Source: USDA, ARS, Tree Fruit Research Laboratory submitted to
EMPLOYING BIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF ORCHARD ECOSYSTEMS FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTIVITY ON REPLANT SITES
Sponsoring Institution
Agricultural Research Service/USDA
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0409191
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
5350-22000-017-02T
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
May 1, 2005
Project End Date
Apr 30, 2008
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
MAZZOLA M
Recipient Organization
USDA, ARS, Tree Fruit Research Laboratory
1104 North Western Avenue
Wenatchee,WA 98801
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
21211101110100%
Knowledge Area
212 - Pathogens and Nematodes Affecting Plants;

Subject Of Investigation
1110 - Apple;

Field Of Science
1110 - Parasitology;
Goals / Objectives
The overall objective of this research program is to develop an integrated management strategy compatible to conventional and organic apple production systems that provide the shortest time frame to first commercial harvest on sites previously planted to apple. As similar biological entities appear to have a role in replant problems encountered in pear, peach and cherry, it is plausible that such a system may have utility across tree fruit production systems. Specific objectives: 1) examine the capacity of Brassicaceae seed meals to suppress the biological complex inciting replant disease and enhance tree growth in replant orchard soils; 2) determine the mechanisms(s) by which these soil amendments provide control of the various plant parasites and pathogens that incite replant disease development, with emphasis on Rhizoctonia solani; and 3) Assess the influence of rootstock genotype on composition of resident Streptomyces populations and the efficacy of RSM-induced disease suppression.
Project Methods
This program will develop a system to gain the maximum biological activity from brassicaceae soil amendments for the control of orchard pests and parasites, with emphasis on use in the management of apple replant disease. This will be achieved through acquiring an understanding of the microbial and/or chemical mechanisms involved in the suppression of the pathogen complex which incites replant disease and the weed species typically resident to orchard ecosystems. Studies will determine whether members of the genus Streptomyces have a functional role in disease suppression obtained via application of Brassica napus seed meal amendment, or other seed meals including B. juncea and Sinapis alba. Such treatments have provided disease control and induced dramatic increases in populations of antibiotic-producing isolates irrespective of glucosinolate content of the seed meal. However, the fact that growth of certain pathogens including Rhizoctonia solani is not diminished and disease control is achieved in split-root assays, studies will be conducted to determine whether induced systemic resistance is the functional mechanism of disease control. Apple rootstocks will be screened to determine whether different genotypes vary in the capacity to support populations of Streptomyces spp. in brassicaceae seed meal amended soils. Should this be the case, additional studies will be conducted to determine whether this difference is associated with the relative disease susceptibility of rootstocks when cultivated in seed meal amended soils. Documents Trust with WTFRC. Log. 28110. Formerly 5350-22000-012-08T (12/2007).

Progress 05/01/05 to 04/30/08

Outputs
Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The overall objective of this research program is to develop an integrated management strategy compatible to conventional and organic apple production systems that provide the shortest time frame to first commercial harvest on sites previously planted to apple. As similar biological entities appear to have a role in replant problems encountered in pear, peach and cherry, it is plausible that such a system may have utility across tree fruit production systems. Specific objectives: 1) examine the capacity of Brassicaceae seed meals to suppress the biological complex inciting replant disease and enhance tree growth in replant orchard soils; 2) determine the mechanisms(s) by which these soil amendments provide control of the various plant parasites and pathogens that incite replant disease development, with emphasis on Rhizoctonia solani; and 3) Assess the influence of rootstock genotype on composition of resident Streptomyces populations and the efficacy of RSM-induced disease suppression. Approach (from AD-416) This program will develop a system to gain the maximum biological activity from brassicaceae soil amendments for the control of orchard pests and parasites, with emphasis on use in the management of apple replant disease. This will be achieved through acquiring an understanding of the microbial and/or chemical mechanisms involved in the suppression of the pathogen complex which incites replant disease and the weed species typically resident to orchard ecosystems. Studies will determine whether members of the genus Streptomyces have a functional role in disease suppression obtained via application of Brassica napus seed meal amendment, or other seed meals including B. juncea and Sinapis alba. Such treatments have provided disease control and induced dramatic increases in populations of antibiotic-producing isolates irrespective of glucosinolate content of the seed meal. However, the fact that growth of certain pathogens including Rhizoctonia solani is not diminished and disease control is achieved in split-root assays, studies will be conducted to determine whether induced systemic resistance is the functional mechanism of disease control. Apple rootstocks will be screened to determine whether different genotypes vary in the capacity to support populations of Streptomyces spp. in brassicaceae seed meal amended soils. Should this be the case, additional studies will be conducted to determine whether this difference is associated with the relative disease susceptibility of rootstocks when cultivated in seed meal amended soils. Documents Trust with WTFRC. Log. 28110. Formerly 5350-22000-012-08T (12/2007). Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations Biologically-Based Systems for Soilborne Disease Control in Tree Fruit Agro-Ecosystems. This project relates to objectives 1 and 2 of the associated in-house project, which seeks to investigate the role of soil microbial communities in disease suppression attained through incorporation of Brassicaceae plant residues, and develop and field validate biologically sustainable management strategies for control of soilborne diseases, with emphasis on apple replant disease, in conventional and organic production systems. There is significant interest in obtaining optimal use of biological resources resident to orchard ecosystems in conjunction with other biologically-based and sustainable control measures for the management of soilborne diseases of apple. Likewise, there is a vast quantity of manure and other by- products from agricultural production systems that lack cost effective and environmentally suitable means of disposal. Many of these materials have demonstrated ability to enhance plant growth either through disease suppression or improved soil nutrient status. Seed meals from plants of the family Brassicaceae are the high protein waste product that remains after oil is expressed from seed tissues. These tissues vary both qualitatively and quantitatively in glucosinolate content, an important characteristic as glucosinolate hydrolysis products are typically proposed to be primary means by which such plant residues afford control of various soilborne plant diseases. However, we have demonstrated that the control of weeds and soilborne pathogens for meals from certain species, including Brassica napus and Sinapis alba, is achieved through the selection of specific active elements of the resident microbial community and that glucosinolate products have no role in the observed response. Additionally, we demonstrated that the mechanism of action in the suppression of Rhizoctonia solani by Brassica juncea seed meal varies in a temporal and spatial manner, with active chemistries such as allyl- isothiocyanate (AITC) having a functional role only within 24 hours post- soil amendment. The functional microbial element in the long-term suppression of R. solani was shown to be resident populations of Streptomyces spp. During FY2008 ARS conducted studies to address what component(s) of the overall resident Streptomyces spp. populations conferred suppressiveness towards R. solani. We demonstrated that there was no relationship between the in vitro production of an antibiotic with activity towards R. solani and the capacity of an individual strain to provide biological control of this fungal pathogen. However, there did appear to exist a relationship between Streptomyces �species� and the resulting disease control which was achieved. Likewise, one Streptomyces �species� appeared to elevate disease development when co-inoculated with R. solani, suggesting a potential role for this species in replant disease development. Activity and progress were monitored through contacts with Washington Tree Fruit Commission Research personnel and through reports submitted and presented to the Washington State Tree Fruit Research Commission.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

    Outputs
    Progress Report Objectives (from AD-416) The overall objective of this research program is to develop an integrated management strategy compatible to conventional and organic apple production systems that provide the shortest time frame to first commercial harvest on sites previously planted to apple. As similar biological entities appear to have a role in replant problems encountered in pear, peach and cherry, it is plausible that such a system may have utility across tree fruit production systems. Specific objectives: 1) examine the capacity of Brassicaceae seed meals to suppress the biological complex inciting replant disease and enhance tree growth in replant orchard soils; 2) determine the mechanisms(s) by which these soil amendments provide control of the various plant parasites and pathogens that incite replant disease development, with emphasis on Rhizoctonia solani; and 3) Assess the influence of rootstock genotype on composition of resident Streptomyces populations and the efficacy of RSM-induced disease suppression. Approach (from AD-416) This program will develop a system to gain the maximum biological activity from brassicaceae soil amendments for the control of orchard pests and parasites, with emphasis on use in the management of apple replant disease. This will be achieved through acquiring an understanding of the microbial and/or chemical mechanisms involved in the suppression of the pathogen complex which incites replant disease and the weed species typically resident to orchard ecosystems. Studies will determine whether members of the genus Streptomyces have a functional role in disease suppression obtained via application of Brassica napus seed meal amendment, or other seed meals including B. juncea and Sinapis alba. Such treatments have provided disease control and induced dramatic increases in populations of antibiotic-producing isolates irrespective of glucosinolate content of the seed meal. However, the fact that growth of certain pathogens including Rhizoctonia solani is not diminished and disease control is achieved in split-root assays, studies will be conducted to determine whether induced systemic resistance is the functional mechanism of disease control. Apple rootstocks will be screened to determine whether different genotypes vary in the capacity to support populations of Streptomyces spp. in brassicaceae seed meal amended soils. Should this be the case, additional studies will be conducted to determine whether this difference is associated with the relative disease susceptibility of rootstocks when cultivated in seed meal amended soils. Documents Trust with WTFRC. Log. 28110. Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations This report serves to document research conducted under a trust fund agreement between ARS and the Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission. Additional details of research can be found in the report for the parent CRIS 5350-22000-012-00D, Sustainable systems for control of soilborne diseases in tree fruit agro-ecosystems. This project relates to objectives 2 and 4 of the associated in-house project, which seeks to investigate the role of soil microbial communities in disease suppression attained through incorporation of Brassicaceae plant residues, and develop and field validate biologically sustainable management strategies for control of soilborne diseases, with emphasis on apple replant disease, in conventional and organic production systems. There is significant interest in obtaining optimal use of biological resources resident to orchard ecosystems in conjunction with other biologically-based and sustainable control measures for the management of soilborne diseases of apple. Likewise, there is a vast quantity of manure and other by- products from agricultural production systems that lack cost effective and environmentally suitable means of disposal. Many of these materials have demonstrated ability to enhance plant growth either through disease suppression or improved soil nutrient status. Seed meals from plants of the family Brassicaceae are the high protein waste product that remains after oil is expressed from seed tissues. These tissues vary both qualitatively and quantitatively in glucosinolate content, an important characteristic as glucosinolate hydrolysis products are typically proposed to be primary means by which such plant residues afford control of various soilborne plant diseases. However, we have demonstrated that the control of weeds and soilborne pathogens for meals from certain species, including Brassica napus and Sinapis alba,is achieved through the selection of specific active elements of the resident microbial community and that glucosinolate products have no role in the observed response. Additionally, we demonstrated that the mechanism of action in the suppression of Rhizoctonia solani by Brassica juncea seed meal varies in a temporal and spatial manner, with active chemistries such as allyl- isothiocyanate (AITC) having a functional role only within 24 hours post- soil amendment. The functional microbial element in the long-term suppression of R. solani was shown to be resident populations of Streptomyces spp. During FY2007 ARS conducted studies which demonstrated that brassicaceae seed meals differentially alter both qualitative and quantitative attributes of the resident Pythium spp. community. B. juncea was the only seed meal to suppress Pythium numbers, resulting from the production of AITC. However, additional data suggest that the resident soil biology serves to keep populations Pythium numbers depressed over the long-term in these same soils due to selective amplication of specific saprophytic fungi, predominantly members of the genera Mortierella, Mucor and Trichoderma.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

      Outputs
      Progress Report 4d Progress report. This report serves to document research conducted under a trust fund agreement between ARS and the Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission. Additional details of research can be found in the report for the parent CRIS 5350-22000-012-00D, Sustainable systems for control of soilborne diseases in tree fruit agro-ecosystems. This project relates to objectives 2 and 4 of the associated in-house project, which seeks to investigate the role of soil microbial communities in disease suppression attained through incorporation of Brassicaceae plant residues, and develop and field validate biologically sustainable management strategies for control of soilborne diseases, with emphasis on apple replant disease, in conventional and organic production systems. There is significant interest in obtaining optimal use of biological resources resident to orchard ecosystems in conjunction with other biologically-based and sustainable control measures for the management of soilborne diseases of apple. Likewise, there is a vast quantity of manure and other by- products from agricultural production systems that lack cost effective and environmentally suitable means of disposal. Many of these materials have demonstrated ability to enhance plant growth either through disease suppression or improved soil nutrient status. Seed meals from plants of the family Brassicaceae are the high protein waste product that remains after oil is expressed from seed tissues. These tissues vary both qualitatively and quantitatively in glucosinolate content, an important characteristic as glucosinolate hydrolysis products are typically supposed to be primary means by which such plant residues afford control of various soilborne plant diseases. During FY2006 ARS conducted studies to determine whether brassicaceae seed meals in general provided control of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani via the induction of specific transformations of resident soil microbial communities. As was observed previously in response to Brassica napus, the capacity of Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea seed meal amendment to provide long-term control of this fungal pathogen was dependent upon an active resident soil microbial community. Pasteurization of seed meal amended soil abolished control when the pathogen was introduced after the pasteurization event, but in B. juncea amended soil this phenomenon occurred in a temporally-dependent manner. When amendment and introduction of the pathogen were conducted simultaneously, B. juncea seed meal was effective in controlling the pathogen even in pasteurized soil. However, when addition of the pathogen was delayed until 24 h post- amendment no pathogen suppression was observed. This corresponded precisely with the profile for allyl-isothiocyanate release from B. juncea seed meal treated soil. Disease suppressive capacity of B. juncea treated soil was restored if soils were allowed to incubate for a minimum of four weeks, and the re-establishment of disease suppression corresponded with the proliferation of Streptomyces populations resident to these soils.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

        Outputs
        4d Progress report. This report serves to document research conducted under a trust fund agreement between ARS and the Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission. Additional details of research can be found in the report for the parent CRIS 5350-22000-012-00D, Sustainable systems for control of soilborne diseases in tree fruit agro-ecosystems. This project relates to objectives 2 and 4 of the associated in-house project, which seeks to investigate the role of soil microbial communities in disease suppression attained through incorporation of Brassicaceae plant residues, and develop and field validate biologically sustainable management strategies for control of soilborne diseases, with emphasis on apple replant disease, in conventional and organic production systems. There is significant interest in obtaining optimal use of biological resources resident to orchard ecosystems in conjunction with other biologically-based and sustainable control measures for the management of soilborne diseases of apple. Likewise, there is a vast quantity of manure and other by- products from agricultural production systems that lack cost effective and environmentally suitable means of disposal. Many of these materials have demonstrated ability to enhance plant growth either through disease suppression or improved soil nutrient status. Seed meals from plants of the family Brassicaceae are the high protein waste product that remains after oil is expressed from seed tissues. These tissues vary both qualitatively and quantitatively in glucosinolate content, an important characteristic as glucosinolate hydrolysis products are typically supposed to be primary means by which such plant residues afford control of various soilborne plant diseases. During FY2005 ARS conducted studies to determine whether seed meal physical properties and glucosinolate content influenced the structure of soil microbial communities. Seed meals demonstrated a differential capacity to suppress soil populations, and subsequent apple root infestation, of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans; Brassica juncea was superior to both Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. Application of B. napus in a flake form resulted in proliferation of resident Pythium populations to a level greater than 100-fold higher than when the meal was used in the powder form. These data will be important for the development of strategies to employ brassicaceous seed meals for the control of soilborne pathogens, and particularly for diseases of complex etiology such as apple replant disease.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications