Source: UNIV OF HAWAII submitted to
ENGINEERING INNOVATIVE BIOREACTOR FOR LAND LIMITED WASTEWATER TREATMENT/REUSE
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0213021
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
HAW00543-H
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Nov 1, 2007
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2012
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Yang, P. Y.
Recipient Organization
UNIV OF HAWAII
3190 MAILE WAY
HONOLULU,HI 96822
Performing Department
MOLECULAR BIOSCIENCES & BIOSYSTEMS
Non Technical Summary
The study of biological wastewater removal utilizing this innovative design process will achieve a lasting, sustainable environment; aid in the conservation of water resources and agriculture production. More importantly, this alternative treatment takes into consideration land limited conditions--Hawaii's more limited resource. Public, Federal, State and County agencies as well as producers can use this technology and will be invited to attend organized workshops demonstrating this economical and effective treatment.
Animal Health Component
70%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
70%
Developmental
30%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1125370202020%
4025370202060%
4035370202020%
Goals / Objectives
This project proposal mainly will be applying from the innovative biological treatment technology to provide more effective treatment and achieve the ultimate purpose of reuse without creating public health problems. Both EMMC and MBR will be evaluated separately and be integrated together in order to achieve mutual benefits for these two processes. Specific Objectives: 1.To evaluate the process performance of the EMMC technology for organic and nitrogen removals using synthetic wastewater. 2. To evaluate the process performance of the MBR technology for organic and nitrogen removals using synthetic wastewater. 3. To develop design and operational criteria for integrating EMMC and MBR technologies for meeting treated wastewater standard for discharge and reuse.
Project Methods
EMMC (Entrapped Mixed Microbial Cell) technology developed at UH for some years. It demonstrates that the process is considered as one of the most effective way to remove organics and inorganic for the land limited condition. However, requirement of biological removal of the trace organics and pathogenic bacteria from the wastewater for reuse/disposal need to be further investigated. In order to improve water quality for reuse/disposal, MBR (Membrane Bioreactor) technology is suggested to be integrated with EMMC. This will correct the weakness of applying MBR technology only, which is membrane fouling. It creates operation/maintenance problems. This study attempts to couple/integrate the EMMC and MBR technology to achieve the high quality of treated wastewater to be able to reuse without any biofouling problems in the MBR system. Operation process performance for each technology and coupling these two technologies will be investigated. Development of design/operation criteria for the production of treated effluent for reuse, thus, can be established.

Progress 11/01/07 to 09/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Two types of newly developed bioreactors as proposed in the project were investigated for both organic carbon and nitrogen removal and reduced membrane fouling using food and beverage processing wastewater. They are Immobilized Bioprocess (IBP) and Bio-Entrapped Membrane Reactor (BEMR). For IBP, it provides high sludge retention time (SRT) which enables to improve removal of organic carbon and ammonia nitrogen. Also, there is no need to provide the recycling of the activated sludge which is required for the operation of conventional activated sludge process. For BEMR provides not only for the removal of organics but also prevents the build up of membrane fouling caused by the soluble microbial products (SMP). This new bioreactor is able to sustain operation at constant permeate flux which is able to provide less frequency of chemical cleaning than the conventional MBR (Membrane Bio-Reactor). As proposed, the design/operational criteria were developed to meet the discharge standard. PARTICIPANTS: One Graduate Assistant and one student help TARGET AUDIENCES: Agricultrial and food processors and municipal wastewater treatment plants across the State of Hawaii PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
These two newly developed bioreactors from this project are able to replace or improve the existing biological wastewater treatment with their advantages of less maintenance and simple-operation and design. It is able to meet the water quality standards for disposal/reuse without causing any deterioration of public health problems. The coexisting of agricultural production and environmental quality can be assured.

Publications

  • Yang, P.Y. and Dong, L. (2012) Design and analysis of an anaerobic bionest reactor for methane fuel production and wastewater treatment, Proceeding at the 2nd International Conference on Anaerobic Digestion of Waste and Wastewater, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Yang, P.Y., Irvine, J., Dong, L., Cho, E., Kongsil, P., and Lin, R. (2012) Bioenergy (methane gas) and byproduct production versus waste and wastewater treatment, Proceeding at the 2nd Environmental-Enhancing Energy and Bio-Chemicals Conference, Shanghai, China
  • Ng, K.K., Lin, C.F., Panchangam, S.C., Hong, P.K. Andy, and Yang, P.Y. (2011) Reduced membrane fouling in the novel bio-entrapped membrane reactor for treatment of food and beverage processing wastewater. Water Research, 45, 4269-4278
  • Wang, C.H., Liu, J.C.W., Ng, K.K., Lin, C.F., Hong, P.K. Andy, and Yang, P.Y. (2012) Immobilized bioprocess for organic carbon and nitrogen removal. Desalination and Water Treatment, 37, 1-6


Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: In order to explore the potential integration of EMMC (Entrapped Mixed Microbial Cell) and the MBR (Membrane Bioreactor), the effect of soluble microbial products (514p) on membrane fouling was investigated for both EMMC and ASP (activated sludge process). It was found that the EMMC could achieve an approximately 25-30% higher permeate flux than that of the ASP because of the presence of higher SMP (71%), total carbohydrate (60%) and total protein (77.5%) in the ASP as compared to the EMMC. This strongly indicates that the use of an EMMC. Process can hamper membrane fouling by producing less SMP. This study highly explores the possible integration of both EMMC and MBR process in order to achieve less bio-fouling in the process of organic wastewater to meet the requirement of effluent discharge standard and potential reuse of treated wastewater. The integration of both EMMC and MBR is in progress at both the University of Hawaii and National Taiwan University now. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
The success of integrating or engineering the integration of EMMC and MBR technology can solve the problems to meet the water quality standards for disposal/reuse without causing any deterioration of public health problems. Also, the operation and maintenance problems created from MBR can be solved with less bio-fouling.

Publications

  • Ng, K.K., Lin, C.F., Lateef, S.K., Panchangam, S.C., Hong, P.K., and Yang, P.Y. (2010) The effect of soluble microbial products on membrane fouling in a fixed carrier biological _system. Separation and Purification Technology, 72, 98-104.


Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The EMMC (Entrapped Mixed Microbial Cell) technology has been developed for water and wastewater treatment in Hawaii for years. In this project,the effort to integrate EMMC and MBR (Membrane Bioreactor) has been in great progress. This project has been a joint effort between National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan and the University of Hawaii at Manoa for about two years. Both laboratory and pilot plant studies have been investigated for various types of wastewater including domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewater. It was found that many advantages could be achieved such as short start-up period, simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen, pathogens, hormones, and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Both advantages and disadvantages of EMMC and MBR can be overcome. More importantly, the integration of EMMC and MBR is able to reduce the frequency of backwashing which results in the generation of membrane fouling. This research activity is still in progress at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and the National Taiwan University. Demonstrations of pilot and full scale activities are underway. Furthermore, a joint research project between UH Manoa and the Oceanic Institute has been developed to apply EMMC-MBR reactor to solve the problem generated from high density aquacultural production systems. This will significantly reduce the sludge production problem meanwhile reducing economic costs. This research is in progress now. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The success of implementing or engineering the integration of EMMC-MBR technology may ale to overcome grand challenges to meet strengthening USEPA water quality standards and requirements for domestic sewage and agricultural and aquaculture wastewater. as well as, facilitating to achieve re-usable water without any deleterious public health problems (such as pathogenic bacteria, trace organics, and endocrine disrupting/hormone chemicals etc.)

Publications

  • Yang, P. Y., Song, C., Irvine, J. L., and Lin, C. F. (2010) The integration of EMMC/MBR Processes for Land Limited Wastewater Treatment/Reuse. presented at the Conference on MBR Asia 2010 Conference, April 26-27, 2010, Bangkok, Thailand.


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: In order to integrate the EMMC (Entrapped Mixed microbial Cell) and MBR (Membrane Bioreactor) for the potential treatment/reuse for land limited applications (such as the State of Hawaii) was evaluated. Under similar organic and nitrogen loading rates, both reactors are able to achieve more than 95% COD removal. For total nitrogen removal, EMMC is able to achieve more than 55% removal, and MBR more than 17%. The proposed integration of these two reactors, EMMC and MBR, is able to correct the membrane fouling problem from MBR. It also can produce a clean water effluent free from Personal Care and Pharmaceuticals products such as antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which can be effectively reused. The project is actively in progress at both the University of Hawaii and National Taiwan University, Taiwan. A pilot-plant project for 100-L EMMC process has been successfully investigated at the National Taiwan University for actual domestic wastewater and toxic organic industrial wastewater. This has demonstrated that further full-scale application applied to regions with land limited constraints is feasible. Continuation for the long-term applications and uses is necessary to be followed up. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The success of implementing or engineering the integration of EMMC-MBR technology can solve the problems to meet the USEPA requirement for water quality standards of domestic sewage and agricultural wastewater, as well as, achieve re-use quality standards of treated wastewater without any deleterious public health problems (such as pathogenic bacteria, trace organics, etc.).

Publications

  • Lin, R. L. T, Irvine, J. L., Kao, S. C. M., and Yang, P. Y. (2009) EMMC Technology for Treatment/Reuse of dilute dairy wastewater. Clean Techn Environ Policy, DCI 10, 1007/s 10098-009-0228-1. Published online: 01 May 2009
  • Zhu, J., Lin, C. F., Kao, J. C. M., and Yang, P. Y. (2009). Evaluation of potential integration of EMMC and MBR processes for biological wastewater/reuse. Clean Techn. Environ. Policy, DOI 10.1007/s10098-009-0274-8. Published online: 29 Dec 2009
  • Yu, T. H., Lin, A.Y.C., Lateef, S. K., Lin, C. F., and Yang, P. Y. (2009) Removal of antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by extended sludge age biological process. Chemosphere 77, 175-181.
  • Yang, P. Y., Song, C., Irvine, J. L., and Lin, C. F. (2009) EMMC technology for domestic and agriculture wastewater treatment/reuse. Presented at the Conference on land degradation in dry environments, March 8-14, 2009, Kuwait.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: In order to engineering the innovative bioreactor for land limited wastewater treatment/reuse, the integrating of EMMC (Entrapped Mixed Microbial Cell) and MBR (Membrane Bioreactor) Technology was proposed in this project. Firstly, the EMMC-biobarrel process using actual domestic sewage was investigated. It was found that this process demonstrated the most efficient organic and nitrogen removed at an HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time) of 6 hours with intermittent aeration time schedule of 1 hour ON and 2 hour OFF. Nitrogen removal of 80% was achieved, which was about 15% higher compared to the conventional activated sludge system. The organics measured as Total Chemical Oxygen Demand (TCOD) and Soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (SCOD) were 80% and 75%, respectively. Further study regarding the design and operational criteria and cost analysis are in progress. For the long term objective of this project, the investigation of possible integration of EMMC-biobarrel-MBR system was planned. This project is jointly investigated with the Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. A pilot project of 100 L of EMMC process has been installed and investigated for the actual domestic wastewater with low ratio of carbon/nitrogen now in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Success of implementing or engineering, the integration of EMMC-MBR technology will solve the problems of domestic sewage and agricultural wastewater to meet the USEPA requirement and achieve the reuse of treated wastewater without any public health problems (such as pathogenic bacteria, trace organics, etc.) occurred in the treated water to be reused.

Publications

  • Cho, E. S., Zhu, J., and Yang, P. Y. (2007). Intermittently aerated EMMC-Biobarrel (Entrapped Mixed Microbial Cell with Bio-Barrel) process for concurrent organic and nitrogen removal. Journal of Environmental Management, 84, 257-265.
  • Irvine, J. L., and Yang, P. Y. (2007). Double-layer packed bed entrapped mixed microbial cell process for biological wastewater treatment and reuse. Presented at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Student, Austin, Texas, November, 2007.
  • Irvine, J. L, and Yang, P. Y. (2008). Applicability of Entrapped Mixed Microbial Cell process for domestic wastewater treatment and application. Presented at the 30th HWEA (Hawaii Water Treatment and Application) Annual Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, February, 2008.
  • Yang, P. Y., Zhu, J., Kao, J. C. M., and Lin, A. C. F. (2008). Application of entrapped mixed microbial cell membrane carrier reactor for biological Wastewater treatment/reuse. Presented at the IWA (International Water Association) Regional Conference on Membrane Technologies in Water and Wastewater Treatment, Moscow, Russia, June 2008.