Source: PURDUE UNIVERSITY submitted to
RAPID DIETARY DEVELOPMENT FOR NEW AQUACULTURE SPECIES
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0151303
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
IND011554
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2007
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2012
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Brown, P. B.
Recipient Organization
PURDUE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
WEST LAFAYETTE,IN 47907
Performing Department
FORESTRY & NATURAL RESOURCES
Non Technical Summary
Aquaculture is growing rapidly, yet there are few practical diets in the marketplace. Successful production demands optimal diets to meet the needs of the target speices. The combination of new scientific disciplines offers the promise of rapidly developing diets. The purpose of this project is to expand use of two new scientific disciplines into the area of nutrition and facilitate expansion of aquaculture.
Animal Health Component
30%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
70%
Applied
30%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1110810101010%
1113719101010%
1350810101010%
1353719101010%
3010810101020%
3013719101020%
3020810101010%
3023719101010%
Goals / Objectives
The overall goal of this project is evaluation of combined metabolomic and proteomic analyses to rapidly develop optimum diets for emerging aquaculture species. Largemouth bass and zebrafish will be the model species used. Optimum nutrient intake for growth of sexually immature fish and optimum nutrient intake for reproduction in adult fish will be the two targeted research foci, respectively. Objectives: 1. Quantify the dietary requirements for methionine and choline in largemouth bass, determine the maximum cyst(e)ine replacement value for methionine, and develop soybean-based practical diets. 2. Determine appropriate dietary lipid sources and levels for reproduction in zebrafish
Project Methods
Juvenile fish will be obtained from commercial producers (bass) or from established colonies at the Aquaculture Research Laboratory (zebrafish). The basal diets used in these studies will be formulated to meet the known macro- and micronutrient needs of the target species. In studies designed to quantify the dietary methionine requirement of largemouth bass, graded levels of dietary methionine will be added to diets. In a second study, graded ratios of methionine and cyst(e)ine will be added to diets. Finally, the dietary choline requirement will be quantified by adding graded levels of dietary choline-Cl to experimental diets. Aliquots of selected tissues will be extracted with both chloroform:methanol and with water, and all metabolites derivatized with N-methyl-N (t-butyl dimethyl silyl)- triflouroaceatamide (MtBSTFA) prior to injection in a tandem GC/MS maintained by the Bindley Biosciences Center. Proteomic analysis will be conducted by standard methods using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots will be compared across dietary treatments and those that display differences in concentration will be collected, digested with trypsin and injected into an LC/MS for characterization of peptide fragments. Zebrafish used in these experiments will be the AB strain, originally supplied by the Zebrafish International Resource Center. During the experimental period, individual fish will be randomly assigned to individual aquaria. There will be twelve tanks containing females and twelve tanks containing males. Three females and three males will be randomly assigned an experimental dietary treatment. Treatments will initially consist of menhaden oil, soybean oil, 1:1 mixture of menhaden:soybean oil and coconut oil. All diets will be fed to fish for a period of twenty days and all fish allowed to spawn once before the trial formally starts. Thereafter, fish will be fed one of four experimental diets for ten days. At the end of the tenth day, one male will be added to an aquarium containing one female fed the same diet. This protocol will be repeated for three ten day trials. Eggs will be collected from each trial. Numbers of eggs laid, egg diameter and survival through hatching will be quantified for each trial. An additional sham trial will be conducted for acquisition of tissues from both male and female fish. All fish will be fed the last diets offered, but for 8 days. On the ninth day, all fish will be exposed to a lethal dose of MS-222 and tissue samples collected for both metabolomic and proteomic analyses. Samples, of blood, liver and reproductive tissues will be collected, frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 C prior to analyses. Metabolomic and proteomic analyses will be conducted as described above.

Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Final data associated with this project were completed in the past year including analysis of experiments designed to evaluate the maximum level of soybean meal incorporation in dites fed to yellow perch and hybrid striped bass and use of metabolomics as a new response measure. PARTICIPANTS: Graduate students Andy Pei, Steve Hart, Bill DeBoer, John Gonzales, Anant Bharadwaj and Bradley Baumgarner worked on this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audiences for this project include feed mills and aquaculture producers. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Dietary requirements for emerging aquaculture species have not been defined; thus, inhibiting sustainable production of these important species. Data generated in this project define the basic characteristics for these diets.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Data developed in this project have been disseminated directly to aquaculture clients via the Indiana Soybean Alliance (ISA). Through collaborative projects with ISA, diets have been developed with aquaculturists and their primary feed mills. Those diets are in an evaluation phase. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators on this project include the Indiana Soybean Alliance, Nelson and Sons Feed Mill and Bell Aquaculture. TARGET AUDIENCES: Aquaculturists and feed mills specializing in diets for aquatic animals. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Direct dietary evaluation, in collaboration with feed mills and aquaculturists, places those formulations and laboratory-generated data in the hands of the targeted population.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Outputs in the past year include completion of three graduate students and 4 technical presentations to a wide variety of colleagues in both aquaculture and basic science. PARTICIPANTS: Graduate students Zhihua Pei, WilliamDeBoer, and Bradley Baumgarner TARGET AUDIENCES: Aquaculture nutrition scientists PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Our results in the past year focused on expanding the use of new analytical responses in fish fed diets. Our proteomics work was designed to compare two ionization methods so future work would have some guidelines for identification of desired proteins. Our metabolomics work also compared two platforms, LC and GC separation approaches, and clearly distinguished 4 soybean varieties.

Publications

  • Gonzales, J.M., Jr., B.A. Lowry, P.B. Brown, C.A. Beyle, L. Nyochemberg. 2009. The effects of fibrous waste pretreatment on the growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed bio-regenerative life support (BRLS) plant waste residues. Advances in Space Research 43:1243-1249.
  • Hart, S.D., B.J. Brown, N.L. Gould, M.L. Robar, E.M. Witt and P.B. Brown. 2010. Predicting optimal dietary essential amino acid profile for growth of juvenile yellow perch with whole body amino acid concentrations. Aquaculture Nutrition 16:248-253. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2009.00659.x
  • Hart, S.D., A.S. Bharadwaj and P.B. Brown. 2010. Soybean lectins and trypsin inhibitors, but not oligosaccharides or the interactions of factors, impact weight gain of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 306:310-314. doi 10.1016/ j.aquaculture. 2010.03.027
  • Bharadwaj, A.S., S.D. Hart, B.J. Brown, Y. Li, B.A. Watkins and P.B. Brown. 2010. Dietary source of stearidonic acid promotes increased muscle DHA concentrations in hybrid striped bass. Lipids 45:21-27. doi 10.1007/s11745-009-3372-9


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: During the past year, we completed and published several papers related to our central theme of rapidly developing diets for new aquaculture species. Working with collaborators in Missouri, we completed and published results of studies designed to quantify nutrient digestion or availability from feedstuffs fed to bluegill and largemouth bass. We also published results of studies designed to identify alternative fatty acids for fish feeds and the impacts on tissue fatty acid concentrations. Scientific peer-reviewed outputs remain the primary method of disseminating our results. We also present our findings at meeting of stakeholders and to the Indiana Aquaculture Advisory Council. PARTICIPANTS: Graduate students Bradley Baumgarner, Zhihua Pei and Bill DeBoer worked on this project. We completed a series of studies with Dr. Kwamena Quagrainie, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant, and collaborated with colleagues at the University of Missouri, Dr. Rob Hayward and graduate student Karthik Masagounder. TARGET AUDIENCES: Our target audience remains feed mills and aquaculture producers and peer-reviewed publication of data is the primary means of communication. Data are not readily received if not published. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: None

Impacts
Data developed and disseminated in the past year were specifically designed to provide guidance on alternative dietary formulations for new aquaculture species. We are at the stage where focused efforts are appropriate and our results have been focused on alternative fatty acid intakes that retain n-3 fatty acid concentrations in muscle of targeted species of fish, the ability to predict essential amino acid requirements from whole body analyses and selected quantified requirements and on the availability of major nutrients from common feedstuffs. These are all vital components to dietary formulation that were not available prior to 2008.

Publications

  • Brown, P.B. 2008. Utilization of soy products originating from soybeans in diets fed to freshwater fishes. Pages 225-260 In: C. Webster, C. Lim, and C.-S. Lee, editors. Alternative Protein Sources in Aquaculture Diets. Haworth Press, Taylor and Francis Group, New York.
  • Hart, S.D., Paul B. Brown, and Chris C. Kohler. 2008. Feeds utilized by commercial largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides producers in the United States. World Aquaculture 39:10-12.
  • Bharadwaj, A.S., K.L. Pangle, T.M. Sutton and P.B. Brown. 2008. Nitrogen excretion in fed and fasted lake sturgeon. North American Journal of Aquaculture 70:132-137.
  • Quagrainie, K., S. Hart, and P. Brown. 2008. An exploratory study of farmers' view on aquaculture development in Indiana. Journal of Extension 46:2RIB4.
  • Quagrainie, K., S. Hart, and P. Brown. 2008. Consumer acceptance of locally grown food: The case of Indiana aquaculture products. Aquaculture Economics and Management 12:54-70.
  • Masagounder, Karthik, J.D. Firman, R.S. Hayward, Sangsoo Sun, and P.B. Brown. 2009. Apparent digestibilities of common feedstuffs for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides using individual test ingredients. Aquaculture Nutrition 15:29-37.
  • Gonzales, J.M., Jr., B.A. Lowry, P.B. Brown, C.A. Beyle, L. Nyochemberg. 2009. The effects of fibrous waste pretreatment on the growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed bio-regenerative life support (BRLS) plant waste residues. Advances in Space Research 43:1243-1249.
  • Brown, P.B., S.J. Kaushik and H. Peres. 2008. Protein feedstuffs originating from soybeans. Pages 205-223 In: C. Webster, C. Lim, and C.-S. Lee, editors. Alternative Protein Sources in Aquaculture Diets, Haworth Press, Taylor and Francis Group, New York.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Outputs from this project have been disseminated through the funding agencies, specifically the Indianan Soybean Alliance (ISA) and USDA North Central Regional Aquaculture Center (NCRAC). ISA established a new aquaculture website that includes a wide variety of information including results from studies funded by them. The NCRAC website has been active for almost 20 years and contains Progress and Termination reports for all projects. PARTICIPANTS: Three graduate students (2 Ph.D. and 1 M.S.) were involved in this project and one Technician. Our studies were funded by the Indiana Soybean Alliance and the USDA North Central Regional Aquaculture Center and close interactions were maintained with them. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences for these studies are aquaculture producers and feed mills looking for alternative dietary formulations that are sustainable. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
In our most recent series of studies, we tested our ability to formulate fish meal-free diets for the targeted species using quantified methionine requirements and predicted requirements for the remaining essential amino acids (EAA). This approach resulted in growth of fish that was not different from fish fed positive control diets containing fish meal as the sole source of crude protein and EAA. We are currently evaluating the ability of new analytical techniques (proteomics and metabolomics) to understand the ramifications of ingredient change in animals and to further pinpoint changes required in fish meal-free diets for sustainable aquaculture production.

Publications

  • Brown, P.B., Billie Jo Brown, Steve Hart, Jennifer Curry and Alison Hittle-Hutson. 2008. Comparison of soybean-based practical diets containing 32, 36, or 40% crude protein fed to hybrid striped bass in earthen culture ponds. North American Journal of Aquaculture 70:128-131.


Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: We conducted a series of studies this year designed to build upon previous research in our lab. Those studies were focused on development of fish meal-free diets for new aquaculture species and use of new analytical techniques to facilitate dietary development. Our studies focused on hybrid striped bass, yellow perch and largemouth bass and we are exploring the use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by tandem GC/MS for identification of up- and downregulated protein expression. Data were disseminated through several peer-reviewed publications. PARTICIPANTS: Drs. Jiri Adamek and Bruce Cooper, colleagues from the Purdue University Bindley Biosciences Center, were collaborators this year. TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audiences for our research include producers of aquatic animals, feed mills and scientific groups seeking a better understanding of fish. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: No major changes were occurred in the reporting period.

Impacts
Data generated in 2006/2007 indicated fish meal-free diets can be formulated to meet the unique nutritional needs of bass and perch, that those diets are accepted by the fish and growth was not significantly impaired when fed to juvenile fish in laboratory settings. These data will be part of several publications in the next 12 months.

Publications

  • Gonzales, J.M., A.H. Hutson, M.E. Rosinski, P.B. Brown, Y.V. Wu and T.F. Powless. 2007. Evaluation of fish meal-free diets for first feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 19:89-99.
  • Gatlin, D.M., III, F.T. Barrows, P. Brown, K. Dabrowski, T.G Gaylord, R.W. Hardy, E. Herman, G. Hu, A. Krogdahl, R. Nelson, K. Overturf, M. Rust, W. Sealey, D. Skonberg, E.J. Souza, D. Stone, R. Wilson and E. Wurtele. 2007. Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquaculture Research 38:551-579.
  • Kasper, C.S., B.A. Watkins and P.B. Brown. 2007. Evaluation of two soybean meals fed to yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Aquaculture Nutrition 13:431-438.
  • Gonzales, J.G. and P.B. Brown. 2007. Nutrient retention capabilities of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed bio-regenerative life support system (BLSS) waste residue. Advances in Space Research 40:1725-1734.


Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

Outputs
Progress on this project was limited due to a catastrophic fire that destroyed the Aquaculture Research Laboratory in November 2004. The Research Laboratory has been reconstructed (6/06) and is now functional. Our plans for this year include a combined proteomics/metabolomics approach to understanding sulfur amino acid metabolism in fishes. We will be working with several species of fish and initially examining our ability to formulate fish meal-free diets, then examining the proteome for changes that occur in gut, blood, liver and muscle. This approach should facilitate rapid changes in dietary formulation for new aquaculture species.

Impacts
Rapid dietary development using new moleculare techniques should facilitate dietary development for new aquaculture species and facilitate more meaningful evalautions of culture potential.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

Outputs
The Aquaculture Research Laboratory at Purdue was completely destroyed by fire in November 2004. We have since occupied a temporary laboratory, but that facility is limited. Progress this year was focused more on summarizing the avilable information on use of plant protein products in diets fed to aquatic animals and beginning the rebuilding process.

Impacts
Our summary of the available information on use of soybean meal in diets fed to fish and crustaceans will be published late this year and a non-technical summary has been submitted to Soy InfoSource for permanent inclusion in their web site.

Publications

  • Hart, S., A. Bharadwaj and P. Brown. 2004. Soy-in-Aquaculture: New ally for aquaculture. Global Aquaculture Advocate, June:31-32.
  • Brown, P.B., S.J. Kaushik and H. Peres. 2005. Protein feedstuffs originating from soybeans. In: C. Webster and C. Lim, editors. Alternative Feedstuffs for Aquaculture, CABI.
  • Brown, P.B. 2005. Utilization of soy products originating from soybeans in diets fed to freshwater fishes. In: C. Webster and C. Lim, editors. Alternative Feedstuffs for Aquaculture, CABI.


Progress 10/01/03 to 09/29/04

Outputs
In 2003/04, we did not receive the external funding we anticipated to expand our understanding of sulfur amino acid metabolism in fishes. Thus, we expanded the species base to which these data could apply. By following an established series of studies designed to verify appropriate experimental diets for new aquaculture species, we conducted baseline research studies with bluegill, hybrid bluegill and lake herring. We will be limited in future research with bluegill and hybrid bluegill as they did not accept and grow well when fed purified diets. Additional research with these species will require use of practical diets that resulted in rapid rates of growth. Regardless of the experimental approach, we are poised to expand our sulfur amino acid nutrition research to these species and this family of fishes is rapidly becoming the focus of aquaculture development in the Midwest. Further, we explored our ability to formulate diets for new culture species given the quantified sulfur amino acid requirement for the hybrid striped bass. Conducting detailed studies on all ten essential amino acids and the various interactions is cost prohibitive. A rapid method of developing new diets is a critical component in aquaculture development. Finally, we examined flavor additives that will be necessary for fish meal-free diets. As we continue our move away from fish meal as an ingredient in diets fed to aquatic animals, we are encountering palatability problems. Flavors additives are an integral component in this overall line of research.

Impacts
We continued our research on dietary development focusing on sulfur amino acid metabolism in new aquaculture species. We exapnded the list of new culture species to include bluegill and lake herring, explored the effects of flavor additives in fish meal-free diets and put the finishing touches on our line of research designed to develop a diet specifically for the hybrid striped bass. These data are significant advances in our underrstanding of culture requirements for fishes.

Publications

  • Pangle, K.L. T.M. Sutton, and P.B. Brown. 2003. Evaluation of practical and natural diets for juvenile lake herring. North American Journal of Aquaculture 65:91-98.
  • Twibell, R.G., K.A. Wilson, S. Sanders and P.B. Brown. 2003. Evaluation of experimental and practical diets for bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and hybrid bluegill (L. cyanellus x L. macrochirus). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34:487-495.
  • Twibell, R.G., M.E. Griffin, B. Martin, J. Price and P.B. Brown. 2003. Predicting dietary essential amino acid requirements for hybrid striped bass. Aquaculture Nutrition 9:373-382.
  • Gould, N.L., M.M Glover, L.D. Davidson and P.B. Brown. 2003. Dietary flavor additives influence consumption of feeds by yellow perch, Perca flavescens. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34:412-417.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
In the past year, we continued our evalautions of potential dietary compounds that could spare the methionine requirement in fishes. Specifically, we examined the effects of phosphatidylcholine, or lecithin, in diets fed to tilapia. Phosphatidylcholine is a complex chemical molecule that can potentially serve as a dietary source of phosphorus, essential fatty acid, or choline in fishes. Choline can spare part of the methionine requirement. Our evalaution was probably the first to use a purified source of lecithin in diets and work with a model species for which the dietary requirements for methionine, choline, phosphorus and essential fatty acid were known. The positive response to dietary additions of lecithin indicate that lectithin may be an essential nutrient nad one that can spare a portion of the methionine requirement.

Impacts
Our continued identification of dietary additions that can spare the methionine requirement make formulating diets for fishes both realistic and sustainable. As we continue moving away from fish meal as a major dietary ingredient, plant protein sources will become increasingly important and those ingredients are deficient in methionine. Understanding this catabolic pathway is critical for the development of diets for fishes in the 21st century.

Publications

  • Kasper, C.S. and P.B. Brown. 2003. Growth improved in juvenile Nile tilapia fed phosphatidylcholine. North American Journal of Aquaculture 65:39-43.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
The sulfur amino acids, chiefly methionine and cystine, are often limiting in dietary formulations fed to fishes. However, starting with methionine, the downstream catabolism of this essential amino acid results in synthesis of numerous other compounds that can be provided in the diet, thus sparing the methionine requirement. We have been working on the sulfur pathway in both tilapia and yellow perch. To date, we have quantified the dietary requirement for methionine in both species, the ability of cystine to spare the methionine requirement in yellow perch, identified an interaction between dietary choline and methionine in tilapia, then identified the ability of betaine to spare the choline requirement.

Impacts
Research on selected amino acids has significantly improved our ability to formulate diets for yellow perch and tilapia that meet the unique nutritional needs of these imporant new aquaculture species.

Publications

  • Twibell, R.G., K.A. Wilson and P.B. Brown. 2000. Dietary sulfur amino acid requirement of juvenile yellow perch fed the maximum cystine replacement value for methionine. Journal of Nutrition 130:612-616.
  • Kasper, C.S., M.R. White and P.B. Brown. 2000. Choline is required by tilapia when methionine is not in excess. Journal of Nutrition 130:238-242.


Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

Outputs
We completed quantification of the key essential amino acid requirements for yellow perch; lysine, methionine, and arginine, as well as the dietary requirement for choline and the efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in diets fed to perch. Using those data, we evalauted soybean meal as a protein feedstuff in diets fed to perch.

Impacts
These data are the foundation for formulating a practical diet for yellow perch using ingredients available in the Midwest. Available diets ensure rapid progression of this promising new industry.

Publications

  • Brown, P.B. and F. Barrows. 2000. Percids. In: Nutrient Requirements of Fish (C. Webster and C. Lim, editors). CRC Press. In Press.
  • Twibell, R.G. and P.B. Brown. 2000. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Journal of Nutrition 130:95-99.


Progress 10/01/98 to 09/30/99

Outputs
We have been developing diets for yellow perch by first quantifying critical nutritional requirements then using those values to formulate diets containing regionally available feed ingredients. This year, we used our requirement values (lysine, arginine, methionine, and choline)and evaluated two soybean products (solvent extracted soybean meal and expelled soybean meal) in diets fed to perch. Perch accepted the diets and tolereared solvent extracted soybean meal up to 40% of the diet. Weight gain was reduced in fish fed greater than 35% expelled soybean meal. Thus, both products have potential in diets for yellow perch.

Impacts
Use of soybean products in diets for perch will reduce costs of diet and overall production costs. THis should facilitate development of the industry.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/97 to 09/30/98

Outputs
In the past year, my students and I finished several projects related to development of diets for yellow perch. Specifically, we completed the evaluation of cystine replacement for the dietary methionine requirement, and quantified the dietary choline requirement of perch when sulfur amino acids were not in excess. We are currently in the process of evaluating the ability of soy protein to meet the essential amino acid requirements of perch.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Twibell, R.G. and P.B. Brown. 1997. Dietary arginine requirement of juvenile yellow perch. Journal of Nutrition 127:1838-1841.


Progress 10/01/96 to 09/30/97

Outputs
Culture of yellow perch is expanding because of the loss of populations from the Great Lakes. However, diets formulated to meet the unique nutritional requirements of perch have not been developed. We quanitifed the dietary requirements for lysine, arginine and total sulfur amino acids, as well as the ability of cysteine to spare the dietary requirement for methionine. We also evaluated the ability of perch to utilize various sources of dietary lipid. Perch are susceptible to oxidized lipid sources, but recover and grow at normal rates once offered lipid sources with antioxidants. Both pressed soybean oil and fish oil were equally efficacious in promoting growth in yellow perch; tallow and coconut oil were inferior sources of lipid.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Brown, P.B., K. Dabrowski and D.L. Garling, Jr. 1996. Nutrition and feeding of yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 12:171-174.
  • Twibell, R.G. and P.B. Brown. 1997. Dietary arginine requirement of juvenile yellow perch. Journal of Nutrition 127:1838-1841.


Progress 10/01/95 to 09/30/96

Outputs
The goal of this research is to rapidly develop diets for new aquaculture species. The first species considered in this line of research was hybrid striped bass. Establishment of key nutritional requirements led to studies this year examining the amount of soybean products that could be incorporated into diets in place of fish meal. The focus of that line of research shifted to yellow perch in 1993. Perch accepted a wide variety of purified diets and growth and feed conversion was similar to fish fed several of the better commercial diets used as positive controls in the experimental design. The same response was observed in larger fish (initial weight 50 g. Those studies allowed us to determine the dietary requirements for several key essential amino acids (lysine, methionine and arginine). Evaluation of regionally available feed ingredients continued in 1996. Those studies included evaluation of canola meals and soy protein concentrates in diets fed to trout, and evaluation of several corn protein isolates in diets fed to tilapia. Four graduate students worked on this project.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • TUDOR, K.W., R.R. ROSATI, P.D. O[ROURKE, Y.V. WU, D. SESSA and P.B. BROWN. 1996.Technical and economical feasibility of on-farm fish feed production using fishmeal analogs. Aquacultural Engineering 15:53-65.
  • RICHE, M. and P.B. BROWN. 1996. Absorption of phosphorus from feedstuffs fed to rainbow trout. Aquaculture 142:269-282.
  • WU, Y. V., R.R. ROSATI and P.B. BROWN. 1996. Effect of diets containing various levels of protein and ethanol coproducts from corn on growth of tilapia fry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44:1491-1493.
  • BROWN, P.B., K. DABROWSKI and D.L. GARLING, Jr. 1996. Nutrition and feeding of yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 12:20-24.


Progress 10/01/94 to 09/30/95

Outputs
The goal of this research is to rapidly develop diets for new aquaculture species. The first species considered in this line of research was hybrid striped bass. Establishment of key nutritional requirements led to studies this year examining the amount of soybean products that could be incorporated into diets in place of fish meal. We found that soybean meal could be incorporated up to 30% when using a supplemental mineral premix, but up to 40% when using a nutritionally complete mineral premix. Raw soybeans could not be incorporated over 20% of the diet, while a roasted product could be used at 20%. The focus of that line of research shifted to yellow perch in 1993. Perch accepted a wide variety of purified diets and growth and feed conversion was similar to fish fed several of the better commercial diets used as positive controls in the experimental design. The same response was observed in larger fish (initial weight 50 g. This initial evaluation establishes important baseline results for quantification of key nutritional requirements. Evaluation of regionally available feed ingredients continued in 1993. Those studies included evaluation of canola meals in diets fed to trout, and evaluation of several corn protein isolates in diets fed to tilapia. Three graduate students worked on this project.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 10/01/93 to 09/30/94

    Outputs
    The goal of this research is to rapidly develop diets for new aquaculture species. The first species considered in this line of research was hybrid striped bass. Establishment of key nutritional requirements led to studies this year examining the amount of soybean products that could be incorporated into diets in place of fish meal. Those studies will continue in 1995. The focus of that line of research shifted to yellow perch in 1993. Perch accepted a wide variety of purified diets and growth and feed conversion was similar to fish fed several of the better commercial diets used as positive controls in the experimental design. That study will be replicated in 1995 with larger fish. This initial evaluation establishes important baseline results for quantification of key nutritional requirements. Evaluation of regionally available feed ingredients continued in 1993. Those studies included evaluation of canola meals in diets fed to trout, and evaluation of several corn protein isolates in diets fed to tilapia. Three graduate students worked on this project.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • SWANN, D.L., J.R. RIEPE, J.D. STANLEY, M.E. GRIFFIN and P.B. BROWN. 1994. Cage culture of hybrid striped bass in Indiana and evaluation of diets containing three levels of dietary protein. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 25:281-.
    • GRIFFIN, M.E., M.R. WHITE and P.B. BROWN. 1994. Total sulfur amino acid requirement and cysteine replacement value for juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 108A:423-429.
    • GRIFFIN, M.E., K.A. WILSON and P.B. BROWN. 1994. Dietary arginine requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass. Journal of Nutrition 124:888-893.
    • GRIFFIN, M.E., K.A. WILSON, M.R. WHITE and P.B. BROWN. 1994. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass. Journal of Nutrition 124:1685-1689.


    Progress 10/01/92 to 09/30/93

    Outputs
    The goal of this research is to rapidly develop diets for new aquaculture species. Target species are hybrid striped bass, yellow perch, hybrid bluegill and native species of crayfish. To meet this goal, key nutritional requirements have been quantified. The dietary arginine requirement was completed this past year as well as the efficacy of choline bitartrate and choline chloride in hybrid striped bass. Indispensable amino acid requirements of hybrid bluegill are underway. Absorption of phosphorus from common feedstuffs has also been an important line of research. Those values have been quantified from 12 feedstuffs using methods developed in our laboratory. Additionally, the beneficial supplemental phytase was found to be a beneficial addition in diets containing relatively high levels of plant protein feedstuffs. Canola meal is under evaluation as a feedstuff for catfish and rainbow trout. Four graduate students worked on this project.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • GRIFFIN, M.E., M.R. WHITE and P.B. BROWN. In Press. Dietary total sulfur amino acid requirements of juvenile hybrid striped bass. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology.
    • WETZEL, J.E. and P.B. BROWN. 1993. Optimal temperature for growth of orconectid crayfishes. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 24:125-131.
    • SWANN, D.L., J.R. RIEPE, J.D. STANLEY, M.E. GRIFFIN and P.B. BROWN. In Press. Cage culture of hybrid striped bass in Indiana and evaluation of diets containing three levels of dietary protein. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society.
    • DABROWSKI, K. and P. BROWN. 1993. Culture of coolwater fish in the north central region of the United States. Aquaculture of Freshwater Species (Except Salmonids). European Aquaculture Society Special Publication 20:59-60.
    • BROWN, P.B. 1993. Using whole-body amino acid patterns and quantitative requirements to rapidly develop diets for new species. European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee, Workshop on Determining Nutrient Requirements for Fish.


    Progress 10/01/91 to 09/30/92

    Outputs
    The goal of this research is to develop diets for aquatic animals. Target species include hybrid striped bass, yellow perch and midwestern crayfish. To meet this goal, key nutritional requirements have been quantified and diets were formulated and tested using those values. The total sulfur amino acid requirement and cysteine replacement were determined as well as the dietary arginine requirement and lysine/arginine antagonism for hybrid striped bass. New practical diets were formulated, manufactured and fed to fish in three locations in Indiana. Weight gain of fish fed that new diet was superior to fish fed a variety of diets in 1991. Additionally, we completed a study examining the dietary choline requirement and effects of choline on the apparent hepatic lipidosis in hybrid striped bass. Results with yellow perch, hybrid bluegill, and crayfish have identified appropriate experimental diets for use with these species, and beneficial effects of asparagine and glucosamine supplementation in diets fed to crayfish. Continuing studies on reducing the pollutional effects of effluents from aquaculture facilities has been focused on evaluation of barium as an indicator of nutrient digestibility or absorption. Barium did not affect consumption of diets whereas chromic oxide depressed consumption. Several studies were initiated in which alternative sources of protein were evaluated in diets fed to rainbow trout, channel catfish, coho salmon and Atlantic salmon.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • GRIFFIN, M.E., P.B. BROWN AND A.L. GRANT. 1992. The dietary lysine requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass. Journal of Nutrition 122:1332-1337.
    • BROWN, P.B., M.E. GRIFFIN AND M.R. WHITE. 1993. Experimental and practical diet evaluations with juvenile hybrid striped bass. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 24:1-10.


    Progress 10/01/90 to 09/30/91

    Outputs
    Research studies have been initiated at Purdue University in which optimal dietsfor new aquaculture species are being developed. Studies to date have identified appropriate diets that are currently available, as well as the necessary information for manufacturing new diets based on key nutritional requirements. New diets for hybrid striped bass were formulated, manufactured and fed to fish at three sites in Indiana and weight gain, feed conversion and survival had to be considered good, relative to studies conducted in other states. Studies are underway which are designed to reduce the pollutional effects of aquaculture effluents, specifically the reduction of phosphorus excreted by the fish, and continuing studies have led to a better understanding of nutritional requirements and optimal foods for native midwestern crayfish.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period.


    Progress 01/01/90 to 09/30/90

    Outputs
    Research conducted during 1989 and 1990 included studies with crayfish, hybrid striped bass, yellow perch and rainbow trout. Larval crayfish grew better when fed zooplankton than when fed pond bacteria, an aquatic plant, or various combinations of these potential food items. The enzymatic ability to digest bacterial cells was established in crayfish and characterization of the enzyme is almost complete. Evaluation of experimental diets for hybrid striped bass relative to several positive control diets is entering the second phase. Results from the first phase of the study indicated that hepatic degeneration occurred when fish were fed any of the commercially-available diets. Two potentially useful experimental diets were identified in phase one and more detailed studies are underway. We have verified that different strains of yellow perch grow similarly when reared at optimum temperature; growth differences were detected between strains when reared at higher or lower than optimum temperature. Rainbow trout grew significantly better and exhibited better conversion of feed when experimental diets were supplemented with a source of molybdenum and inorganic sulfur, but no interaction between these minerals were detected.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • NO PUBLICATIONS REPORTED THIS PERIOD.