Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/05
Under objective one, Arends-Kuenning completed research projects about child labor and children's schooling in Brazil and Bangladesh. She and her co-authors showed that programs that pay children to attend school result in higher enrollment rates, especially for girls. The programs also lower the percentage of children who work and the amount of time children spend in wage work and house work. However, when these programs are put in place, policymakers should also invest in improving school quality, because otherwise, classrooms may become crowded with students who are not well prepared for school. Under objective two, Beller conducted literature reviews on child support enforcement and child support payments in the U.S. and on father involvement with their non-resident children. They showed what problems still plague the child support system and examined reasons why fathers may not be involved with their children through payments and/or contact. Empirical work was
also conducted with state administrative data on welfare cases in Illinois to determine the impacts on the child support outcomes of establishing paternity and child support obligations of rural/urban differences in location, interstate child support cases, sanctioning for non-cooperation with the child support enforcement provisions of welfare reform, and multiple-partner fertility. Under objective three, McNamara has completed research concerning the nature of demand for long-term care insurance. Along with a co-author, this research demonstrates that a significant policy dropping occurs in the private long-term care insurance market. While all the factors that give rise to this policy dropping are not clear at this time, it appears that long-term care insurance consumers are negatively affected by unanticipated policy premium increases and shocks to their budgets that come from declines in health status in the aging process, among other factors. Under objective four, Lyons has
published a series of papers related to household economics and financial education. These papers examine policy-relevant issues related to financial strain and bankruptcy, gender and marital differences in household financial decisions, the financial socialization of young adults, and the impact of financial education. The findings provide evidence supporting the need for financial education for a variety of populations that have traditionally been financially disadvantaged including low-income households, divorced women, and young adults.
Arends-Kuenning's research on schooling incentive programs in Bangladesh was presented to policymakers at the World Bank and the World Food Programme. Her research on schooling and child labor in Brazil was presented to policymaking audiences like the U.S. Department of the Treasury, the Brazilian consulate, and the InterAmerican Development Bank, and was cited by various U.N. agencies. Beller's research on child support was disseminated through invited book chapters for non-technical audiences like college students and psychologists. It also provided the underpinnings for changes in the state of Illinois' child support guidelines to increase the amount of child support to be paid for two children compared to one child to an amount that better reflects the actual costs of raising children. McNamara's research on long-term care insurance has shaped the University of Illinois Extension Consumer and Family Economics Team's Financing Long Term Care program. This
teleconference for consumers takes insights on policy dropping and emphasizes the role of budgeting and understanding alternatives to long-term care insurance as a part of a sound financial plan for retirement. Lyons shared her expertise through advisory roles, such as lead consultant to the Executive Office of the U.S. Trustees of the U.S. Department of Justice and Money Management International to evaluate the national impact of the debtor education component of the bankruptcy reform law. She participated in a national strategy meeting for financial literacy, invited by the U.S. Department of the Treasury.
- Lyons, A.C. 2005. Financial education and program evaluation: The challenges and potentials for financial professionals. Journal of Personal Finance, 4(4), 56-68.
- Lyons, A.C., Palmer, L., Jayaratne, K.S.U. and Scherpf, E. 2006. Are we making the grade? A National Overview of Financial Education and Program Evaluation. The Journal of Consumer Affairs (Forthcoming).
- Lawrence, F.C., Metzger, K., LeJeune, E., Marks, L., Machtmes, K. and Lyons, A. 2005. College students' money management behaviors and who influences. Proceedings of the Association for Financial Counseling and Planning Education, November, 30-32.
- Arends-Kuenning, M. and Kessy, F. 2005. The impact of demand factors, quality of care and access to facilities on contraceptive use in Tanzania. Journal of Biosocial Science (Forthcoming). Published online at http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayIssue?iid=181204.
- Arends-Kuenning, M. and Duryea, S. 2006. The effects of parental presence, parents' education, and household headship on children's schooling and work in Latin America. Journal of Family and Economic Issues (Forthcoming).
- Ahmed, A. and Arends-Kuenning, M. 2006. Do crowded classrooms crowd out learning? Evidence from the Food for Education Program in Bangladesh. World Development (Forthcoming).
- Fisher, J. and Lyons, A.C. 2005. The ability of women to repay debt after divorce. Journal of Women, Politics, and Policy, 27(3/4): 161-168.
- Fisher, J. and Lyons, A.C. 2005. The ability of women to repay debt after divorce. Women, Work, and Poverty: Women Centered Research for Policy Change (ed: Heidi Hartman). The Hawthorn Press, Inc., 161-168. (co-published in Journal of Women, Politics, and Policy).
- Fisher, J. and Lyons, A.C. 2006. Till debt do us part: A model of divorce and personal bankruptcy. Review of Economics of the Household (Forthcoming).
- Fisher, J. and Lyons, A.C. 2006. Gender differences in debt repayment decisions after divorce. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 40(2) (Forthcoming).
- Cude, B., Lawrence, F., Lyons, A., Metzger, K., LeJeune, E., Marks, L. and Machtmes, K. 2006. College students and financial literacy: What they know and what we need to learn. Proceedings of the Eastern Family Economics and Resource Management Association (Forthcoming).
Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04
Under Objective One, Arends-Kuenning focused on the impact of schooling incentive programs on child labor and children's school enrollment in Bangladesh and in Brazil. Two papers co-authored with Akhter Ahmed of the International Food Policy Research Institute about the impact of the Food for Education Program in Bangladesh on school achievement are currently under review at journals. She continued to collaborate with Ana Kassouf, a Brazilian researcher, on the impacts of education policy changes and other factors on child labor and children's schooling in Brazil. The paper was presented at the Midwest Economics Association annual meetings, the Population Association of America annual meetings, and the University of Wisconsin and is being prepared for publication. Under Objective Two, Beller continued to examine the impact of welfare reform on rural/urban differences in the effect of child support enforcement on paternity establishment and child support awards in
Central Illinois. She incorporated data on Rural-Urban Commuting (RUCA) codes and estimated regressions with them to test the sensitivity of her results to the measure of rurality. Under Objective Three, McNamara (with co-author N. Lee) has published a paper on the policy dropping behavior of long-term care insurance consumers in the Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance. A paper was published that documents the design and impact of a nation-wide program of consumer education (utilizing distance education methods) for long-term care insurance consumers. Under Objective 4, Lyons has published a series of papers related to household economics and financial education. These papers examine policy-relevant issues related to the relationship between health and financial strain, the role of financial services and financial education for low-to-moderate income populations, gender and marital differences in household financial decisions, and the credit usage and financial education needs of
college students. The findings provide evidence supporting the need for financial education for a variety of financially at-risk populations including low-income households, divorced women, and young adults.
Under Objective One, Arends-Kuenning's research (with Akhter Ahmed, IFPRI) was presented to policymakers at the World Bank. The research found that children's achievement test scores are aversely affected as the proportion of children who participate in the Food for Education Program increases, indicating that Bangladesh needs to invest in school quality so that families can fully benefit from programs that pay children to attend school. Under Objective Three, McNamara and Lee's research quantifying consumer policy dropping behaviors supports the hypothesis that long-term care insurance consumers have difficulty assessing the financial risk of long-term care expenses and comparing long-term care insurance policies. As a result, Financing Long-term Care: A Consumer Education Program has been launched by the University of Illinois Extension Consumer and Family Economics Team. The program offers a series of teleconferences for consumers with interactive presentations
from national researchers and practitioners. Under Objective Four, Lyons was identified by the U.S. General Accounting Office as one of twenty national leaders in financial education and was invited to participate in a U.S. Comptroller General forum. She was also an invited guest at an Urban Institute national roundtable. She was invited to serve on two Advisory Boards at Georgetown University and the Institute for Debt Relief. She received the American Council on Consumer Interests CFP Board Financial Planning Award for a research paper written with Tansel Yilmazer of Purdue University.
- Fisher, J. and Lyons, A.C. 2004. Ability of women to repay debt after divorce. Seventh International Women's Policy Research Conference Proceedings, Institute for Women's Policy Research.
- Lyons, A.C., Hildebrand, P. and Hunt, J. 2004. Parent Smarts: A credit education resource for students and parents. Proceedings of the Eastern Family Economics and Resource Management Association.
- Fisher, J., Filer, L. and Lyons, A.C. 2004. Is the bankruptcy flag binding? Access to credit markets for post-bankruptcy households. American Law & Economics Association Annual Meetings. Working Paper 28. Retrieve at: http://law.bepress.com/alea/1 4th/art28.
- Lyons, A.C. and Yilmazer, T. 2004. How does marriage affect the allocation of assets in women's defined contribution plans? Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, WP# 2004-28.
- Arends-Kuenning, M. and Amin, S. 2004. School incentive programs and children's activities: The case of Bangladesh. Comparative Education Review. 48(3):295-317.
- Phillips, M. 2004. Intrahousehold allocation of food in Honduras. M.S. thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- Belluzo, A. 2004. Trade liberalization and competitiveness of the Brazilian textile industry. M.S. thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- Chang, Y. 2003. Essays on welfare reform and child support enforcement. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- McNamara, P.E. and Lee, N. 2004. Long-term care insurance policy dropping in the U.S. from 1996 to 2000: Evidence and implications for long-term care financing. Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance. 29(4):640-651.
- McNamara, P.E., Sweedler, K.L., Reuter, K.J. and Fugate, M. 2004. Making an informed decision about long-term care insurance: A teleconference seminar to help consumers. The Forum for Family and Consumer Issues. 9(2): (http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pub/9_2/longterm.html).
- Lee, N. 2003. An economic analysis of the dynamic behavior of long-term care insurance consumers. M.S. Thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- Ruengrojpitak, D. 2003. A combined qualitative and quantitative economic evaluation of the Illinois Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program. M.S. Thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- Lyons, A.C. 2004. A profile of financially at-risk college students. The Journal of Consumer Affairs. 38(1):56-80.
- Lyons, A.C. and Scherpf, E. 2004. Moving from unbanked to banked: Evidence from the Money Smart Program. Financial Services Review 13(3):215-231.
- Lyons, A.C., Cude, B., Lawrence, F. and Gutter, M. 2005. Conducting research online: Challenges facing researchers in family and consumer sciences. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal (Forthcoming).
- Lyons, A. C. and Yilmazer, T. 2005. Health and financial strain: Evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances. Southern Economic Journal (Forthcoming).
- Lyons, A.C. 2005. A qualitative study on providing credit education to college students. The Journal of Consumer Education (Forthcoming).
- Lyons, A.C. 2005. Providing effective financial education for the unbanked: Evidence from a Chicago case study. The Journal of Consumer Education (Forthcoming).
Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03
Under Objective One, Arends-Kuenning focused on the impact of schooling incentive programs on child labor and the school enrollment of children in Bangladesh and in Brazil. She and her co-author Sajeda Amin submitted a paper to Comparative Education Review titled "The effects of schooling incentive programs on the time allocation of children in Bangladesh". In addition, she continues to collaborate with Ana Kassouf, a Brazilian researcher, and Ana Fava, an Illinois graduate student, on the impacts of education policy changes and other factors on child labor and the schooling of children in Brazil. Preliminary results were presented at a workshop in Brasilia, Brazil in July. With respect to Objective Two Beller continues to examine the impact of experiences such as living in a single-parent family, receipt of child support and other effects on the well-being of children and young adults. Under Objective Three McNamara has submitted a paper concerning the economics of
Critical Access Hospitals to the Journal of Rural Health. His research with Nayoung Lee on consumer demand for long-term care insurance was presented at the American Council on Consumer Interests Annual Conference. With respect to Objective Five Lyons has developed analyses of consumers and their credit behavior, including the credit behaviors of college students.
An audience at the U.S. Treasury learned that the responses of families to changes in income are different during economic crises in Brazil, implying that special, temporary policies might be needed to keep children in school during the worst years of a crisis. The government of Bangladesh re-instituted doorstep delivery of contraceptives to women of reproductive age. The government had moved towards a fixed delivery point system, but contraceptive use by women has stalled. Past work by Arends-Kuenning, which was widely read by researchers and policymakers, warned that women who were poor and uneducated would be most affected by the movement to a fixed delivery point system. Under Objective Two a 12-year research and educational effort paid off earlier this summer when a bill containing new guidelines for child support in Illinois was signed into law. The law increases the percentage a non-custodial parent pays for support of the second child in a two-child family.
Under the old system, the non-custodial parent paid 20 percent of his income for the first child, 5 percent more for the second child, and 12 percent more for the third child than the first child. Based upon the literature on costs of raising children, the increment between the first and second child was too small. As a result, Illinois fell among the bottom-level of states in terms of providing the necessary support for the second child in these families. The new guidelines call for 8 percent more for the second child for a total 28 percent of income for a two-child family.
- Ahmed, A. and Arends-Kuenning, M. 2003. Do crowded classrooms crowd out learning? Evidence from the Food for Education Program in Bangladesh. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Working Paper, Washington, D.C. International Food Policy Research Institute.
- Lyons, A. 2003. How credit access has changed over time for U.S. households. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 37(2): 231 to 255.
- Beller, A.H. and Graham, J.W. 2003. The economics of child support. In: Shoshana Grossbard-Shechtman, ed., Marriage and the Economy: Theory and Evidence from Advanced Industrial Societies, Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press: 153-176.
- Beller, A.H. and Powers, E.T. 2003. Changes in paternity establishment and child support enforcement under welfare reform: How will rural residents be affected? The Status of Women: Facing the Facts, Forging the Future, Sixth Womens Policy Research Conference Proceedings, Institute for Womens Policy Research: 170-174.
- Duryea, S. and Arends-Kuenning, M. 2003. School attendance, child labor, and local labor markets in urban Brazil. World Development, 31:1165 to 1178.
Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02
'Methods for Assessing the Impact of the Food for Education Program in Bangladesh on School Quality and Student Achievement' was presented at the International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C. The presentation was the first step of a collaborative project with Akhter Ahmed to determine how policies that pay children to attend school impacts school quality. 'Household Decision-Making about Children's Schooling and Work in Latin America' was written with Suzanne Duryea and was presented at the Committee for the Status of Women in the Economics Profession session, ASSA meetings, Atlanta, GA, January 2002. The paper finds that single mother status has a larger negative impact on children's schooling than female headship status in four Latin American countries. Under objective 2, a paper was presented at the Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession session on the effect of multiple-father families on child support payments. We found that
children in such families were less likely to receive payment. Another paper was presented at the Midwest Economic Association meetings that looked at sanctioning of women for failure to cooperate with the child support enforcement provisions of welfare reform. Both papers were based upon state administrative data from Illinois. Under objective 3, 'Long-term Care Insurance Policy Dropping: Evidence and Implications for Market-based Strategies for Long-term Care Financing' develops an econometric analysis of the demand for long-term care insurance and the observed phenomenon of short-spells of policy holding by consumers. This research suggests that consumers face information difficulties in evaluating the many long-term care insurance policies and financing alternatives as they plan for retirement income security. Under Objective 4 'How Credit Access Has Changed Over Time for U.S. Households' shows that efforts by the financial industry to provide additional borrowing opportunities to
households traditionally constrained by the credit markets resulted in increased credit access for all households during the 1990's. Those experiencing the greatest gains were black households and households with low permanent earnings. A version of this paper was presented at the 2002 American Council on Consumer Interests Conference. The consequences of providing additional credit opportunities were investigated in 'How Credit Access Has Affected the Debt Repayment Decisions of U.S. Households'. This paper was presented at the 2002 Midwest Economics Association Annual Meeting and at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. Finally, a report on the credit usage of college students at the University of Illinois was released in conjunction with the Office of Student Financial Aid. Additional research is being conducted in this area and a large-scale study will be launched to examine the credit usage and financial education needs of students on 12 college campuses in the Midwest.
Audiences of researchers and policymakers learned that 20 percent of children in four Latin American countries live in single-mother households. These children are less likely to be enrolled in school and more likely to be working. The policy of targeting schooling benefits to female-headed households is misguided. Instead, policymakers should target children who do not live with their fathers. Targeting female-headed households misses a quarter of children who do not live with their fathers. The results of the research on child support can be used to make policy recommendations for Illinois and elsewhere on means to increase non-custodial father's financial involvement with their children who reside with children from other fathers. Rural health researchers, policy makers, leaders and residents have learned about consumer access to health care challenges in rural Illinois and around the nation. Presentations were made at: Illinois Delta Network Conference, Iowa State
University Economics Department, and The National Rural Development Partnership Annual Leadership Conference as well as three radio appearances and one television appearance. Consumer educators and consumers have learned about the extent to which people maintain their long-term care coverage over time. After learning about the tendency for consumers to drop long-term care insurance policy coverage, consumer education offerings have begun to emphasize improved policy shopping strategies and budgeting so that premiums can be maintained in retirement despite increases in other costs.
- Arends-Kuenning, M. 2002. Reconsidering the doorstep delivery program in Bangladesh's family planning program. Studies in Family Planning 33:87-102.
- Graham, J.W. and Beller, A.H. 2002. Nonresident fathers and their children: Child support and visitation from an economic perspective. In: C.S. Tamis-LeMonda and N. Cabrera, Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 431-453.
- Lyons, A.C. 2002. College students and credit card debt in Illinois. Family Economics News, Ed. Michael Rupured, USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, July/August.
- Lyons, A.C. and Andersen, P.M. 2002. Credit usage of college students: Evidence from the University of Illinois. The Office of Student Financial Aid Research Report, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- McNamara, P. and Ranney, C. 2002. Health insurance coverage and hired farm labor. In: The Dynamics of Hired Farm Labor: Constraints and Community Response. Jill L. Findeis et al. editors, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 219-232.
- McNamara, P. and Sheppard, L. 2002. At risk: A growing number of this state's working poor are without health insurance. Illinois Issues: 28-29.
Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01
Under Objective 1, 'School Attendance, Child Labor, and Local Labor Markets in Urban Brazil,' written with Suzanne Duryea, finds that child labor is procyclical. The paper was invited to be presented at the Crises and Disasters Conference, Washington, D.C., November 2001. 'Women's Capabilities and the Right to Education in Bangladesh,' written with Sajeda Amin, uses qualitative data to argue that women's education enhances their well-being because it increases their bargaining position within marriage. 'What Does it Mean to be a Vulnerable Child in Bangladesh?' written with Sajeda Amin was presented at the IUSSP XXIV General Conference, Salvador, Brazil, August 2001. We find that boys' schooling is more sensitive to household socioeconomic conditions than girls' schooling. Under Objective 2, a basic elaboration of the quantity-quality model of child investment to the question of blended families, predicts unambiguously lower per-child quality in
blended-custodial-parent (CP) families and a negative 'CP price' effect on support. A preliminary test of this hypothesis using administrative data on welfare recipients with child support cases handled by the state of Illinois provides some support for the hypothesis that the non-custodial parent (NCP) is influenced by the price of average child quality faced by the CP, and that the effect of this price on NCP support payments is negative. Under Objective 3, 'A Utility--Theoretic Approach to Measuring Access to Hospital Services: Changes in U.S. Rural Residents' Access to Hospital Services from 1980 to 1999' develops a welfare-based index of access to hospital services for health care consumers in rural areas of the U.S. The paper uses a nested logic model of the demand for hospital services and geographic information systems to create a tool to measure changes in consumer access to hospital services. The paper applies the method to measure changes in rural peoples' access to
hospitals services from 1980 to 1999. Maps are presented along with tables that identify the rural counties in the lower 48 states with the poorest access scores and the highest access scores. The paper was presented at the Health Economics Association Third International Conference, York, England, and at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois. The paper 'Analysis of an Important Health Issue for Rural Illinois Women' examines the effect of rural residence on demand for several women's health screening exams for rural Illinois women, using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from the Illinois Center for Health Statistics. The econometric analysis shows that low-income rural women are more likely than women living in metropolitan areas or rural women with higher incomes to not have had a mammogram within the past two years. Under Objective 4, work continues on consumers' use of information and how this affects their choices and
market performance. Primarily, this work is conducted by examining E-commerce markets. Research on e-commerce has shown that use of the Internet has allowed consumers greater access to information and this has led to improved market performance.
Audiences of researchers and policymakers learned that the impacts of schooling policy on children's school attendance vary by gender. For boys, wage-earning opportunities are greater than for girls, which has detrimental impact on boys' schooling. The perception of international policymakers that girls are more disadvantaged than boys with respect to schooling opportunities might not be true. To increase schooling attainment of poor children, policies should take into account gender differences in parents' perceptions of the costs and benefits of schooling. Health economists and rural policy researchers have learned about the availability of a new method to measure access to rural health services. This method can be used assist in targeting rural health spending so as to increase rural health care consumer welfare. In addition, the econometric analysis of the demand for women's health screening results were presented to an Illinois Rural Health Association Conference
on Women's Health held in Springfield, Illinois and at the Illinois Public Health Association Meeting. State-level public health officials attended these events.
- KESSY, F. 2001. The role of quality of services in the demand for family planning services in Tanzania. Ph. D. Dissertation. October 2001.
- ARENDS-KUENNING, M. 2001. How do family planning workers' visits affect women's contraceptive behavior in Bangladesh? Demography, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2001, pp. 481-496.
- ARENDS-KUENNING, M. and AMIN, S. 2001. Women's capabilities and the right to education in Bangladesh. International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2001, pp. 125-142.
- MCNAMARA, P.E. 2001. Analysis of an important health issue for rural Illinois women. Rural Research Report, Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs, Report Number Vol. 12, 9, Vol. 12, 9(November 20, 2001): 1-8.
- CHEN, Y-C. 2001. Price increases from online privacy. M.S. Thesis December, 2001.
- LEE, M.J. 2001. A comparative analysis of pharmaceutical pricing online. Ph.D. Dissertation.
- NWOHA, J.O. 2001. Empirical analysis of StratSoy use: Changes in uses and users over time using statistics from the web site. Ph.D. Dissertation.
- WARD, M.R. 2001. Will E-commerce compete more with traditional retail or direct marketing? Netnomics 3: 103-117.
- WARD, M.R., 2001, On forecasting the demand for E-commerce. In: Forecasting the Internet: Understanding the Explosive Growth of Data Communications, David G. Loomis and Lester D. Taylor editors. (Kluwer Academic Publishers).
Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00
The following research was carried out under Objective 1. `School Attendance and Local Labor Markets in Urban Brazil' finds that opportunity costs, family structure, and parental income have significant effects on school attendance and child labor. `Women's Capabilities and the Right to Education in Bangladesh' uses qualitative data to argue that women's education enhances their well-being because it increases their bargaining position within marriage. `Effects of Schooling Incentive Programs on Household Time Allocation' evaluates the impact of two schooling incentive programs operating in Bangladesh on the time that children spend in school and working. `The Quantity-Quality Transition in Asia' analyzes the relationship between fertility and investments in children's schooling in seven Asian countries. Under Objective 2, two literature reviews were conducted. The first analyzes child support payments as an income source over time, the underlying economic behavior of
parents that determines how much child support is paid, and the economic consequences of child support for the parents and children. It presents convincing evidence that child support benefits children, especially their educational attainment, above and beyond its role as income. The second provides an economic perspective on child support payments and child visitation by nonresident fathers. It reviews recent economic theories that help explain why fathers may fail to support their children, summarizes empirical evidence on fathers' involvement with their children, examines their ability to pay support, and looks at the consequences of child support payments and visitation for the well being of children and the behavior of fathers. With respect to Objective 3, several paper drafts have been completed and a number of public presentations have been made. Using survey data from the Illinois Department of Public Health's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, an econometric model
was developed that shows the distinct impact of rural residence in Illinois on the likelihood of health insurance coverage. Additionally, a draft of the paper `Hired Farm Workers and Health Insurance Coverage' has been submitted and is currently under review as a chapter for a book on economic and social issues related to hired farm labor. In addition, a pre-release version of the Health and Retirement Survey (1998 data) has been obtained and data organization begun in order to estimate models of the demand for long-term care insurance. With respect to Objective 4, two articles and a book chapter have been published or are forthcoming relating to consumers' use of the Internet for shopping. Generally, these demonstrate that consumers treat online marketing similarly to direct mail marketing, that consumers substitute between product search and reliance on brand names, and that the large forecasted growth in online retailing is supported by consumers' behavior online. Ongoing projects
are investigating Internet browsers' response to the frequency of updates of web site content, e-commerce's hypothesized cannibalization of in-store retailing and quantifying the costs to online privacy.
Audiences of researchers and policymakers learned that the impacts of schooling policy on children's school attendance vary by gender. For boys, wage-earning opportunities are greater than for girls, which has detrimental impact on boys' schooling. The perception of international policymakers that girls are more disadvantaged than boys with respect to schooling opportunities might not be true. To increase schooling attainment of poor children, policies should take into account gender differences in parents' perceptions of the costs and benefits of schooling. Focusing on children of one gender might have detrimental effects on the schooling of children of the other gender. The chapters on child support and father involvement were both written for non-technical audiences, one for undergraduates and the other for psychologists and other social scientists. This will disseminate information on what is known from an economic perspective to a broader audience and gives
recommendations for future research. The research on rural residents and health insurance demand has been presented at a public policy forum in Springfield Illinois and at other venues around the State of Illinois. These forums have brought together state-level agency and legislative branch personnel, as well as providers, consumer advocates, and university researchers to discuss policy alternatives to increasing health insurance coverage among low-income consumers in rural Illinois.
- Arends-Kuenning, M. and Amin, S. 2001. Effects of schooling incentive programs on household time allocation. In: Policies and Strategies for Women in the Age of Economic Transformation, edited by G. Summerfield, S. Pressman, and N. Aslanbeigui, Routledge Press, earlier published as Policy Research Division Working Paper No. 133, Population Council, 2000.
- Beller, A.H. and Graham, J.W. 2001. The economics of child support. In: Marriage and the Economy, edited by Shoshana Grossbard-Shechtman.
- Graham, J.W. and Beller, A.H. 2001. Nonresident fathers and their children: Child support and visitation from an economic perspective. In: Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, edited by Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda and Natasha Cabrera, Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
- Montgomery, M., Arends-Kuenning, M. and Mete, C. 2001. The quantity-quality transition in Asia. In: Population Change in Asia: Transition, Development, and Aging, edited by C. Chu and R. Lee, supplement to Population and Development Review Vol. 26, earlier published as Policy Research Division Working Paper No. 123, Population Council, 1999.
Progress 10/01/99 to 12/31/99
This project has just begun. For the most part, the researchers involved are engaged in the initial literature reviews, data aquisition and data estimation. With respect to Objective 3 "Develop economic models of the demand for health insurance and the demand for health care services" to measure the impacts of public policies and programs, a draft of the paper "Hired Farm Workers and Health Insurance Coverage" was completed and presented at a USDA conference on hired farm workers.
With respect to Objective 3: Researchers, representatives from federal and state government agencies, as well as community representatives (39 participants in all) at the conference "The Dynamics of Hired Farm Labor: Constraints and Community Response" learned about the relationship between income, ethnicity, and industry of employment on the likelihood of health insurance coverage.
- No publications reported this period