and online publications.

Progress 09/01/12 to 08/31/16

Outputs
Target Audience:Target audiences of scientific presentations during the reporting period included plant pathologists, weed scientists, soil scientists, horticulturalists, students, agricultural professionals and consultants, extension specialists, and policy makers from the USA and other countries. Target audiences of extension and outreach presentations included farmers, extension personnel, students and agricultural consultants. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?In addition to outreach activities to growers and agricultural professionals (detailed below), this project funded one Ph.D.-level graduate student (2013 to 2016) and partial funding for one post-doctoral research associate, both of whom focused on research with anaerobic soil disinfestation in lab, growth chamber, and field settings. Four undergraduate students (at UT), four community college students (at USDA-ARS), two visiting scientists and one high school student were also engaged in ASD-specific training. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Outreach during the reporting period included maintenance of a website to highlight research projects, research publications and technical publications. On-farm demonstrations includedonein Tennessee and threein Florida during the reporting period. Field day presentations during the reporting period included one in Tennessee to approximately 60 grower and public attendees, one producer field day in Florida (10 attendees) and two publicfield days in Florida (80 total attendees). What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? For Obj. 1, pot and field studies were conducted to evaluate multiple C:N ratios as well as total C input rates; two field trials were conducted to evaluate alternative nitrogen inputs combined with agricultural carbon sources. Trials included analysis of crop performance, tissue nutrient analysis, disease incidence and in field trials, weed control, nematode population dynamics, and organic acid generation. A Ph.D. student dissertation was completed in the research area and abstracts and manuscripts published and additional manuscripts are being submitted to refereed journals. For Obj. 2, experiments were completed on the detection of Salmonella with enrichment before and after ASD treatment. No Salmonella could be detected in any inputs prior to amendment, during the cropping season or in any plants or fruit, regardless of picking stage. For Obj. 3, Field trials were repeated on the suppression of disease with post-treatment applications. Greenhouse trials were conducted to further investigate post-application disease suppression. For Obj. 4, we continued to present results of these trials at scientific meetings and field days (see following sections).

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Hong, J.C., K.J. Martin, N. Kokalis-Burelle, D.M. Butler, J. Albano, and E.N. Rosskopf. 2016. Evaluation nitrogen amendments for anaerobic soil disinfestation. Proceedings of 5th International Symposium on Tomato Diseases. Malaga, Spain, 13-16 June 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Rosskopf, E.N., J.C. Hong, D.M. Butler, U. Shrestha and K. Martin. 2015. The importance of biotechnology in the search for alternatives to soil fumigation. Biotechnology for Better Tomorrow. October 29-31, 2015, Tampa, FL, pp 3-4.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Rosskopf, E.N.*, J.C. Hong, N. Kokalis-Burelle, M. Ozores-Hampton, F. DiGioia, X. Zhao, Z. Black, Z. Gao, C. Wilson, J. Thomas, K. Monaghan, M. Swisher, H. Guo, J. Muramoto, C. Shennan, U. Shrestha and D.M. Butler. 2015. Addressing practical limitation to the adoption of anaerobic soil disinfestation. Proceedings of the Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions 11-1 to 11-2.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Shrestha, U., R.M. Aug�, and D.M. Butler. 2016. A meta-analysis of the impact of anaerobic soil disinfestation on pest suppression and yield of horticultural crops. Frontiers in Plant Science 7:1254. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01254.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Shrestha, U. 2016. Anaerobic soil disinfestation: meta-analysis and optimization of amendment carbon rate and C:N ratio to control key plant pathogens and weeds. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Ph.D. Dissertation. http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/3963/.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Shrestha, U., R.M. Auge, A. Saxton and D.M. Butler. 2016. A Meta-analysis of efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation on soil borne pathogen suppression. 2016 APS Annual Meeting. 30 July  3 Aug, Tampa, FL.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Shrestha, U., B.H. Ownley, E.N. Rosskopf and D.M. Butler. 2015. Amendment carbon rate and C:N ratio impacts the effectiveness of anaerobic soil disinfestation. Proceedings of the Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions; 10-1 to 10-3.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Shrestha, U., M. Dee, B.H. Ownle and D.M. Butler. 2016. Effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation on survival of S. rolfsii sclerotia and soil populations of Trichoderma (Abstr.) Phytopathology 106:S2.6. doi: 10.1094 / PHYTO-106-4-S2.6


Progress 09/01/14 to 08/31/15

Outputs
Target Audience:Target audiences of scientific presentations during the reporting period included plant pathologists, weed scientists, soil scientists, horticulturalists, agricultural professionals and consultants, extension specialists, and policy makers from the USA and other countries. Target audiences of extension and outreach presentations included farmers, extension personnel, and agricultural consultants. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?In addition to outreach activities to growers and agricultural professionals (detailed below), this project funds one Ph.D.-level graduate student (began in Jan 2013) and partial funding for one post-doctoral research associate, both of whom are focused on research with anaerobic soil disinfestation in lab, growth chamber, and field settings. Six undergraduate students (at UT), four community college students (at USDA-ARS), two visiting scientists and one high school student have been engaged in ASD-specific training. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Outreach during the reporting period included presentations at a second roundtable organized by the California Strawberry Commission and maintenance of a website to highlight research projects, research publications, technical publications, and videos (available at http://vegetables.tennessee.edu/asd). One hands-on demonstration has been conducted in Florida in cooperation with the Saint Lucie County Extension Service during this rating period as well as one public demonstration in cooperation with the Saint Lucie County School Board. Two on-farm demonstrations of ASD were conducted and one has been used as a public demonstration site. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?For Obj. 1, analysis of data and preparation of manuscripts from pot and field studies will continue, with expectation that multiple publications will be submitted during the next reporting period. For Obj. 2, augmentation studies will be conducted in the spring. For Obj. 3, data analysis of field trials will be completed. For Obj. 4, outreach activities will continue through a variety of methods and venues, including technical and scientific publications, field days, additional on-farm studies, and scientific meetings.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? For Obj. 1, pot studies were conducted to evaluate multiple C:N ratios as well as total C input rates; two field trials were conducted to evaluate alternative nitrogen inputs combined with agricultural carbon sources. Trials included analysis of crop performance, tissue nutrient analysis, disease incidence and in field trials, weed control, nematode population dynamics, and organic acid generation. For Obj. 2, experiments were completed on the detection of Salmonella with enrichment before and after ASD treatment. No Salmonella could be detected in any inputs prior to amendment, during the cropping season or in any plants or fruit, regardless of picking stage. For Obj. 3, field trials were repeated on the suppression of disease with post-treatment applications. Greenhouse trials were conducted to further investigate post-application disease suppression. For Obj. 4, we have continued to present results of these trials at scientific meetings and field days (see following sections).

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Hong, J.C., K.J. Martin, N. Kokalis-Burelle, D.M. Butler and E.N. Rosskopf. 2014. Soil bacterial populations identified in anaerobic soil disinfestation in Florida. Proceedings of the Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions; pp. 13-1.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Hong, J.C., K.J. Martin, N. Kokalis-Burelle, D.M. Butler, P. Serrano- P�rez and E.N. Rosskopf. 2015. Changes in microbial communities associated with anaerobic soil disinfestation. Annual Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society; Pasadena, CA, 1-5 Aug 2015.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Rosskopf, E.N., C. Shennan, N. Kokalis-Burelle, D.M. Butler, P. Serrano-P�rez, M.d.C. Rodr�quez-Molina and J.C. Hong. 2015. Application of anaerobic soil disinfestation in Florida: A brief review. Annual Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society; Pasadena, CA, 1-5 Aug 2015.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Shrestha, U., M.M. Dee, B.H. Ownley and D.M. Butler. 2015. Anaerobic soil disinfestation amendment carbon rate affects germination and parasitism on sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii. Annual Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society; Pasadena, CA, 1-5 Aug 2015.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Kokalis-Burelle, N., J. Hong, D.M. Butler and E.N. Rosskopf. 2015. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization for root-knot nematode control in vegetable and ornamental crops. Society of Nematologists 54th Annual Meeting Abstracts; East Lansing, MI, 19-24 Jul 2015.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Hong, J.C., K.J. Martin, N. Kokalis-Burelle, D.M. Butler and E.N. Rosskopf. 2015. Comparison of commercially available soil DNA extraction kits on soil treated with anaerobic soil disinfestation. Phytobiomes 2015: Designing a New Paradigm for Crop Improvement; Washington, DC, 30 Jun-2 Jul 2015.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Shrestha, U., A. Bruce, B.H. Ownley and D.M. Butler. 2014. Optimizing amendment C:N ratio for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici suppression under anaerobic soil disinfestation. Proceedings of the Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions; pp. 53-1 to 53-3.


Progress 09/01/13 to 08/31/14

Outputs
Target Audience: Target audiences of scientific presentations during the reporting period included plant pathologists, weed scientists, soil scientists, horticulturalists, agricultural professionals and consultants, extension specialists, and policy makers from the USA and other countries. Target audiences of extension and outreach presentations included farmers, extension personnel, and agricultural consultants. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? In addition to outreach activities to growers and agricultural professionals (detailed below), this project funds one Ph.D.-level graduate student (began in Jan 2013) and partial funding for one post-doctoral research associate, both of whom are focused on research with anaerobic soil disinfestation in lab, growth chamber, and field settings. Three community college students have been trained on the use of ASD and are working on senior thesis projects from these trials. One high school student has been engaged in an internship position looking at the impacts of ASD on microbial communities. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Outreach during the reporting period included presentations at a roundtable organized by the California Strawberry Commission and creation of a website to highlight research projects, research publication, technical publications, and videos (available at http://vegetables.tennessee.edu/asd). Two hands-on demonstrations have been conducted in Florida in cooperation with the Saint Lucie County Extension Service. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? For Obj. 1, analysis of data and preparation of manuscripts from pot and field studies will continue. For Obj. 2, field trials will continue on the evaluation of organisms of interest related to food safety concerns, including augmentation studies to be initiated in the spring. For Obj. 3, the current field trial will be completed and the trial will be repeated. For Obj. 4, outreach activities will continue through a variety of methods and venues, including technical and scientific publications, field days, on-farm studies, and scientific meetings (including MBAO).

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? For Obj. 1, the second year of growth chamber and field studies were completed in TN. Growth chamber studies (repeated) evaluated ASD C source and C:N ratio impacts on yellow nutsedge, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum. The field study evaluated C:N ratio of ASD soil amendments on mortality of introduced pathogen inoculum, disease incidence, crop productivity, weed control, and soil properties following ASD treatment. Results have been presented at professional meetings and publications and a dissertation are in progress. For Obj. 2, experiments were established to test for Salmonella with enrichment before and after ASD treatment. For Obj. 3, one field trial, using a split design with tomato and cucumber crops, was completed to determine if the combination of organic acids with solarization and ASD would provide disease control. A second experiment was established to assess the ability to suppress plants diseases POST-treatment application. For Obj. 4, we have continued to present results of these trials at scientific meetings and field days (see following sections).

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Shrestha, U., B.H. Ownley, E.N. Rosskopf, M.E. Dee and D.M. Butler. 2013. Optimization of amendment C:N ratio in anaerobic soil disinfestation for control of Sclerotium rolfsii. Proceedings of the Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions; pp. 14-1 to 14-3.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Shrestha, U., A. Bruce, B.H. Ownley and D.M. Butler. 2014. Effects of organic amendment C:N ratio on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici populations following anaerobic soil disinfestation. Phytopathology 104:S3.108 (abstract).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Hong, J.C., K.J. Martin, N. Kokalis-Burelle, D.M. Butler and E.N. Rosskopf. 2014. Comparison of soil bacterial communities in fields treated with anaerobic soil disinfestation located on Floridas east to west coast. Phytopathology 104:S3.52 (abstract).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Rosskopf, E.N., D.M. Butler, N. Kokalis-Burelle and J.C. Hong. 2014. Using anaerobic soil disinfestation in organic vegetable production. Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science; Orlando, FL, 28-31 Jul 2014. NIFA support acknowledged? Yes
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: http://vegetables.tennessee.edu/asd


Progress 09/01/12 to 08/31/13

Outputs
Target Audience: Target audiences of scientific presentations at the American Phytopathology Meetings during the reporting period included plant pathologists, weed scientists, soil scientists, horticulturalists, agricultural professionals and consultants, extension specialists, and policy makers from the USA and other countries. Target audiences of extension and outreach presentations included farmers, extension personnel, and agricultural consultants. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? In addition to outreach activities to growers and agricultural professionals (detailed below), this project funds one Ph.D.-level graduate student (began in Jan 2013) and partial funding for one post-doctoral research associate, both of whom are focused on research with anaerobic soil disinfestation in lab, growth chamber, and field settings. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? In TN, outreach included a presentation to growers at the TN Horticulture Expo in January of 2013 and 3 presentations at a field day held at a university research site (Plateau Research and Education Center) in August of 2013. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? For Obj. 1, analysis of data from pot and field studies will continue. The field study will be repeated during the 2014 field season. For Obj. 2, field trials will continue on the evaluation of organisms of interest related to food safety concerns, including augmentation studies to be initiated in the spring. For Obj. 3, the current field trial will be completed and the trial will be repeated. For Obj. 4, outreach activities will continue through a variety of methods and venues, including technical and scientific publications, field days, on-farm studies, and scientific meetings (including MBAO).

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? For Obj. 1, growth chamber and field studies were initiated in TN soon after the beginning of the project. Growth chamber studies (repeated) evaluated ASD C source and C:N ratio impacts on yellow nutsedge, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum. A field study was initiated to evaluate C:N ratio of ASD soil amendments on mortality of introduced pathogen inoculum, disease incidence, crop productivity, weed control, and soil properties following ASD treatment. Data analysis is in progress and the first results will be presented at the MBAO conference in fall of 2013. For Obj. 2, two field trials were conducted to evaluate corn gluten meal, soybean meal, pasteurized broiler litter pellets, mustard seed meal, and chitin as replacements for partially composted broiler litter. All inputs, including litter, were tested for Salmonella and hemorrhagic Escherichia coli and none had detectable levels. For Obj. 3, one field trial, using a split design with tomato and cucumber crops, was established to determine if pest control could be improved by using a combination of ASD treatment, solarization, and organic acid application. For Obj. 4, we have already begun to present results of these trials at scientific meetings, grower meetings, and field days (see following sections).

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Hong, J.C., K.J. Martin, N. Kokalis-Burelle, D.M. Butler and E.N. Rosskopf. 2013. Bacterial population changes in fields treated with anaerobic soil disinfestation. Phytopathology 103(Suppl. 2):S2.61 (abstract).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Submitted Year Published: 2013 Citation: Hong, J.C., K.J. Martin, N. Kokalis-Burelle, D.M. Butler and E.N. Rosskopf. 2013. Identifying bacterial populations potentially integral to anaerobic soil disinfestation. 5th Annual Argonne Soil Metagenomics Meeting Abstracts; Bloomingdale, IL, 2-4 Oct 2013. (submitted)